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Supplemental Journal-Embargo.

Cooper, were appointed a committee to give in- track of the human foot through them. It is imformation thereof to the Senate.

possible, I repeat it, sir, that you should thus sup[While the above bill was under discussion, ply the wants and exigencies of that part of our Mr. King, of Massachusetts, submitted the fol- country. lowing observations upon his propositions to But an honorable gentleman from Kentucky amend the bill; which were negatived :) (Mr. Clay) has said, if provisions cannot be

Mr. King observed that it was not his inten- iransported by land to a people thus situated, tion or wish to consume much of the time of the they must go to the provisions; they must even House ; that indeed from the silence of the ma- quit their country, their farms, and their endeared jority he had a right to conclude that the argu- firesides, and go to a more hospitable, more famenis of his friends in the minority were unan-vorable climate. swerable; that the majority were thereby con- [The gentleman from Kentucky here explained vinced of the inexpediency of the measure, and his observations, as having been confined to the would abandon it. However, as this silence is thinly inhabited country near Mobile; that it equivocal, and as I may have drawn too favora- was better that the inhabitants there should ble a conclusion therefrom, I will add a few obser- suffer some deprivations, or even be compelled vations to those already advanced by my friends; to leave that part of the country, than that the but I shall not go over the ground which they enemy should receive essential supplies through have with such ability occupied; vain indeed them, or that the effective operations of an imwould be the attempt to add to the general argu- portant measure should be prevented.] ments which they have advanced ; mine, there | Mr. King continued: As, Mr. Chairman, a fore, shall be of a local nature, as to the probable part of the District of Maine is, and other parts bearing and effect of this measure upon that part of our country may be, like Mobile, thinly inbabof our country with which I am more particu-ited and exposed to the same inconveniences in larly acquainted.

point of situation, the principle of the gentleman Since you have stricken from the bill, as origi- was equally applicable to the inhabitants of those nally reported, the seventh and eleventh sections, parts of our country, and they fell of course unwhich permitted a limited coasting trade, it has der the same condemnation and proscription. At become more barsh in its features, and its opera- all events, sir, such must be the operation of this tion must be infinitely more oppressive. Pass measure upon them. Pass this bill into a law, the bill, sir, as it now stands, and it will not be and in all its rigors and horrors, and possible for the inhabitants on the seaboard, in they must emigrate or starve. But, indeed, sir, I the Eastern section of the Union, to subsist for do not think they will do or suffer either, until six months. The interior of that country may they shall have made use of all the means which have, at the last very productive season, raised God and nature have put into their hands for sufficient for their immediate support, but this is redress. not the case on the seaboard ; there they are in I know the people of Maine well. I was born want of articles of the first necessity. A part of among them. 'I am one of them, and feel a conthat country has been recently settled-other scious pride in representing their interest, their parts are not suitable for cultivation. The in- feelings, and their views. Yes, sir, I well know habitants have always been accustomed to draw their hardy sons; rough as their climate, vopoltheir principal support from the ocean, from their ished as their country ; treat them as freemen, fisheries, lumber, and coasting trade. It is thus and they are like their own ocean in a calm; they have been compelled to obtain their weekly but oppress them, treat them as slaves, and the and monthly supplies. I fear that gentlemen are tempestuous sea of liberty” is not more violent not sufficiently acquainted with that part of our and unmanageable. What must you expect from country, and do not realize the calamities they such a people when you attempt, with the stroke will, by this measure, inevitably bring upon it. of a pen, to cut them off from all their accusWith our extended seacoast, our rough, and in tomed modes of industry and enterprise ? I sugmany parts, sterile country, it will, sir, be impos. gest not this as a threat, but as a solemn caution sible by land to carry sufficient supplies into every io gentlemen how they raise a storm, which it part of the Districi of Maine; the state of our will not be in their power to calm or direct. roads and the face of our country forbid it. You I well remember the slander which has been may with some facility proceed as far as the industriously propagated against this people-of Kennebec; there, on ihe seaboard, you meet want of attachment to the Union-of a disrewith a natural barrier to land carriage. Sup. gard of its Constitution and laws. But believe pose you pass that river, and with difficulty pro- me, sir, if that Union ever be dissolved, it will ceed to the Penobscot; you must then transport not be for want of their attachment to it, but beyour wagons thirty miles by water, or drive cause this Government, the bond of that Union. them for a long distance upon the margin of that discards them, and sacrifices their interest and river, over a broken and mountainous country; their happiness, and turns protection into oppresbut if, with all this hazard, labor, and trouble, sion. They do not disregard our Constitution or you pass the Penobscot, what will you then en- laws, but they do in vain look to them for that counter? After leaving the vicinity of the river, protection in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and you meet with few settlements, a thinly inhabited property, which they have a right to expect and country, extensive wildernesses, with scarcely a demand. Of most of their external commerce


Supplemental Journal-Embargo. they have been for a long time deprived; their No. 9. March 1, 1809, Mr. Jefferson.—"An act vessels, by thousands, are now routing at their to interdict the commercial intercourse between wharves, their sailors abandoned to misery and the United States and Great Britain and France want; their fisheries, for which they are indebted and their dependencies, and for other purposes." to God and their own industry only, are ruined; No. 10. June 28, 1809, Mr. Madison.--"An act and all by the restrictive and war acts of their to amend and continue in force certain parts of rulers; and now the scanty, the miserable rem. the act, entitled 'An act to interdict the comnant of their once extensive and flourishing commercial intercourse between the United States merce, even their friendly coasting trade, from and Great Britain and France and their dependport to port and State to State, by which they encies, and for other purposes." earn their daily bread, is by this bill to be taken from them. Under your Constitutional right to concerning the commercial intercourse between

No. 11. May 1, 1810, Mr. Madison.—"An act regulate commerce, you will destroy all com- the United States and Great Britain and France merce, and drive our seamen into foreign service. and their dependencies, and for other purposes." Instead of free trade and sailors' rights, we have no trade and sailors' wrongs.

No. 12. March 2, 1811, Mr. Madison.—"An act Permit me here, sir, as à necessary caution to supplementary to the act, entitled 'An act congentlemen, as a solemn warning to this country, United States and Great Britain and France and

cerning the commercial intercourse between the as an impressive lesson to the American people, to read a catalogue of these restrictive, not to their dependencies, and for other purposes.” say oppressive laws; I could wish deeply to en- No. 12. June 18, 1812, Mr. Madison.—"An act grave them on the hearts of my fellow-citizens, declaring war between the United Kingdom of in perpetual remembrance of the causes of their Great Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies sufferings.

thereof, and the United States of America, and No. 1. February 28, 1806, Mr. Jefferson.-"An their Territories." act lo suspend the commercial intercourse be- No. 14. Mr. Madison.-And now, "A bill laytween the United States and certain parts of the ing an embargo on alt ships and vessels in the island of St. Domingo," to wit: those parts " not ports and harbors of the United States." in possession, and under the acknowledged Gov

Here, sir, you have a catalogue of the restricternment of France."

ive acts of an American Congress, enacted osNo. 2. April 18, 1806, Mr. Jefferson.-"An act tensibly for the benefit of a free commercial peoto prohibit the importation of certain goods, ple! if

, sir, a parallel can be found in all the wares, and merchandise," from Great Britain and annals of ancient or modern despotism, (always her dependencies, after the 15th of November excepting that of France,) of equal commercial then next.

oppression, let her abettors show it. Would to No. 3. February 24, 1807, Mr. Jefferson.—"An God I could erase from your statute books this act to continue in force for a further time an act, record of oppression, with the same facility as I entitled ' An act to suspend the commercial in- now cast this schedule of the acts from me, and tercourse between the United States and certain tread it under foot. Sir, the American people parts of the island. of St. Domingo,' extending cannot, they will not submit to be thus oppressed. to Gonaives and Tortuga, and other dependen- You tempt them too far; you abuse their poble cies of St. Domingo, not in possession and under and generous nature ; clouds and thick darkness the acknowledged Government of France."

may, for a time, rest upon their spirit and their No. 4. December 22, 1807, Mr. Jefferson.-An patriotism, but, like the sun of heaven, they will act laying on embargo on all ships and vessels in burst forth with renovated splendor. the ports and harbors of the United States." No. 5. January 9, 1808, Mr. Jefferson.-"An of our fellow-citizens as are likely greatly to suf

As an attempt to gain a partial relief for such act supplementary to the act, entitled 'An act fer by the suspension of the coasting trade, Mr. laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the King moved to amend the fourth section of the ports and harbors of the United States."

bill so as to permit coasting vessels to go from No. 6. March 12, 1808, Mr. Jefferson.-“An one port in any State to another port in the same act in addition to the act, entitled 'An act sup. State. plementary to the act, entitled An act laying an

And in favor of neutrals, who had been, or embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and should be induced to visit our ports, Mr. K. also harbors of the United States."

moved to amend the amendment of the Senate, No. 7. April 23, 1808, Mr. Jefferson.—“An act hy striking therefrom the following words, in the in addition to the act, entitled 'An act laying an first section of the bill : embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, and the several acts such foreigners as did belong to nations in amity with

“ Whose officers and crews shall consist wholly of supplementary thereto, and for other purposes."

the United States, at the time of the arrival of said No. 8. January 9, 1809, Mr. Jefferson.—"An ship or vessel in the United States, and which shall act to enforce and make more effectual an act, not have, nor take on board for the voyage, any citientitled 'An act laying an embargo on all ships zen of the United States, except such as may produce and vessels in the ports and harbors of the Uni- a passport therefore, to be furnished under the authorted States,' and the several acts supplementary itý and direction of the President of the United thereto."


Supplemental Journal-Embargo.

DECEMBER 17.-Four o'clock, P. M. United States, for his approbation, an enrolled Mr. Skinner, from the Joint Committee for bill

, entitled "An act laying an embargo on all Enrolled Bills, reported that the committee had ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the examined an enrolled bill, entitled "An act lay

United States." ing an embargo on all ships and vessels in the A Message was received from the President, ports and harbors of the United States," and had of the United States, by Mr. Coles, his Secretary, found the same to be truly enrolled: On which, notifying that the President did, on Friday last

, the SPEAKER signed the said bill.

approve and sign the abovementioned enrolled Ordered, That the said Committee of Enrol- bili. ment do take the said bill to the Senate for the

On motion of Mr. OAKLEY, signature of their President.

Ordered, That the injunction of secrecy im. posed upon the Message from the President of

ihe United States, of the 9th instant, as well as Monday, December 20.

upon all the proceediogs of this House, gror. Mr. SKINNER, from the Joint Committee for ing out of the said Message, be taken off; and Enrolled Bills, reported that the committee did, that the said Message and proceedings be pub on Friday last, present to the President of the lished.








and also any correspondence between Mr. Russell,

in possession of the Department of State; whether To the House of Representatives :

the Minister of France to the United States ever I transmit to the House of Representatives a said decree, and to lay before the House any cor

informed this Government of the existence of the report of the Secretary of State, containing the information requested by their resolutions of the respondence with the said Minister relative there21st of June last.

to, not improper to be communicated, with any JAMES MADISON.

other information in possession of the Executive, JULY 12, 1813.

which he may not deem it injurious to the public interest to disclose, relative to the said decree,

tending to show at what time, by wbom, and in DEPARTMENT OF STATE, what manner, it was first made known to this

July 12, 1813. Government, or to any of its representatives or The Secretary of State, to whom were reser- agents; and lastly, to inform the House whether red several resolutions of the House of Repre- the Government of the United States has ever sentatives of the 21st ultimo, requesting informa- received from that of France any explanation of tion on certain points relating to the French decree the reasons of that decree being concealed from of the 28th of April, 1811, has the honor to make this Government and its Minister, for so long a to the President ibe following report:

time after its date; and if such explanation has In furnishing the information required by the been asked by this Government, and has been House of Representatives, the Secretary of State omitted to be given by that of France, whether presumes that it might be deemed sufficient for this Government has made any remonstrance, or him to state what is now demanded. what part expressed any dissatisfaction to the Government thereof has been heretofore communicated, and of France at such concealment ? to supply the deficiency. He considers it, how- These inquiries embrace two distinct objects. ever, more conformable to the views of the House, The first relates to the conduct of the Goverato meet, at this time, without regarding what has ment of France, in regard to this decree. The been already communicated, every inquiry, and second, to that of the Government of the United to give a distinct answer to each, with the proper States. In satisfying the call of the House on explanation relating to it.

this latter point, it seems to be proper to meet it The House of Representatives has requested in a two-fold view: first, as it relates to the coninformation when, by whom, and in what man- duct of this Government in this transaction ; ner, the first intelligence was given to this Gov- secondly, as it relates to its conduct towards both ernment of the decree of the Government of belligerents, in some important circumstances France, bearing date on the 28th of April, 1811, connected with it. The resolutions do not call and purporting to be a definitive repeal of the de- specially for a report of such extent; but as the crees of Berlin and Milan; whether Mr. Russell, measures of the Executive, and the acts of Conlate Chargé d'Affaires of the United States to the gress founded on communications from the ExGovernment of France, ever admitted or denied ecutive, which relate to one of the belligerents, to his Government the correctness of the declara- have, by necessary consequence, an immediate tion of the Duke of Bassano to Mr. Barlow, as relation to the other, such a report seems to be stated in Mr. Barlow's letter of the 12th of May, obviously comprised within their scope. On this 1812, to the Secretary of State, that the said decree principle the report is prepared, in the expectahad been communicated to his (Mr. Barlow's) pre- iion that the more full the information given on decessor there ; and to lay before the House any every branch of the subject, the more satisfactory correspondence with Mr. Russell on that subject will it be to the House. which it may not be improper to eommunicate; The Secretary of State has the honor to re

Relations with France.


port, in reply to these inquiries, that the first in- ment of France, long depending, and said to have telligence which this Government received of the been brought nearly to a conclusion at the time French decree of the 28th of April, 1811, was of Mr. Barlow's death, was suspended by that communicated by Mr. Barlow, in a letter bearing event. His successor, lately appointed, is authordate on the 12th of May, 1812, which was re- ized to resume the negotiation, and to conclude ceived by this Department on the 13th of July it. He is instructed to demand redress of the following ; that the first intimation to Mr. Bar- French Government for every injury, and an exlow of the existence of that decree, as appears by planation of its motive for with holding from this his communications, was given by the Duke of Government a knowledge of the decree for so long Bassano in an informal conference on some day a time after its adoption. between the 1st and 10th day of May, 1812, and It appears, by the documents referred to, that that the official communication of it to Mr. Bar- Mr. Barlow lost no time, after having obtained a low was made on the 10th of that month, at his knowledge of the existence of the French deeree request; that Mr. Barlow transmitted a copy of of the 28th of April, 1811, in demanding a copy that decree, and of the Duke of Bassano's letter of it, and transmilling it to Mr. Russell, who imannounciog it, to Mr. Russell, in a letter of May mediately laid it before the British Government, 11, in which he also informed Mr. Russell that urging, on the ground of this new proof of the the Duke of Bassano had stated that the decree repeal of the French decrees, that the British had been duly communicated to him; that Mr. Orders in Council should be repealed. Mr. RusRussell replied, in a letter to Mr. Barlow of the sell's note to Lord Castlereagh bears date on the 29th of May, that his first knowledge of the de- 20th of May; Lord Castlereagh's reply on the cree was derived from his letter, and that he has 23d, in which he promised to submit the decree repeatedly stated the same since to this Govern- to the consideration of the Prince Regent. (See ment. The paper marked A is a copy of an ex- papers marked F.) It appears, however, that no tract of Mr. Barlow's letter to the Department of encouragement was given at that time to hope State of May 12, 1812;* B, of the Duke of Bas- that the Orders in Council would be repealed in sano's letter to Mr. Barlow of the 10th of the consequence of that decree; and that, although

oth ;* C, of an extract of Mr. Barlow's it was afterwards made the ground of their repeal, letter to Mr. Russell of May 11th ; D, of an ex- the repeal was, nevertheless, to be ascribed to tract of Mr. Russell's answer of the 29ih of May; other causes. Their repeal did not take effect and E, of Mr. Russell's letter to the Department until the 23d of June, more than a month after of State of the 30th.

the French decree had been laid before the BritThe Secretary of State reports, also, that no ish Government; a delay indicating in itself, at communication of the decree of the 28th of April, a period so momentous and critical, not merely 1811, was ever made to this Government by the Deglect, but disregard of the French decree. That Minister of France, or other person than as above the repeal of the British Orders in Council was stated, and that no explanation of the cause of its not produced by the French decree, other proofs not having been communicated to this Govern- might be adduced. I will state one which, in ment, and published, at the time of its date, was addition to the evidence contained in the letters ever made to this Government, or, so far as it is from Mr. Russell herewith communicated, marked informed, to the representatives or agents of the G, is deemed conclusive. In the communication United States in Europe. The Minister of France of Mr. Baker to Mr. Graham, on the 9th of Auhas been asked to explain the cause of a proceed- gust, 1812, marked H, which was founded on ining apparently so extraordinary and exception- structions from his Government, of as late date able; who replied, that his first intelligence of as the 17th of June, in which he stated that an that decree was received by the Wasp, in a letter official declaration would be sent to this country, from the Duke of Bassano of May 10, 1812, in proposing a conditional repeal of the Orders in which he expressed his surprise that a prior let- Council, so far as they affected the United States, ter, of May, 1811, in which he had transmitted a no notice wbateter was taken of the French decopy of the decree, for the information of this cree. One of the conditions then contemplated Government, had not been received. Further was, that the orders in Council should be revived explanations were expected from Mr. Barlow, at the end of eight months, unless the conduct of but none were given. The light in which this the French Government, and the result of the transaction was viewed by this Government was communications with the Government of the noticed by the President in his Message to Con- United States should be such as, in the opinion gress, and communicated also to Mr. Barlow in of the British Government, to render their revithe letter of the 14th of July, 1812, with a view val unnecessary; a condition which proves into the requisite explanation from the French Gov- contestably that the French decree was not coneroment. On the 9th of May, 1812, the Empe- sidered by the British Government a sufficient ror left Paris for the North, and in two days there- ground on which to repeal the Orders in Council

. after the Duke of Bassano followed him. A pe- It proves, also, that, on that day the British Govgotiation for the adjustment of injuries and the ernment had resolved not to repeal the Orders on arrangement of our commerce with the Govern- the basis of that decree; since the proposed re

peal was to depend, not on what the French GorThese two letters were transmitted with the Presernment had already done, but on what it might ident's Message of January 26, 1813.

do, and on arrangements entered into with the


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