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20. Cyaneis (fluctibus) is probably dative. The Cyaneae were islands in the Bosporus.

21. Percussum agrees with Elpenora.

Circes, genitive.

22. Some of Ulysses's companions were changed to swine by the wand of Circe.

24. Minimum temetum, very little wine.

27. Nuper consule Iunco. Iuncus was consul 127 a. d.

28. Super, above-i. e., higher up the river.

Copti. Coptos was near the Nile, about ten miles north of Thebes.

29. Cothurnis-i. e., than the terrible deeds of the tragic drama. Cf. Fig. 33.

30. A Pyrrha―i. e., from the time of the flood. Cf. I, 81, note. Syrmata, tragic robes = tragedies.

33. Finitimos, neighbors; but Ombi and Tentyra were about one hundred miles apart. Perhaps Juvenal made a mistake, and perhaps he did not intend to be exact.

Simultas, feud.

36. Volgo, dative.

40. Primoribus ac ducibus, dative.

42. Sentirent, subject is their neighbors.

43. Pervigili toro. Cf. VIII, 158, and Fig. 8. Quem; its antecedent is toro.

44. Horrida sane, etc. These lines are authority for the statement that Juvenal had visited Egypt.

46. Barbara turba, the barbarian horde

i. e., the Egyptians in general.

FIG. 81.-Tibicen.

Canopo, a town at the mouth of the Nile, famous for dissolute luxury.

47. Adde connects what follows with line 40.

48. Blaesis, properly used of persons that lisp, applies here to those whose utterance was thick from intoxication.

Inde, among the one people; Hinc (line 51), among the other.

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54. Malae, cheeks.

55. Vix cuiquam aut nulli, scarcely any one, or (rather) no one.

57. Alias-i. e., changed, unrecognizable.

60. Calcent. Why not indicative?

61. Quo, to what purpose.

63. Inclinatis lacertis-i. e., stooping down.

65. Turnus et Aiax; these ancient heroes hurled mighty rocks. 66. Tydides, Diomedes.

72. A deverticalo, after this digression.
73. Aucti and pars altera refer to the same party-i. e., the Ombites.

75. Praestant, its subject is ii, to be supplied as the antecedent of qui in line 76.

82. Veribus, spits. Usque adeo, so very. 84. Hic, adverb. 86. Te-i. e., Volusius; others make it refer to the fire. 88. Sustinuit. Cf. English, “I can not bear to do it," and XIV, 127.

90. Prima gula, the first palate-i. e., the first one that tasted the dreadful food.

93. Vascones, the Basques. The inhabitants of Calagurris were reduced by famine to cannibalism.

94. Produxere animas = produxere vitam. 95. Bellorum ultima, the extremities of war. Casus extremi, the climax of misfortune. 97. Huius, such.

Quod nunc agitur–i. e., when men are driven to it by famine. The antecedent of quod is exemplum ; agere means to treat of.

98. Sicut, as, for instance.
Mihi, dative of apparent agent.
Gens, subject of lacerabant.
100. Hostibus,miserantibus, ablative absolute.
102. Esse, from edo.

104. Urbibus; this seems to be the reading of the best MS., and is certainly better than viribus or ventribus.

105. Quibus = iis quibus.

108. Sed Cantaber, etc.-i. e., how can we expect Zeno's stern philosophy from the Cantabrians, especially in ancient times ?

109. Metelli, Q. Metellus Pius fought against Sertorius in Spain.
110 ff. In these times culture extends over the whole world.
110. Nostras Athenas = Romam.
112. Thyle stands for the northern limit of the world.
113. Nobilis ille populus-i. e., Calagurris.

114. Zacynthos (commonly Saguntum), a town in Spain, the attack upon which by Hannibal was the ostensible cause of the second Punic war.

115. Tale, habet must be understood; its subject as well as that of excusat is populus-et-Zacynthos.

Excusat = allege in excuse.

Maeotide ara. Diana had an altar in the Tauric Chersonese, on which shipwrecked strangers were sacrificed.

117. Ut iam-credas. Cf. XIV, 240; X, 174. Carmina is nominative.

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119. Modo is variously explained. I think it is temporal = just now. 120. Hos, the Egyptians.

122. Terra Memphitide sicca—i. e., if the land of Memphis were oppressed with drought.

123. Invidiam, insult. Could they offer greater insult to the Nile under the greatest provocation than to commit such a crime?

FIG. 82.-Phaselus.
124. Qua-i. e.,

125. Sauromatae and Agathyrsi, Scythian tribes.

127. Fictilibus phaselis. Some of the Egyptian boats were made of a sort of clay; were shaped like a bean (phaselus, cf. Figs. 82 and 83), and gaudily painted.

128. Pictae testae, used contemptuously of such a boat as those described above.

134. Causam dicentis, pleading his case. Squalorem refers to the custom of a defendant putting on a mourning garinent. With this reading amici and rei both depend on squalorem. Others with less authority read casum lugentis.

136. Circumscriptorem, a technical term for an unfaithful guardian. Cf. XIV, 237.

Cuius, antecedent is pupillum.
137. Puellares capilli. Boys wore their hair long until they put on the

toga virilis.


Fig. 83.- Egyptian phaselus.

Incerta ; the boy is so young that his long hair makes him look like a girl.

140. Minor igne rogi, too small for the funeral pyre. The bodies of very young children were buried not burned. For the construction, cf. lectus Procula minor, III, 203.

Face dignus arcana. In the Eleusinian mysteries there was a procession with torches.

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141. Such as the priest of Ceres wishes him to be—i. e., pure and good.

142. Aliena sibi, foreign, of no interest to him ; so Terence Haut. 77, humani nil a me alienum puto.

143. Venerabile may mean “reverential(Macleane), but there seems little authority for the use.

Soli, we (i. e., men) alone.
147. Cuius, its antecedent is sensum.
Prona, etc.-i. e., beasts.
149. Animas-animum. Anima = life; animus = intellect.
152. Proavis, dative of apparent agent.
156. Nutantem, staggering.
157. Defendier, archaic form of the infinitive defendi.

159. But men have less kindliness toward each other than the brutes themselves.

160. Cf. Hor. Epod. VII, 11.
164. Convenit, impersonal.
Ursis, dative.
165. Ferrum letale, death-dealing weapon.
166. Parum est, it is not enough.
Cum, although.
167. Coquere, to forge.
168. Extendere, has about the force of producere above.

171. Crediderint. Weidner says that sed crediderint seems to stand for sed qui crediderint.

173. Pythagoras was a strict vegetarian. 174. Indulsit, permitted.

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1.-Great are the prizes of the soldier that is born under a lucky star. He may beat his civilian enemy without fear of justice, for, though the centurion may hear the complaint, his fellow-soldiers will see to it that their comrade's accuser is made to smart for his temerity. Then, too, it is easier to find men that will give false witness in a civil court than those that will witness to the truth against a soldier. Civilians must wait the law's delay; the soldier's case is speedily tried. Another of his advantages is that he may dispose of his own property without his father's control, so that a rich soldier may have his own father for a legacy-hunter. His promotion, too, is in accordance with his deserts, for it is the general's interest that the bravest be advanced.

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12. Medico nil promittente-i. e., the physician gives no assurance of


Relictum modifies oculum.

13. Bardaicus iudex, etc. If a civilian seeks redress against a soldier, he

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FIG. 84.-Plan of Roman fortified camp. A. Porta praetoria; D. Porta decumana; F. Praetorium.

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