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essential Oil.. (2.) That this aromatic Virtue is adventitious to the Oil,or barely resides therein; as a fine volatile Substance, that seems to have litele or no considerable Gravity. (3.) That some of these essential Oils are very fluid; and feem to approach the Nature of highly rectified Spirit of Wine.. (4.) That. their specific or distinguishing Virtues chiefly depend upon the subcile or spirituous Part residing in them : which is a Particular that the Author inculcates over and over again, ad nauseam usque. (5.) That Spirit of Wine poured upon these Oils, and gently distilled from them, carries over their Spirit,or essential and distinguishing Virtues. And (6.) That therefore the peculiar Virtues of aromatic Plants are owing to this their native Spirit.
The thirty-first Process shews what Sub- 31; stance is left b hind in the Still, after the Distillation of essential Oils, by reducing the whole i remaining Liquor to a Rob, or Extract, as ini Process fecond. And thus ends the History of vegetable Oils.
The thirty-second Process News the com- 32. mon Method of analysing dry Vegetables, or Vegetables of refolving them, by the Recort, into their dif- analysed by
the Retors. ferent Parts or Principles, as they are called ;"" and is perform'd upon Guaiacum Wood, which thus separates into a Water,an Acid, a Spirit, two kinds of Oil, a Coal, and Ashes. And this Example serves for the acid Tribe of Vegetables, . . · The thirty-third Process is a Repetition of the thirty-second, upon Mustard seed, which thus 33 resolves into a Water, a Spirit, a volatile alkaline Salt, and a Coal. And this Example serves for the alkaline Tribe of Vegetables.
34. The thirty-fourth Process shews the Me
thod of separating distilled Oils, from the other Principles, wherewith they are mixed in the preceding Operations; and how these Oils are convertible, by Age, or long standing, into Balsams, or Rofins.
The thirty-fifıb Process is performed upon Turpentine, so as to resolve, it by the Retort, into an Acid, two kinds of Oil, Rosin and Colophony.
THE ibirty-sixth is the same Process repeated upon Wax, with the addition of Sand, to prevent its swelling, exploding, or boiling over; and thus che Subject separates into a Water, an
Acid, a fetid Spirit, and a kind of Butter. 37.
The thirty-Seventh shews how to turn this Butter of Wax into a liquid Oil, barely by repeating the Distillation.
The thirty-eighth Process shews the Manner Eliorac. of making an useful kind of things, called Elæocharums. saccharums, or Sugar-Balfams ; by grinding ef
sential Oils with a large Proportion of LoafSugar; which thus fits the Oils for mixing with aqueous Liquors ; and when such Oils have any considerable medicinal Virtues, for being commodiously taken, so as readily to mix with the animal Juices.
The thirty-ninıb Process shews how to mix these Elæosaccharums with other Salts, Fluids, . &c. so as to make medicated Liquors, or particular Potions for medicinal Use.
The fortieth Process fhews the Manner Apoplexic of making odoriferous or artificial Balsams, Baljams. with essential vegetable Oils, Wax, and Poma
tum, by Mixture. And thus we are led to the Subject of Fermentation,
e Propoils to such
THE Author appears to have taken more 41, 42, than ordinary Pains in delivering the Doctrine The History.. of Fermentation ; to do which the fuller and
tarion. clearer, he lays down two preliminary Procelles, one performed upon ground Meal, or Malt, made thin with Water; and the other upon Honey, diluted with Water ; to shew that in neither Case an inflammable Spirit can be obtained by Distillation ; without a previous Fer. mentation : which he therefore makes the Action or Operation that produces the inflammable Spirit in Wines, Malt-liquors, &c. And to enquire the more circumstantially into this capital Operation, he alters his Manner of Procedure, discontinues his Chain of Processes, and goes upon delivering the Doctrine of Fermentation in the way of a continued Discourse.
By the word Fermentation he understands The Axion an intestine Motion, excited in Vegetables ; defined. whereby they are so changed, that the Liquor first rising from them in Distillation, is either an inflammable Spirit, or an uninflammable acid Liquor.
This Definition he seems to think exact and precise, as if it contained the Elence of the thing, and limited its Form": but perhaps it will be found as arbitrary as any of thofe he rejects. The learned Profeffor seems to have fomething to learn in this Business of Fermentation; wherein however he exults, as if no body had treated it tolerably, besides himself. Indeed he here delivers many useful and just Observations ; but they are usually trice and common : for the learned Author does not seem acquainted with all the best modern Writers upon this
. Subject ; particularly, not with Stabl's Zimo
tochnia Fundamentalis : a Book published inany
Years ago. Wine and ALL vegetable Liquors that afford an inVinegar. flammable Spirit for the first thing in Diftilla
tion, the Author calls Wine ; and all those that thus afford an uninflammable acid Liquor, he calls Vinegar. So that he makes no difference betwixt Malt-Liquors, and the fermented Juice
of the Grape. Fermenta. He proceeds to range fermentable Subjects into bleSubjects Claffes, according to the treatment they reclaffed.
quire ; viz. (1.) Grain, Pulle, and Nuts. (2.) Fruits. (3.) Juicy Plants. (4.) Fresh expressed Juices; especially those of Fruits and Trees. (5.) Infpiffited Juices. And (6.) River Water; tho? he has some doubt about making this a Class. Under these six Claffes, he
judges, that all fermentable Bodies may beranged. The Requie The Requisites of Fermentation come next; sites offer- which he makes to be, (1.) Maturity of the Submentation. ject. (2.) A moderate Proportion of Oil there
in. (3.) A moderate Austerity or Stypticity. And (4.) Solubility in Water. But these Requisites are on the side of the Subject; which may all conspire in the greateft degree, and
yet no Fermentation ensue. Ferments. The principal Ferments according to him, are,
(1.): All Subjects greatly disposed to ferment. (2.) Yeast. (3.) Lees.(4.) Cassia Fistularis, Manna, Honey, Şugar, &C. (5.) Baker's Leaven. (6.) Remains of former ferimenting Matters sticking to the Cąsk. (7.) Whiţes of Egg:,&c. tho' these latter are improperly called Ferments ; as only thickning the Juices thaç of themselves are too chin to ferment kindly. (8.) Acids and Alkalies, wbich are also abu
ited accorde Proportion ure no poime pana
sively called Ferments. And (9.) Very austere Substances.
The Author next proceeds to consider Fermenis. those Preparations that the better fit fermenta- bleSubjects ble Subjects for fermenting; and here describes how fitted the Art of Malting ; and then the Way of for Fer:
mentation. squeezing Fruits for their Juices ; diluting Ho-" ney, Sugar,' &c. with Water; so as to fit and prepare these several Subjects for fermenting, according to their feveral Claffes .
The Quantity of Ferment which each Sub. The quan. ject requires, is next considered ; where he shews me that certain native vegetable Juices require no quired. Ferment at all; and that the Proportion of Ferment is to be suited according to the Climate, and natural Disposition of the Subjects to ferment.
The Phänomena that appear in the AC- Phenometion of Fermentation are next enumerated; aş na of Ferthe Swelling or Heaving of the whole Mass ; ment the rising of a Head on the Top; its sinking again, and at length its falling to the bottom; which shews the Operation to be finished. And here it is highly remarkable, that the Vapor arising from fermenting Liquors, is a strong and sudden Poison, if received by applying the Nose to the Orifice of a Cask, in the Violence of Fermentation.
The Liquor thus fermented acquires, (1.) The ChanAn inebriating and heating Quility; whereas ges it pro
duces in before it is usually cooling, and relaxing. Keco
8. theSubject, (2.) An inflammable Spirit. (3.) It shoots a Tartar by standing. (4.) It has a vinous Taste and Smell, &c .
The Things that promote Fermentation, The things are, (1.) External Reft. (2.) A free Admis that pro.
mote or fion of Air. (3.) Warmth. And, (4.) A proper hinder Fler. . B 4