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5. O Winter, ruler of the inverted year,
I love thee, all unlovely as thou seem'st
William Cowper. un-wrin'-kled mur-murs ut'-ter-ance im-pa'-tient con-cern' At-lan-tic cur'-tains in-struct'-ive mess'-en-ger jew'-elled
the'-a-tre in'-ti-mate mar'-riag-es
im-pris'-oned squeezed un-in-ter-rupted twang'-ing, sharp, quick sounding. swains, lovers. re-flect'-ed, mirrored; imaged.
nymphs, ladies. her'-ald, person bringing or pro- ro-spon'-sive, replying. claiming the news.
un-con'-scious, having no knowledge locks, hair.
of. lum'-ber-ing, hanging heavily.
budg'-et, letters or newspapers confall of stocks. Stocks is a term
taining the news. applied to the various funds tur'-ban, an Eastern head-dress, which constitute the national consisting of a cap with a sash debt, and which may be bought worn round it. and sold. There are also rail- har-angue', a loud speech addressed way stocks, bank stocks, &c.
to a multitude of people. These stocks are said to fall wran'-glers, persons disputing.
when they become less valuable. in-e'-bri-ate, intoxicate ; take away e-pis'-tles, letters.
The line in which tric'-kled, dropped quietly.
this expression occurs refers to flu'-ent quill, ready pen.
tea, which was then scarcer am'-or-ous, loving.
and higher priced than now.
about, as an hour - glass is the in-vert'-ed year, the winter turned.
is so decided a contrast to com-pen'-sat-ing, making up for. summer that the year is de- so'-cial con'-verse, friendly talk.
scribed as 'inverted' or turned EXERCISES.—1. The Greek prefix (1) hemi- means half; as hemisphere, half a sphere. (2) Hyper- means over, above ; as hypercritical, over-critical; hyperbole, a figure of speech representing things much greater or less than they really are.
2. Analyse and parse the first four lines of stanza 1.
3. Make sentences of your own, and use in each one or more of the following words : Unconscious, inebriate, compensate, disperse.
THE MERCHANT OF VENICE—I. [Besides his charming Essays, Charles Lamb, with the assistance of his sister Mary, wrote prose versions of many of the plays of Shakspeare. This is his prose narrative of the Merchant of Venice. The trial scene, however, is given in Shakspeare's own words. ]
1. Shylock, the Jew, lived at Venice: he was an usurer, who had amassed an immense fortune by lending money at great interest to Christian merchants. Shylock, being a hard-hearted man, exacted the
payment of the money he lent with such severity that he was much disliked by all good men, and particularly by Antonio, a young merchant of Venice; and Shylock as much hated Antonio, because he used to lend money to people in distress, and would never take any interest for the money he lent. Therefore there was great enmity between this covetous Jew and the generous merchant Antonio. Whenever Antonio met Shylock on the Rialto (or Exchange), he used to reproach him with his usuries and hard dealings; which the Jew would bear with seeming patience, while he secretly meditated revenge.
2. Antonio was one of the kindest men that ever lived.
He was greatly beloved by all his fellowcitizens; but the friend who was nearest and dearest to his heart was Bassanio, a noble Venetian, who had nearly exhausted his little fortune by living in too expensive a manner. . Whenever Bassanio wanted money, Antonio assisted him; and it seemed as if they had but one heart and one purse between them.
3. One day Bassanio came to Antonio, and told him that he wished to repair his fortune by a wealthy marriage with a lady whom he dearly loved, but not having money to furnish himself with an appearance befitting the lover of so rich an heiress, he besought Antonio to add to the many favours he had shown him, by lending him three thousand ducats. Antonio had no money by him at that time to lend his friend; but expecting soon to have some ships come home laden with merchandise, he said he would go to Sh ck, the rich money-lender, and borrow the money upon the credit of those ships.
4. Antonio and Bassanio went together to Shylock, and Antonio asked the Jew to lend him three thousand
ducats upon any interest he should require, to be paid out of the merchandise contained in his ships at sea.
On this, Shylock thought within himself: 'If I can once catch him, I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him.'
Antonio, finding he was musing within himself and did not answer, and being impatient for the money, said: “Shylock, do you hear ? will you lend the money?'
5. To this question the Jew replied: Signior Antonio, on the Rialto many a time and often you have railed at me about my moneys, and my usuries, and I have borne it with a patient shrug. Well, then, it now appears you need my help; and you come to me and say, “Shylock, lend me moneys.” Shall I bend low and say, “Fair sir, you spit upon me on Wednesday last, another time you called me dog, and for these courtesies I am to lend you moneys."
Antonio replied: 'I am as like to call you so again. If
you will lend me this money, lend it not to me as to a friend, but rather lend it to me as to an enemy, that, if I break, you may with better face exact the penalty
6. 'Why, look you,' said Shylock, 'how you storm! I would be friends with you, and have your love. I will forget the shames you have put upon me. I will supply your wants, and take no interest for my money.'
This seemingly kind offer greatly surprised Antonio; and then Shylock, still pretending kindness, again said he would lend him the three thousand ducats, and take no interest for his money; only Antonio should go with him to a lawyer, and there sign in merry sport a bond, that if he did not repay the money by a certain
day, he would forfeit a pound of flesh, to be cut off from any part of his body that Shylock pleased.
7. Content,' said Antonio ; 'I will sign to this bond, and say there is much kindness in the Jew. Bassanio said Antonio should not sign such a bond for him; but still Antonio insisted that he would sign it, for that before the day of payment came, his ships would return laden with many times the value of the money.
8. At last, against the advice of Bassanio, who, notwithstanding all the Jew had said of his kind intentions, did not like his friend should run the hazard of this shocking penalty for his sake, Antonio signed the bond, thinking it really was, as the Jew said, merely in sport. Shy-lock
pa'-tience An-to'-ni-o im-pa'-tient se-ver'-i-ty med'-i-tat-ed re-pair
court-e-sies par-tic'-u-lar-ly re-venge'
fa'-vours sur-prised' COV'-et-ous
Bas-san'-i-o con-tained' pre-tend'-ing re-proach' as-sist'-ed an'-cient in-sist'-ed us'-ur-er, a money-lender for in- mer'-chan-dise, that which is bought terest.
and sold. a-massed', gathered by saving. Ri-al-to, the Exchange or place for ex-act'-ed, compelled or forced.
doing business in Venice. Ven-e'-ti-an, a person who lived in railed, used insolent language
Venice, one of the greatest against.
pen'-al-ty, punishment or fine. ex-haust'-ed, used up.
for'-feit, lose because he had not du'-cats, coins issued by a Duke ; fulfilled his engagement.
worth, when in silver, about sign to, put one's name to.
4s. 6d. ; in gold, twice as much. haz'-ard, risk. EXERCISES.—1. The Greek prefix (1) hypo- means under; as hypothesis, a placing under, a supposition ; hypocrisy, a feigning to hide (place under) one's real character. (2) Meta means change ; as metonymy, a change of name ; metamorphosis, a change of form.
2. Analyse and parse the following : 'On this, Shylock thought within himself : “If I can once catch him, I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him.”
3. Make sentences of your own, and use in each one or more of the following words : Penalty, merchandise, forfeit, amass.