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76. Quanta voce, how loudly.

78. Tarpeia fulmina, the thunderbolts of Tarpeian (i. e., Capitoline) Jupiter.

79. Frameam, the Teutonic word for lance. Cf. Tacitus, Germ. VI, and Fig. 72.

Cirrhaei vatis, Apollo. Cf. VII, €4.

80. Venatricis puellae, Diana.

82. Herculeos arcus, the bow that Hercules gave to Philoctetes.

84. Et, too, as well.

Flebile-i. e., deeply as it would pain me. Flebile agrees with sinciput.

85. Que connects elixi and madentis.

88. For nature brings about the changes of day and night, and of the seasons.

93. Isis. The Egyptian goddess Isis was a

FIG. 72.-Figure hurling the

framea.

popular divinity at Rome during the empire. Cf. XII, 28, note, and Fig. 73. Sistro. The sistrum was a sort of musical instrument. Cf. Fig. 73.

94. Vel, even.

Abnego, deny—i. e., disclaim knowledge of.

96. Sunt tanti-i. e., are not too much to pay (for wealth).

97. Ladas, a famous runner at the Olympic games.

Anticyra was a town noted for hellebore, which was considered a specific

for madness. Cf. Hor., A. P. 300.

98. Archigene. Archigenes was a specialist in mental disorders.

99. Esuriens, the olive brauch brings fame but no food.

Pisaeae, the Olympic games were held near Pisa, in Elis.

100. Ut, although.

107. Ad delubra vocantem-i. e., to hear his oath. So eager is he to take the false oath, that he hurries on before you, and is even ready to insist on your going.

109. Superest, supports.

110. Fiducia is contrasted with audacia.

Mimum. Mimus may mean the play-writer, the play itself, or a single

rôle in the play.

111. Catulli. Cf. VIII, 186.

112. Stentora, the Greek herald whose voice was equal to that of fifty

men.

113. Gradivus Homericus; Mars, as Homer says, shouted as loudly as ten thousand men (Il. V, 859).

116. Carbone tuo-i. e., on thy altar.

Charta soluta refers to the paper parcel in which the incense was brought. 118. Omenta, entrails.

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119. Vagelli, unknown.

120. Hear what a plain man, no philosopher, can say for your comfort. 121. Et qui, even he who.

122. Tunica. The Cynics wore a heavy cloak and no tunic.

125. Your case, however, is simple, and may be intrusted to a mere tyro. Philippi. Probably some physician of little reputation.

132. Vestem diducere summam, to tear (only) the upper part of his gar

ment.

135. Fora, courts.

136. If, after their agreements have been read over and over (deciens seems to be used for any large number) by the other side (i. e., by their opponents).

137. They, whom their own signature (littera) and best sardonyx seal (gemma) convict, assert that the writing of the invalid (supervacui) tablet is not binding.

140. O delicias, my dear fellow.

141. Quia tu, etc.; because you, forsooth, are of an exceptional breed! 145. Conductum, hired.

Sulpure atque dolo, one idea.

146. Primos cum, etc., a proof that the house was set on fire.

148. Adorandae robiginis, genitive of characteristic. Robigo = rust, and thus antiquity.

152. Bratteolam, one of the leaves or plates of gold with which the statue was overlaid.

155. Deducendum-i. e., one that ought

to be thrown.

Cum quo, etc. Cf. VIII, 214, note. 157. Quota pars, how small a part!

Cf. III, 61, quota portio.

Gallicus. Rutilius Gallicus was praefectus urbi in the time of Domitian.

162. Tumidum guttur, goître, a common disease in the Alps.

165. Which twists its tufts in damp curl-i. e., the hair twisted into wet, curly tufts.

FIG. 74.-Pygmies and cranes.

167. Thracum volucres-i. e., cranes; their contests with the pygmies are mentioned by Homer, Il. III, 3 ff. Cf. Fig. 74.

168. The tradition concerning a race of pygmies, like other popular traditions, seems to have had a certain basis in fact. Recent investigations seem to prove the existence in Africa of a race of fully developed human beings whose stature does not exceed four feet. Juvenal's disbelief in the canal at Mount Athos has been shown to have been unfounded (cf. X, 174),

and it may be that the much-ridiculed story of Hannibal's use of heated vinegar to soften the rocks in his passage of the Alps (cf. X, 153; Livy XXI, 37) is not so absurd, after all.

176. Nostro arbitrio, as we choose.

179. Invidiosa, odious.

Minimus sanguis, a drop of blood.

180. Vindicta, revenge.

Bonum, substantive in the predicate.

181. Indocti, supply dicunt.

184. Chrysippus, etc. Philosophers such as these will teach you that revenge is ignoble. 185. Senex, Socrates.

187. Plurima vitia. Vitia are faults of nature,

errores faults of practice.

Felix is used as a masculine substantive =

sapiens.

190. Voluptas is in the predicate.

191. Continuo, straightway, unhesitatingly.

194. Attonitos, terrified.

FIG. 75.-Flagellum.

Surdo verbere, the unheard blow, so occultum flagellum, the unseen lash. 195. Tortore is in apposition with animo, which is in the ablative abso

lute with quatiente.

Flagellum. Cf. Fig. 75.

197. Caedicius is said to have been a cruel judge in the time of Nero. Rhadamanthus with Minos and Aeacus gave judgment in the lower world. Cf. I, 10.

199 ff. This story of Glaucus is told by Herodotus, VI, 86. He wanted to keep from the sons money entrusted to him by their father, and consulted the oracle as to the probable effect.

etc.

204. Moribus, principle.

205. Adyti, of the sanctuary.

206. Extinctus-i. e., his destruction with that of his whole race proved, Extinctus is the participle.

207. Quamvis longa, however far removed.

210. Cedo (an old imperative form), come, tell me (what penalties he incurs).

212. Ut morbo-i. e., as if he were ill.

213. Cibo, ablative absolute with crescente.

Sed, but even.

214. Albani senectus-i. e., old Alban wine.

215. Densissima ruga, cf. densissima lectica, I, 120.

216. Acri Falerno. The Falernian wine was sharp, and was usually mixed with honey.

221. Imago, apparition, called sacra, because connected with the idea of an avenging deity.

224. Primo quoque, the very first.

228. Velut hoc dilata sereno, as if but deferred by this clear weather.

229. Vigili cum febre, with sleepless fever.

233. Balantem, bleating.

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239. Ad mores damnatos, to the practices condemned by conscience. 242. Attrita, hardened.

244. Dabit, etc., will step into the snare-i. e., will be caught.

245. Uncum, cf. X, 66, Seianus ducitur unco.

246. Rupem scopulosque; cf. I, 73.

248. Nominis is used for the man himself.

Laetus, with joy.

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caecum, for Tiresias was the blind prophet of Thebes.

SATIRE XIV.

THE EFFECT OF EVIL EXAMPLE.

INTRODUCTION.-Parents often unconsciously teach their children to be gamblers or gluttons. Can Rutilus, who treats his slaves with cruelty, expect his son to be humane? It is easier to teach vice than virtue. Reverence the innocence of childhood, else you will have no right to censure your son's faults when he grows up. Will you not make as great efforts to keep your home pure for the sake of your child as you make to keep it clean for the sake of your guests? Children, like birds, show their training in after-life. Cretonius is extravagant, his son is still more so. Another man is tolerant of superstitions, his son becomes a fanatic. Most faults the young are ready to learn; avarice must be forced upon them, and, alas! it is but too often taught, first by little acts of meanness, then by greater ones. What folly is such avarice! In early times a little land was enough to support a family, now we must have more than that for a pleasure-garden. Hear the advice of the simple Samnite father. Now the father urges his son on in the race for wealth. The rising generation learns its lesson well, and is apt in forgery, even in murder. "I never taught him that," you say. No, but you planted the seed that produces such a harvest. The follies of the avaricious are more amusing than any drama. There are various forms of madness, and your indifference to danger in the pursuit of wealth is one. Then, too, what hard work you

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