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the most serious regard and attention, and the more so, as every man, whether prince or peasants may be exposed to the alarming and dreadful consequences of a premature death. The learned Baron is of opinion, that “of one hundred persons apparently dead, and pre. cipitately interred, ten of them at least, may be restored to life, their friends, and their country.”—Page 483.
5th. If we for a moment contemplate the dreadful and horrid situation of a human being, in every respect like ourselves, not really dead, only oppressed by some disease that assumes the appearance of the grim tyrant, hurried to the grave, and thus rashly precipi. tatedt into the arms of death; can we too highly appreciate the acquisition of that which delivers us from the fear of experiencing a similar catastrophe, a fear which surpasses even the fear of death itself? If the preservation of the lives of our fellow-creatures be a primary duty, enjoined to us by the concurring dictates of Reason, Religion, and Humanity; can we reflect on the vast numbers of the human beings that have been sacrificed in all ages, and in all coun. tries, and not feel the utmost remorse and the most poignant regret?
Introduction, 9. 10.
6th. The custom of hastily laying out the persons supposed to be dead, and rashly interring the same, has been opposed by men of learning and philanthropy, in this and other countries. The testimony of learned authors, and the attestations of living evidences, have proved that many who were consigned to the grave, were pos. sessed of the vital principle. It is a sad and melancholy, but notorious truth, that mankind have remained almost invincibly attached to this custom, engendered by ignorance and nursed by superstition, Their prejudices may have yielded in the closets of the speculative, to the demonstrations of reason and sense: the practice of men has been little altered. Theory might have been changed, but the question was still regarded by the scientific, as well as the unthinking uninformed-each reflecting with little concern, if not absolute indifference, in spite of the many interesting deductions, and very important reflections it contained. However, as the auspicious æra seems now to be arrived, wherein men, as awakening from a dream, begin seriously to weigh the great magnitude of the object present, ed to them, or rather forced upon their notice by the fatal effects of their long neglect of it, we shall proceed to the subject itself, hoping that our readers will deliberately consider and put in practice the cau. tions and directions that follow, as they regard their own lives, as well as those of their fellow-creatures.
The writer hopes that this interesting address, dictated by motives of humanity and philanthropy, will have its due weight with the public; since, from a proper attention to the following observations, children may be restored to their parents, parents to their children, husbands to their wives, friends to friends, and the most valuable members of the community restored to complete the circle of social intercourse and happiness.
+ What, in particular, must be the feelings of a man, who had posses sed influence which he bad neglected to use, in opposition to the prevailing customs, when placed in this horrid situation !
ANIMATION PRESERVED AND RESTORED. · In Apoplexies, Trances, Syncope, and Fits, which, often arising from sudden and violent agitations of the mind, terminate in apparent death, the return of life may be every now and then effected by the Humane Society's resuscitative process, and the attendance of skilful practitioners. • Convulsions, spasmodic affections, &c. have caused an immense number of infants and young children, &c. to be rashly and prematurely supposed in a lifeless state, so as to be committed to the grave. It is a pleasing truth at this time to declare, that in consequence of Lectures on Suspended Animation, a great number of the infant race have been restored to life.
On opium or spirits producing a state of torpor and insensibility, and the appearances of death, immediate judicious advice may reseue numbers from an untimely grave. See several cases of resuscitation in the reports of this institution for the years 1787, '88 and '89. · Persons advanced in life, or in earlier years, if the constitution has been much injured by intemperance, &c. in consequence of sudden and profuse evacuations, often become so debilitated as to fall into syncope, or an apparent state of death. In some of these instances, the Humane Society's judicious plan, instantaneously applied by the faculty, has proved successful and happily brought about sensibility and citability.
The confluent Small-pox, Nervous and Malignant Fevers, and all acute diseases inducing extensive debility of the system, have often terminated in a state which bears so close an affinity to that of death, as to deceive the attendants, relatives, &c. who have too hastily exposed the body to the cold air, and sent for the undertaker; whereas, it would be more humane in future, on the first suspension of vitality, to consult the family practitioner, as the immediate succours of the medical art would often be productive of the return of life.
The circumstances in which morbid states of the system may be productive of the semblance and appearance of vital extinction, or death, have been minutely described; it is therefore hoped that motives of humanity and natural affection will so far prevail as to induce parents, relatives and friends, to consult the faculty on the first approach of such fallacious and deceptive kinds of death, which arise in consequence of Apoplexy, Syncope, Trances, Small-pox, Fevers, &c. &c. as by prudent conduct, immediate attention, and medical skill, the most valuable lives may be preserved.
The Medical Society of New-Castic, in their proposal for the recovery of persons apparently dead, observe- We cannot, at this. time, help entering a caution against the hasty and destructive custom of immediately laying out persons supposed to be dead."-In great sinking and depression of the strength, especially towards the end of acute diseases, patients frequently lie in a state resembling death." If the bed clothes be removed, the heat on which the vital principle depends will soon be dispelled, and consequently the spark of life be destroyed.-Page 478. 79. 80. 81. 82.
7th. The arts and modes of destroying human life have been cultivated from the first ages of the world. The ingenuity, the industry, the wealth, the science of mankind, have been lavished on the improvement and perfection of these horrid arts. It is to be earnestly hoped, that the zeal and ardour manifested by all ranks, to promote the life-saving views of the society, may tend to vindicate human nature, and evince to the indignant satyrist of human actions, or the rigid censor of human manners, that man is far more active and emulous to save than destroy his fellow men.
8th. In these humane exertions of exalted philanthropy the clergy have come forward, as the zealous advocates of such admirable institutions, which are founded in a more eminent degree, perhaps, than any other establishments on the exercise of that virtue which constitutes the primary and essential duty of Christianity. By their benevolent efforts, the veil of superstition has been in a great measure removed; and the way has been paved for a general reception of the great and important truth, in the minds of all ranks and descriptions, all ages and conditions, of the practicability of restoring life.—Page 435.
* * LETTER FROM DR, HAWKESWORTH, TO A YOUNG
LADY. DEAR Miss,
YOU are now going from the company, the conversation, and amusements of children, into a scene of life which affords more rational pleasures, and will engage you in more important pursuits; the world is opening before you, a wilderness in which many have been lost; and in which, among a thousand broad ways, there is but one narrow path that leads to happiness and honour. If this path is missed at setting out, it is very difficult to recover it; it is therefore of great consequence to be directed into it at first; and though I hope you will be long under the pretection and guidance of parents in whom there is all that can be wished in the relation, yet I shall give you a few plain instructions, which I hope will assist you in fulfilling your duty to them, in obtaining the good-will of others, and promoting your own welfare.
As my affection to you first led me to this design, my knowledge of your capacity encouraged me to pursue it. Do not imagine that I think you inclined to all the faults and follies that I shall warn you against, but you must remember that all men have faults and follies, and that, to caution persons while they are innocent, may prevent the shame and anguish of being reproved or upbraided after they are guilty.
Great part of the happiness of every individual depends upon the opinion and actions of others : it is therefore desirable to gain and to preserve the good will of all : nor would I have you think any person either so mean in their state of life, or so undeserving in their character, as that their good-will is of no consequence to you. Every one who thinks you love them will love you ; for this reason be always ready to show your good will to all, by such acts of friendship as are in your power, still taking care to avoid a partiality whicha
a young Lady
may lead you to do any thing in favour of one person at the expence of another, or of yourself.
There are many acts of friendship to mankind in general, which are neither difficult, troublesome, nor expensive : the principal of these is speaking well, or at least not speaking ill, of the absent.
If you see a fault in another, don't make it the subject of conversation ; hide it with as much care as if it was your own. Do not think yourself justified by saying that what you report to another's disadvantage is true : if all the failings which are true of the best of us were to be told to our dearest friend, perhaps all our virtues could scarce secure his esteem. But this rule must not extend to the concealing any thing by which another may be injured in his property or character, if by revealing it the evil may be prevented; and this is the only instance in which you are allowed to speak of the faults of others.
Be always punctual in returning what the world calls civilities. The failing in this, however trilling, is often taken for contempt, or at least for want of esteem ; and I have known the omitting to return a visit, or to answer a letter in due time, attended with coldness, indif. ference, and worse consequences. That persons ought not to set such a value on these trifles is true ; but if they do, it behoves us to act as if they ought : however, as the resenting a breach of these punctilios is really a fault, take care that you are not betrayed into it. Let it be a rule with you never to resent any thing that was not intended as an affront; mere negligences should be below your resentment; though, for the sake of the infirmities of others, you should guard against them in yourself.
There are two ways of gaining the good will of the world, which weak people practise because they know no other; one is flattery, the other is lavish professions of friendship, which begin and end on the lips. Never stoop to either of these low and infamous arts; whatever is thus gained is bought too dear. To refrain from this fault is easy, but to guard against the ill effects of it in others, difficult; it is not however more difficult than necessary. Always suspect that a person who commends you to your face endeavours to gain a confidence that he intends to betray. Remember that whoever makes professions of friendship which are not merited is an hypocrite, and beware that your own vanity does not encourage you to think that you have merited uncommon and excessive instances of favour and zeal to serve you.
But the constant, steady esteem and friendship of a person long tried and well known, who has obtained a reputation for virtue and sincerity, is an invaluable treasure : if you find it, preserve it with a religious care, and return it with fidelity and zeal.
In this place I would caution you never to be trusted with the secrets of others, if you can by any means avoid it with decency: reject it as an enemy to your peace, and as a snare for your good name. Whoever tells you a secret, tells it as a secret to twenty more; at length it is betrayed : and as this breach of faith is always denied by the guilty, the innocent are always suspected. It has been thought good advice not to reveal your own secrets, but I would rather advise you to have none : do nothing that if known would wound your reputation, or fill your own bosom with shame and regret. To lie at the mercy of accident; to be obliged constantly to watch over our words and actions, lest what we wish to hide should be discovered ; is the life of a slave, full of fear, suspicion, and anxiety: those who have nothing to fear but falsehood and detraction, enjoy their own innocence; have an open look, a noble confidence, fative cheerfulness, and perpetual peace.
If upon any difference you should happen to lose an intimate acquaintance, don't be eager to relate the circumstances of the quarrel, in order to justify your conduct and condemn theirs : those stories which a thousand little circumstances make of importance to you, and warm your mind in the recital, are insipid to every other person ; and while you think you amuse them, and are rising into a person of consequence by a detail of your own prudent management, you will become tiresome, impertinent and ridiculous. If the party with whom you have differed should pursue this method, the wiser part of mankind will rather conclude them to be in fault, from their zeal to defend themselves, than you from your silence; for it is a consciousness that others will condemn us which makes us so eager to anticipate their judgment. This rule extends to the talking of yourself and of your private affairs on every other occasion, except when it has some pertinent relation to the discourse of the company, or when it is necessary to obtain some valuable purpose.
If your papa or mama should at any time express a disapprobation of your conduct, immediately resolve to amend it, apologize for the past, and promise for the future: never seem in haste to justify yourself; and though you should think their displeasure unmerited, in which it is a thousand to one but you will be mistaken, yet be sure to avoid all pert and self-sufficient replies on the one hand, and on the other sullen looks and dumb resentment. If it should happen that an harsh expression escapes them when their temper is rutiled by the perplexing accidents and disappointments of business, as it would be the highest ingratitude and indecency in you to express impatience and discontent, so, as the reward of a contrary conduct, their own refleotions upon what is past when the mind is calm will be in your favour, and their affection will seek an opportunity of compensating your uneasiness. You should regard these accidents as opportunities of endearing yourself to them, and as tests of your prudence, duty and affection.
What may not children expect from a father who is a friend to the · whole circle of his acquaintance? It is your happiness to have such a father; think yourself secure of every thing that is fit for you in his affection, and do not anticipate his bounty by requests : the pleasure of both will be lessened if you receive because you ask, and he gives because he cannot deny you. How very shameful then is the ..common triumph of favourites for having gained by importunity what is denied to merit, and withheld by prudence! Whatever is thus gained from the hand, is lost in the heart. I have seen with