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80. Interiora, the inner harbor built by Trajan. Fig. 67, from a coin struck in 103 A. D., shows the warehouses surrounding this inner harbor.

Pervia, navigable.

Cumbae, dative with pervia.

81. Tuti stagna sinus, the quiet waters of a safe bay.

Vertice raso.

Men cut off their hair as a votive

offering. Cf. III, 186.

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83. Linguis animisque faventes-i. e., with a strict religious silence. Cf. Hor., Odes III, 1, 2.

84. Serta, garlands.

Farra-i. e., the sacrificial meal with which the knives were sprinkled.

85. Mollis focos, the turf altars.

90. I. e., violets of every color.

91. Longos, etc; cf. pone domi laurus, X, 65.

92. Matutinis-i. e., lighted before day break. Operatur operam dat, celebrates.


Festa (ianua).

FIG. 66.-Pharos.

93 ff. This sounds like legacy-hunting, but Catullus has three children, so you see my devotion is disinterested.

95. Libet expectare, I should like to see.

96. Claudentem oculos, blind.

98. Pro patre-i. e., for a man that is a father.

Sentire calorem-i. e., to feel the approach of fever. We might say to

have a chill.

99. Coepit, singular because each subject is thought of separately. 100. Legitime, in due form.

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105. In the Rutulian forests and the land

FIG. 67.-Inner harbor at Ostia.

where Turnus reigned.

106. Caesaris armentum. Herds of elephants were kept by the emperors

for use in the public shows.

107. Siquidem almost for.


Tyrio Hannibali. Carthage was a colony from Tyre.

108. Nostris ducibus-e. g., Scipio.

Regique Molosso, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus.

110. Partem aliquam belli, an important part of the war.

111. Novius and Hister Pacuvius (legacy-hunters) would not hesitate to offer up elephants at the shrines of their patrons.

115. Alter, the latter, as shown by the use of his name again in line 125. 119. Iphigenia, etc.-i. e., he would be as ready to sacrifice his own daughter as was Agamemnon, even without the hope that a deer would be furnished at the last moment to take the maiden's place, as the tragedians represented in the case of Iphigenia. Cf. Fig. 68.

121. Civem, fellow-citizen.

Nec comparo, etc.-i. e., how much better to sacrifice one's daughter for

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a legacy than for a thousand ships ; referring, of course, to the Greek fleet in the story of Iphigenia.

122. Libitinam, the goddess of funerals, so death; cf. Hor., Odes III, 30, 6, multa pars mei vitabit Libitinam.

123. Inclusus carcere nassae, imprisoned in the net. The nassa was a sort of lobster-pot, as seen in Fig. 69.

127. Iugulata Mycenis-i. e., the sacrifice of his “ Iphigenia.”'

128. Nestora totum, a sort of cognate accusative; for the sense, cf. X, 246.

FIG: 69.-Nassa.


INTRODUCTION.—Juvenal writes to his friend Calvinus, who is much distressed by the loss of a small sum of money through breach of trust. The strength of the Satire lies in its ethical teaching, and its vigorous description of the terrors of a guilty conscience.

Crime is its own punishment; then, too, you are rich enough to bear this loss with equanimity. Why are you so overwhelmed by a misfortune which in these evil days is so common? In the golden age, when there were fewer gods, there was more virtue; now an honest man is a rarity. Men break their oaths without hesitation, some believe in no gods, others hope to escape divine vengeance. Consider how many suffer more serious losses than yours; look at the criminal courts. No one wonders at that which is common, why wonder at dishonesty in Rome? Do you seek revenge? That is unphilosophical, the mark of a petty inind. Leave your enemy to the punishment of his own conscience; it will give him no peace, will torture him under all circumstances, but it will not deter him from further crimes, and you will some day have the satisfaction of seeing him the victim of his own ill-doing.

1. Exemplo-malo, ablative of characteristic.

2. Se iudice, etc. Each iudex (juryman) was furnished with three tablets marked respectively A. (absolvo), C. (condemno), and N. L. (non liquet = not proven), one of which he cast into the urn, whence they were taken and counted by the praetor.

3. Inproba gratia, corrupt influence.

5 ff. You have the sympathy of your friends, your wealth is still great, and you have plenty of company in your misfortunes.

6. Crimine, charge. 8. Iacturae. The paradox, “burden of a loss,” is probably intentional.

10. Et e medio, etc., taken from the middle of Fortune's heap-i. e., taken at random.

13. Quamvis levium, however slight.

16. There is some doubt as to the subject of stupet. I think it is not Juvenal, but Calvinus.

17. Fonteio. One Fonteius was consul 59 A. D., another 67 A. D. ; the latter is probably meant.

20. Sapientia means philosophy. as contrasted with experience (vita). 23. Cesset, fail.

25. Pyxide, bor, here a box containing poison. The peculiar lid of the pyris is seen in Fig. 70.

27. Thebarum portae, Boeotian Thebes had seven gates, and the Nile had seven mouths.

28. Nunc aetas. Ovid calls the iron age the fourth ; no wonder, then, that no metal could be found base enough to designate the present.

Agitur, is passing. Saecula, the subject of an implied aguntur, is the antecedent of quorum,

31. Fidem ; fides means that which may be trusted; we make as much noise about honor and religion

32. Faesidium, Faesidius was rich lawyer; hence agentem, pleading.

Vocalis sportula—i. e., those persons whose applauding voices had been bought by the sportulu. 33. Bulla, worn by children. Cf.

Fig. 70.- Pyxis. V, 164, note (Fig. 30).

37. Rubenti—i. e., with the blood of victims.

39 f. Saturn fleeing from Jupiter, who had deprived him of his crown, came to Latium and taught the people agriculture.

41. Privatus, a simple citizen, one without office.

Idaeis antris ; Jupiter's early boyhood was passed on Mount Ida, in Crete.

42 ff. The simplicity of those early times was found in heaven as well as on earth.

43. Puer Triacus, Ganymede, who came from the Troad.
Herculis uxor, Hebe.
44. Ad cyathos-i. e., as cup-bearer.


45. Liparaea; Vulcan's forge was sometimes located in Lipara, a volcanic island north of Sicily. Cf. I, 8, note. Fig. 71, from a bas-relief, represents Vulcan in his workshop affixing the handle to a shield.

46. Nec turba deorum. The Roman pantheon became very much crowded

FIG. 71.-Vulcan's workshop.

in later times by the importation of a host of Asiatic and Egyptian divinities, and the deification of emperors, heroes, and abstract ideas.

48. Atlanta. "Poor Atlas" was supposed to support the heavens on his shoulders.

49. Triste profundi imperium, the gloomy empire of the abyss.

50. Aut, the negation continues.

Sicula coniuge, Proserpina, whom Pluto carried off from Enna in Sicily. Cf. Ovid, Met. V, 391 ff.

51. Rota, saxum, and vulturis atri poena refer to Ixion, Sisyphus, and

Tityus respectively.

53. Admirabilis, a wonder.

54. Quo (aevo).

57. Notice the incidental reference to the simplicity of living.

59. Lanugo, down.

61. Follem, purse.

62. Tuscis libellis. The Etruscans were famous for their skill in augury. Cf. Livy, I, 34.

64. An honest man in these days is a wonder and a prodigy.

Bimembri seems to mean half-man, half-beast, or it may be two-headed. 68. Uva is often used for a "cluster" of bees.

70. Miris seems tame, but miniis (Porson's conjecture, followed by Ribbeck) is improbable.

71. Decem sestertia, about $400.

73. Arcana intrusted without witnesses or receipt.

74. Quam patulae, etc.-i. e., so large a sum that there was no room for it in his money-chest.

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