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New York City Weather Records for 1940

Source: United States Weather Bureau
DAILY PRECIPITATION, 1940, AT NEW YORK (INCHES)
Jan. Feb.
Apr. May
July Aug.

Nov.
T.
22

.29 T
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Day

Mar.

June

Sept.

Oct.

Dec.

06

28

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Total.

1.96 3.33 4.49 5.41 6.84 3.11 2.50 5.06 3.22 2.67 3.91 "T," trace, less than .01 inch. In vicinity.

DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT NEW YORK CITY, 1940
Jan. Feb. Mar Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.

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Means 32 18 40 26 42 28 54 38 67 52 77 60 83 66 77 64 74 58 61 45 51) 39| 46 32
Note-Highest and lowest in bold-face figures
EXTREMES OF PRESSURE (INCHES) AND TEMPERATURE (DEGREES) AT N. Y.
Pressure (Sea Level)

Temperature
Month
High-

Maxi

Miniest Date

Lowest

Date mum Date mum Date January

27. 1927

3, 1913
14. 1932

10, 1875 February

1.1920
6. 1896
25, 1930

9, 1934 March

18. 1913

1. 1914

21, 1921 April

30, 1934
17, 1929
27. 1915

1, 1923 May 22, 1936 29.02 3. 1929

31. 1895

1, 18800 30.56 2. 1853 29.34 26, 1902

6. 1899

3. 1929 July

30.51
20.35 2, 1932

9. 1936
August
30.45 31, 1934 29.28 24, 1893

7, 1918 September

30.61
7, 1888 28.72 21. 1938

7. 1891 October

30.72 10, 1929 29.06 25, 1925 November 30.82

1020 28, 1932 28 70 13

7, 1938 December..... 30.93 28, 1896 28.97 26. 1909

23, 1891 (a) Also in 1879, 16th day. (b) Also in 1876, Ist day.

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Monthly and Annual N. Y. Precipitation (Inches)

Source: United States Weather Bureau

(The means are based on the averages from 1871 to date) Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | April | May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. | Dec. | Annual

47.00 42:07 48.60 41.57 44.48

41.82 3.26 4.08

45.28 9.10

0.75

41,43 1.72

0.74 158

41.55 3.79 4.62

35.95 5.38 4.22

40.34 32 2.21

38.50 44.39 33.50 40.83 33.17 39.28 33.59 48.38 48.81

34 38 2.97

43.38 36.72 37.72 36.62 49.88 49.90

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1917 1918 1919. 1920 1921. 1922.. 1923. 1924.. 1925.. 1926. 1927 1928. 1929 1930.. 1931 1932 1933.. 1934. 1935 1936.. 1937..

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1938

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1939
1940
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Monthly and Annual Mean N. Y. Temperatures (Degrees)

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Source: United States Weather Bureau
(The means are based on the averages from 1871 to date)
Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. / Dec.

68.4
56.0

39.7
65.9 56.9 50.0
65.4 56.6 41.4
65.9 53.3 41.4

56.9 43.8 70.2 56.1 44.9

52.5 45.2
61.3

59.6 44.7
49.5
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65.6 53.2 47.7
68.4 58.2 41.6

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Snowfall in New York City (Inches)

Source: United States Weather Bureau

Season

Jan.

Season

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T.

1901-02
0.6 1.1 9.4.13.4 6.8 0

31.3 1921-22
T. 7.3 9.9 6.71 3.3

0 27.2 1902-03 0 9.61 5.9 10.5 0 T. 26.01922-23. 0 1.0 6.021.817.41 6.2

0 0 52.4 1903-04. T. T. 7.7 15 2 5.6 4.4 0.1 33.0 1923-24

0 1.2 2.510.73.0 8.0 0 25.4 1904-05 0.527 8 19.3 7.2 3.0 T. 57.8 1924-25

0 T. 0.9 26.2 0.81 T. 0 0 27.9 1905-06

T. 0.7 3.01 5.0 13 4 T. 22.1 (1925-26 0.4 0.21 0.9 3.2 25.7 1.2 T. 0 31.6 1906-07

T. 0.5 10.9 21.113 SJ 6.1 52.4/1926-27 T. T. 10.6) 5.5 3.61 0.1 0.2 0 20.1 1907-08 T. 4.4 10.6 13.7 3.5 T. 32.2 1927-28 0

2.4 3.1 4.0 4.8 T 0 14.3 1908 09 O 0.6) 5.1 93 1.4 4.1 T. 20.7 1928-29 T. T. 2.31 1.9 8.81 0.31 T. 0

13.3 1909-10 0 1.0 11.4 16.6 5.3 0.4 0 34.7 1929-30. T.

5.7 4.1 3.7 T. T. 0 1910-11 0 T. 8.9 11 12.5 2.8 0.7 26.0193031 0 T. 4.2 0.7 3.8 1.0 T. 0 9.7 1911-12 0 1.0 7.3 9.0 1.8 4.2 T. 0 23.3 1931-32 0 1.2 T. 1.0 2.2 0.7 T.

5.1 1912 13 0 0.8 11.8 0.3 2.4 0.1 T. 15.4 1932-33. 0 0 9.4 T. 11.5 3.1 T. 24.0 1913 14 0 0 0.3 12.14.121.5 T. 0 37.11'1933-34.

0 0.5 13.2 0.2 30.1 8.5 T. 52.5 1914-15 0 0 2.4 4.0 2.5 7.7 10.2 0 26.8 1934-35 T. T. T 20.9 6.7 2.0 T.

29.6 1915 16 0 T. 8.1 0711.4 23.8 3.3 0 47.31935-36 0 1.8 7.6 12.3 9.8 1.2 0.1 32.8 1916 -17 0 T. 13.7 5.9 12.2 11.4 6.5 0 49.7 1936-37 T. 1.9 T. 4.5 3.6 1.9 T. 0 1917-18 0 0.3 11.713.6 3.5 0.6 2.6 0 32.31937-38 T. 0.6 0.71 6.2 T. 1.2 5.2 0 13.9 1918-19 0 0 0.4 0.3 0.7 1.9 T. 0 3.3 1938-39 0.0' 12.5 1.1 9.5 3.9 4.9! T. 0 31.9 1919-20 0 T. 7.9 7.8 24 2 5.7 T. 0 45.6 1939-40. 0.0 T.

3.8 3.9 9.8 3.3 1.4 0 22.2 1920 -21. 10 T. 1 1.5 2.6 13.5' T. 10.1 0 17.7 1910-41 T. 1.6 3.8 7.8 5.3 16.5 0.0 0.0 35.0

In 1888, the “Blizzard" of March 12 deposited storm covered more than a day and the total snow16.5 inches of snow in twenty-four hours, but the fall exceeded twenty inches.

13.5

11.9

Velocity of Winds in the United States (Miles Per Hour)

Source: United States Weather Bureau
Avg. High

Stations

Avg. High

Stations

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Miles Miles

Miles Miles

Miles Miles Albany, N. Y... 8 59 Key West, Fla 10 84 Pittsburgh, Pa.

10 56 Atlanta, GA

10
Knoxville, Tenn

6 59 Point Reyes, Calif. 18 84 bisnar k, V. Dak 10 60 Louisville. Ky 9 58 Portland, Me

9 48 Boston, Mass. 10 73 Memphis, Tenn. 9 58 Rochester, N. Y.

9 60 Bumalo, NY 15 73 Miami, Fla

9 87 St Louis, Mo.

11 62 Hatteras, N. C. 14 80 Minn -St. Paul

10 78 Salt Lake City, Utah. 8 60 Chattanooga, Tenn.. 7 50 Nobile, Ala

10 87 San Diego, Calle

7 43 Chicago, Ul. 11 65 Montgomery Ala

7 41 San Francisco, Calif. 9 50 Cincinnati, Ohio. 7 43 Mt. Washington, N. H. 27

Santa Fe, N. Mex.

7 Cleveland, Ohio.. 13 60 Nashville, Tenn. 9 58 Savannah, Ga

9 68 Den er, Colo 7 53 New Orleans. La 8 66 Spokane, Wash

0 41 Detroit, Mich..

12 67 New York ('ty, N. Y. 15 73 Tatoosh Island, Wash. 15 84 l Smith, Ark.. 8 57 North Head. Wash 15 95 Toledo, Ohio

11 65 Galveston, Tex. 11 71 Omaha, Nebr.

9 73 Washington, D. C. 7 53 Helena, Mont 8 54 Pensacola, Fla

12 91 Jacksonville, Fla 9 58 Philadelphia, Pa.

10 68 Wind velocities in true values.

at the rate of 231 miles an hour, according to the On top of Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, on observers at the weather observatory on the sumApril 12, 1934, at 1:21 p.m., there was a wind gust mit.

VELOCITY OF WINDS AT NEW YORK (MILES PER HOUR)
Max. Direc-

Max. Direc-
Month Veloc'y tion Day

Year
Month Veloc'y

tion

Year January

66
W
25 1928 July

68 nw

23 1914 February

73 SW
21 1912 August

59 nw

12 1900 March

70
nw
28 1919 September

70
Dw

21 1933 April, .

65 nw
23 1912 October

65 nw

10 1925 Мlay

69
nw
27 1914 November

61
nw

1 1934 June.

67
nw
10 1933 December

69
nw

26 1915 Normally, highs that follow lows, bring clearing ranges from 477 to 718 miles a day, of highs from weather, while lows that follow highs cause un- 485 to 594 miles a day; the higher speeds governing settled weather.

in Winter, lower in Summer Although highs and lows sometimes remain sta- Winds about a low are deflected slightly toward tionary or even retrograde, they usually move the center and shift in a counter-clockwise direcacross the country from a westerly quarter passing tion; while, from highs, they diverge and shift in a off to the northeast. The average speed of lows I clockwise direction.

Day

Fog Duration Averages

**1,099

Source: United States Coast Guard
The following table shows the average hours of fog per year at various U. S. Lighthouses.
Station

Hours
Station
Hours Station

Hours Moose Peak, Me 1,612 Matinicus Rock. Me

1,305 Calumet Harbor, III Libby Islands, Me 1,554 The Cuckolds, Me. 1.292 Bonita Point, Calit

1.096 l'etit Manun, Me. 1.522 seguin, Me. 1,252 Manana Island, Me

1,088 Point Reyes, Calif 1,448 Scotch Cap, Alaska. .1.200 Two-Bush Island, Me

1,061 Whitehead, Me 1,442 Nash Island, Me

1.185 *Nantucket Shoals, Mass 1,053 Mount Desert, Me.

1,412 *Swiftsure Bank. Wash 1.174 * Stone Horse Shoal, Mass. 1,026 West Quoddy Head, Me .1,387 * Blunty Reef, Calle

1,139 San Luis Obispo, Calll.

1.015 Great Duck Island, Me. 1,361 *San Francisco, Calll.

1,135 Isle Au Haut, Me..

.1.011 Little River. Me. 1,329 Point Arena, Call.. 1,100 Bass Harbor Head, Me

1.002 Exg Rock, Me 1,326.* Pollock Rip, Mass. 1,099 Tenants Harbor, Me

986 The greatest amount of log recorded at any year 1913 this station operated for a full twelve station was at Seguin, Me., where 2.734 hours oc- month period and 2,269 hours of fog were recorded. curred in 1907. This is equivalent to about 31 amounting to about 26 per cent of the year. per cent of the entire year of 8,760.

The highest record for any Pacific Coast Sta

tion was 2,360 hours observed in 1934 at Point **Calumet Harbor, near Chicago, Ill., is closed Reyes, Calli. This represented 27 per cent of the part of each winter and the average shown was year. made on an eight month per year basis. In the * Indicates Lightship.

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Astronomical Constants MEAN solar parallax, 8".80. Nutation constant, | !ution, 365.2563604 days. Anomalistic (from peri99.21.

helion to perihelion)365.2596413 days. Aberration constant, 20".47. Annual precession, Length of Day-sidereal, 23 hours 56 minutes 50".2564 +0".000222 (t-1900).

4.091 seconds (mean solar time). Mean solar, 24 Obliquity of the ecliptic. 23° 27' 8".26-09.4684 hours 3 minutes 56.555 seconds (sidereal time). (t-1900).

Length of the Month-Synodical (from new moon Annual diminution of obliquity, 0%.4684.

to new moon), 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.8 Moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, 57' 2".70.

seconds. Tropical, 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes 4.7

seconds. Sidereal (absolute revolution), 27 days 7 Moon's mean distance from the earth (centre to

hours 43 minutes 11.5 seconds. Anomalistic (from centre), 238,857 miles. Sun's mean distance from the earth (astronomical perigee

to perigee), 27 days 13 hours 18 minutes

33.1 seconds. unit), 92,897,416 miles.

Dimensions of the Earth-Equatorial radius, Velocity of light, 186,324 miles per second. 3,963.34 miles; equatorial diameter, 7,926.677 miles:

Light travels unit of distance-viz. 92.897,416 equatorial circumference, 24,902 miles. Polar radius. miles in 498.5800 seconds.

3,949.99 miles; polar diameter, 7,899.998 miles; Length of the Year--Tropical (equinox to equi- meridianal circumference, 24,860 miles. Eccentricity nox 365.2421988 days. Sidereal or absolute revo- of the oblate spheroid, 0.0819981,

Astronomical Signs and Symbols
The Sun.
Mars.

Conjunction.
The Moon
Jupiter.

Quadrature.
Mercury.
Saturn.

Opposition.
Venus
Uranus.

Ascending Node.
The Earth.
Neptune.

Descending Node.

Pluto Two heavenly bodies are in "conjunction" (0) greatest apparent angular distance from the sun; when they have the me Right Ascension, or are the planet is en generally most favorably situon the same meridian, i. e., when one is due north ated for observation. Mercury can be seen with or south of the other; if the bodies are near each the naked eye only at this time. When a planet other as seen from the earth, they will rise and is in its "Ascending" (8) or "descending" (0) set at the same time, they are in opposition" (P) node it is passing through the plane of the earth's when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or when orbit. The term "Perihelion" means nearest to one rises as the other is setting. "Quadrature" the sun, and "Aphelion" farthest from the sun. (0) is half way between conjunction and oppo- An "occultation of a planet or star is an eclipse sition. By "greatest elongation" is meant the l of it by some other body, usually the moon.

The Zodiac THE sun's apparent yearly path among the stars in the time of the astronomer Hipparchus, about is known as the ecliptic. The zone 16° wide, go on 2.000 years ago. Owing to the precession of the each side of the ecliptic, is known as the zodiac. equinoxes, that is to say, to the retrograde motion Beginning at the point on the ecliptic which marks of the equinoxes along the ecliptic, each sign in the the position of the sun at the vernal equinox, and zodiac has, in the course of 2,000 years, moved thence proceeding eastward, the zodiac is divided backward 30° into the constellation west of it: so into twelve signs of 30° each, as shown herewith. that the sign Arles is now in the constellation

These signs are named from the twelve constella- Pisces, and so on. The signs of the zodiac with tions of the zodiac; with which the signs coincided their Latin and English Dames are as follows: 1. P Aries. The Ram.

7. ^ Llbra. The Balance. Spring

Autumn 2. 8 Taurus. The Bull.

8. m Scorpius. The Scorpion. Sigas. 3. Il Gemini. The Twins.

Sigos.

9. I Sagittarius. The Archer. 4. Cancer. The Crab.

10. Capricorn us. The Goat. Summer

Winter 5. Leo. The Lion.

11. Aquarius. The Water-Bearer Signs.

Sigas. 6. HIP Virgo. The Virgin.

12. * Pisces. The Fishes.

Absolute Zero—Absolute Temperature

Absolute zero-the point at which, theoretically, absolute zero was reached in 1921 by Kamerling all molecular motion ceases--exists at 459.6 degrees Onnes in the physical laboratory of the University below the Fahrenheit and 273.15 degrees below of Leyden, says C. G. Abbot, Secretary of the the Centigrade zero points. This is the beginning Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, under of what is known as dynamic meteorology as Abso

date of June 27, 1933. lute Temperature, as determined by observation of Dr. Wander Johannes de Haas, founder of Exthe contraction of gases when cooled, and from

perimental Physics at the University of Leyden,

announced in Feb., 1935, that he had reached a thermo-dynamical considerations.

temperature of one five-thousandth of a degree "A temperature 0.8 degrees, Centigrade, from the (Kelvin) above Absolute Zero.

Winds, Their Force and Official Designations The Beaufort wind scale is used by the Weather Bureau in its forecasts as follows: Designa- Miles per Designa- Miles per Designa

Miles per Designa

Miles per tion hour tion hour tion hour tion

hour Calm Less than 1 Moderate

13 to 18 Strong

25 to 38 Whole gale. 55 to 75 Light 1 to 7 | Fresh 19 to 24 Gale.

39 to 54 Hurricane Above 75 Gentle

8 to 12 Cyclone is the name applied to a system of and violent electric discharges. winds circulating about a center of low barometric A hurricane is a tropical cyclone, accompanied pressure at the earth's surface. The winds blow by low barometric pressures and winds, sometimes spirally inwards and the whole area travels at the attaining a velocity of 100 miles an hour or more. rate of 20 miles or more an hour. The direction The winds take the form of a circle or oval shaped in equatorial latitudes is from east to west_and area, sometimes as much as 300 miles in diameter. in northern latitudes from west to east. In a Hurricanes usually move toward the west or northcyclone the wind rotates around the center in a west in the Northern hemisphere at an average direction opposite the hands of a clock.

rate of from 10 to 15 miles an hour. When the A tornado is a storm along a path seldom more center of the hurricane approaches 25 to 30 than a few hundred yards in width and of 20 to degrees North latitude the direction of the mo30 miles in length. The tornado 18 accompanied tion changes to northeast. The hurricane is by a funnel shaped cloud around which the winds often accompanied by rains of torrential proporrevolve in & direction opposite to the hands of a tions which combined with the terrific winds do clockTornadoes sometimes rise and fall, which the most damage. Hurricanes generate tremendous accounts for whole sections unscathed along a tides which are driven ashore with devastating path of demolished buildings and uprooted trees. results. The wind is cyclonic in action, that is in Tornadoes are often accompanied by wind and haill the form of a monster whirlwind.

Geologic Eras

Source: United States Geological Survey The rocks composing the earth's crust are particles of various sizes (conglomerate, sandstone, grouped by geologists into three great classes shale); of the remains or products of animals or igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The plants (certain limestones and coal); of the prodigneous rocks have solidified from molten state. uct of chemical action or of evaporation (salt, Those that have solidified beneath the surface are gypsum, &c.); or of mixtures of these materials. known as intrusive rocks. Those that have flowed A characteristic feature of sedimentary deposits is out over the surface are known as effusive rocks. a layered structure known as bedding or stratiextrusive rocks, or lavas.

fication. The term volcanic rock includes not only lavas Metamorphic rocks are derivatives of igneous or

through mechanical or but bombs, pumice, tufr, volcanic ash and other sedimentary rocks produce fragmental materials thrown out from volcanoes. chemical activities in the earth's crust.

The unaltered sedimentary rocks are commonly Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition stratified, and it is from their order of succession of sediment in water (aqueous), or by the wind, and that of their contained fossils that the funda(eolian).

mental data of historical geology have been The sediment may consist of rock fragments or deduced. Era and

Period and
Length Estimated Length Estimated Epoch.

Characteristic Life.
Quaternary.
Recent.

"Age of man." Animals and plants af
2,000,000 yrs.
Pleistocene, or

modern types. Cenozoic.

Glacial. (Recent Life.) 53,000,000 yrs.

Pliocene.

"Age of mammals." Possible Orst appear Miocene.

ance of man. Rise and development of Tertiary. Oligocene.

highest orders of plants. 51,000,000 yrs. Eocene.

Paleocene

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Proterozoic.

First life that has left distinct record. Crus(Primordial Life) Pre-Cambrian.

taceans, and algae. 1,335,000,000 yrs.

The time figures are from "The age of the earth." ium results in the production of lead-isotopes of 1931, Bulletin 80 (p. 49) of the National Research lead that have atomic weights slightly different Council. They represent estimates by Prof. Charles

from that of ordinary lead and can be distinguished

from it, and in the production of helium. Schuchert, based primarily on the thickness of

The rates of disintegration have been measured, sediment that accumulated during each of the

and it is known that in one year a gram of divisions of geologic time. These estimates

are uranium will generate 0.000.000.000,125 gram of adjusted to the most reliable data obtained from lead, and 0.000,000,000,019.6 gram of hellum. On the radioactive minerals. New revisions of these the basis of such evidence and chemical analysis estimates by later data are being made each year. the length of time indicated by the oldest known The atomic disintegration of uranium and thor- i minerals is of the order of 1,500 million years.

The Races of Mankind

Source: Various Authorities All mankind, according to Prof. A. C. Haddon, African Negroes. Cambridge University ethnologist, can be divided The late Prof. Daniel G. Brinton, American into three kinds--woolly hair, wavy hair, straight ethnologist, divides mankind into four chief groups hair. Most Americans of European origin are wavy -Caucasian, Mongolian, Malay, Ethiopian (negro) haired

and American (Indian). In the Mongolian he inAccording to Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Division of Phys- cluded Finns, Laps, Magyars, Bulgars

(part), ical Anthropology. U. S. National Museum, Wash- Turks. Cossacks, Japanese, Koreans, ington, three main human races are recognized Chinese, and Indo-Chinese

In the Caucasians today.' which are: 1, the whites; 2, the yellow-were included Aryans, and Semites. In the Semites brown; and 3, the blacks.

were included Arabians, Hebrews and Syrians. Whites: The Mediterraneans, the Alpines and Ears grow longer, the nose a little longer and the Nordics.

distinctly broader, and the mouth widens, with the Yellow-Brown; The Mongoloids, the Malays and years, changing materially the appearance of the the American Indian. The last named race is now individual, according to Hrdlicka, who has taken generally believed to have come originally from measurements of thousands of men and women Northern Asia, and therefore of ancient Mongolian including white "old Americans, Pueblo and descent. Some of the natives of Central America other Indians, Eskimos and Negroes. and Western South America may have crossed over Among the white "old Americans," both the from the South Seas, it is conjectured.

nasal breadth and length increase with age, but Blacks: The Negrito, Negrillos and Bushmen, the increase in breadth somewhat exceeds that in

Melanesian Negroes and Australians and the length.

Kalmuks,

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