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Verùm ea est quodammodo artis noftræ conditio, ut Medico quamvis fit eruditus, quamvis fit acer et acutus in cogitando, quamvis fit ad præcipiendum expeditas, fi fuerit idem in moribus ac voluntatibus civium fuorum hofpes, parùm ei proderit oleum operamque inter calainos et scrinia confumpfiffe. Warrenus autem in omni vitæ et studiorum decurfu, fi quis anquam alius, Pallade dextrâ usus est, atque omnium quibuscum reni agebat mentes senfusque gustavit; et quid fentirent, quid vellent, quid opinarentur, quid expectarent arripuit, percepit, novit. Tantam denique morum comitatem et facilitatem habuit, ut nemo eo femel ufus effet Me dico, quin focium voluerit et amicum."

POLITICS.

Letters of Sulpicius on the Northern Confederacy. With an Appendis,

containing the Treaty of Armed Neutrality, together with other - Documents relative to the Subject. 8vo. Pp. 72. Cobbett.

Pall-Mall. 1801. TH "HESE Letters first appeared in a daily paper, The PORCE

Pine, and the demand for them was so great, that the proprietor of that paper very wilely formed the determination to reprint them in the form of a pamphlet. We are not in the least furprised that they should have excited so much attention, since they em.' brace a question of the first importance to the political and commercial state of this country, which is discussed with a degree of ability, and a strength of argument, that carry convi&tion along with them. The mind, that, after the perusal of these sheets, can entertain a doubt of the existence of a right in belligerent powers to search the ships fof Neutral States bound to an enemy's port, under a well-founded suspicion of their being employed for the conveyance of warlike stores, must be perversenels 'itlelf. The principle of public law, the point of justice and equity, and the uniform practice of maritime States, are clearly and fully expounded; and the documents annexed form a valuable addition to the Letters. Our very existence, as a commercial nation, depends, a9 much as upon any other point whatever, on our inaintenance and assertion of this clearly-established right; and we had better encounter the dangers of a war with the whole world, than suffer ourselves to be intiinidated into a base resignation of it. An Estimate of the Number of Inhabitants in Great Britain and Irca land. By Sir Frederick Morton Eden, Bart. 8vo.

6d. Wright. 1800. THE perfect competency of Sir F. Eden to discuss any subjeą of political economy, or political arithmetic, cannot be questioned by any one who has the imallest acquaintance either with him or his works. The difference which has appeared in the accounts of dif.

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ferent writers on the very interesting topic of the population of the
country, from Davenant to Price and from Price to Beeke, may,
perhaps, be more justly referred to the different data which have
constituted the basis of their calculations, than to any want of care
or to any wish to mislead. Dr. Becke, whose able letter to a coun-
ty Member was reviewed in a former Number of our work, esti-
mated the population of Great Britain much higher than any former
writer ; and Sir F. Eden, who has consulted every preceding wri-
ter, after much deep investigation, much attentive confideration,
and much able disquisition, is of opinion that the population of the
United Empire of Great Britain and Ireland amounts to no less
than 16.510,000, allowing to Ireland 2:800.000 ; and to Scotland
1,500,000 which we incline to think is considerably underrated.
The author's calculations seem to be founded on solid data ; and he
makes it
appear

that the increale of population in the last century was progressive and regular. This must be a source of heart-felt satisfaction to every-Briton who feels as a Briton ought to feel..

Our author laughs at those political economists who “gravely lament that great cities are inimical to the multiplication of the fpecies and that a devouring metropolis drains the country of its inhabitants.” But, notwithstanding this rebuke, we shall continue to lament the increasing extent of this overgrown capital, not as political economists, from an opinion that it is inimical to the mul. tiplication of the fpecies, (though it remain to be proved that it is not lo, for which purpose, we think, it will be necessary to demonstrate the nutritious qualities of filth and Gin), but, as moralifts, from a conviction that it tends to increase profligacy and corruption of every kind, together with a total contempt of all religious and social duties.

We fully agree with Sir F. in the fact, and a most important fact it is, ó that our agricultural parishes are better stocked than they were an hundred years ago;"_but when he tells us, that then “the visorary evils.ascribed to the existence of commercial and agricultural capitalists did not exist,” we cannot relist the temptation of asking him, when VISIONARY evils did exist ?

All doubts respecting the extent of our population will very soon be removed by the operation of the late act; though great accuracy on such a subject cannot be expected. It would, we conceive, have been more effectual, and more easily executed, if it had compelled every housholder ihroughout the kingdom, under a certain penalty, to deliver, on a given day, to the Overseer, or other Officer, of the parith, a statement of the number of persons who slept under his roof the preceding night. This operation would have been equally fimple, intelligible, and effective, which is far from being the case, with the regulations which the Legiflature have thought

But until the result of their labours shall have been ascertained, we shall satisfy ourselves, and we have no doubt that our readers will also be satisfied, with the consolatory reflections with which this judicious writer concludes his interesting tract. " The population of France and her dependents, the Batavian N-3

Republic,

proper to enact.

Republic, and Spanish Monarchy, should not appal us, whilst our enemies are besieged at home by our fleets, which blockade their forts fron the Texel io Gibraltar, and the British Empire is protected by a military force of half a million of men. 6 These are the fub. ftance, finews, arms, and strength" of this “ Heaven-protected isle:”—whilst the possesses such means of defence, her arts and ir, dustry, her colonies and her comnierce, will continue to flourish, and her inhabitants live prosperous and free.

“ At the close of the last century, Davenant made the following remark on our population ; taking it at 5,500,000, according to Gregory King's estimate, (which is confessedly low), and estimating the quantity of land, in England and Wales, 'at 39,000,000 of Acres, (which is probably near the truth), he says,

we seem now to have about 73 acres per head ; but there are many reasons to think, that England is capable of nourishing dou. ble its present number of people, which füpposing them now to be 5,500,000, would be 11,000,000, and even then there will be as many acres per head, as they have in Holland. And, when we have this complement of men, either in the natural course of time, or sooner, by the help of good conduct, we shall be in a state of power to deal with any strength in Europe." That we have attained “ this complement of men” cannot admit of much doubt; that we are “ in a state of power to deal with any strength in Europe," has been proved by our exertions in the present awful contest ; and I trust we shall long continue, what we now are,

“ A land, that distant tyrants hate in vain."

Letter to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, on the Subje&t of the

late Common Halls, for petitioning his Majesty to assemble his Parliament for the Purpose of considering the fligh Price of Provisions. By a Liveryman. 8vo. Pp. 30. Downes. 1801. THIS Liveryman appears to be well acquainted with the natie and composition of those licentious meetings ycleped Comicon Halls, as well as with the true character and principles of the predent worthy Chief Magistrate of the city of London. If his remarks be not very profound, they are very juft; and if his language be not very correćt, it is very pointed. What he wants in accuracy he makes

up in loyalty. He affures us that he recognized at the late Cominon Halls the fame faces which he had formerly teen

" the meetings at Chalk Farm, Copenhagen-House, Palace-Yard, and Thelwallis lecture-rooms. To the needy patriots of this de fcription he gives some wholesome advice, to which it is heartily to be wished that they would attend, as their families would unquerţionably experience the benefits of luch attention. This pamplet is professedly anonymous, yet we lulpect that the author's name is vilible, even in the title-page--10 the Critic's eye.

at

175

MISCELLAVIES.

An historical and practical Essay on the Culture and Commerce of Tobacco.

By William Tatham. Vernor and Hood. London. 1800. WHETHER the advantages which have been produced by

the introduction of tobacco into Europe more than counterbalance the evils which 10!lowed in its train, is a question which it would be no easy task to decide. But the great capital, and the numerous hands employed by our merchants and manufacturers in the tobacco trade, have certainly raised it to great importance in a commercial view; while the great revenue which it produces to the state give it no less importance as an article of political economy. The present publication, then, on the culture and commerce of tobacio, will, doubtless, prove interesting to those merchants and manufacturers who are engaged in the tobacco trade, and to those persons who wish to be informed about this particular branch of commerce and agriculture. The author appears to have paid great attention to the culture of tobacco, and, having resided in Virginia, where that culture is so well understood, he liad the best opportunity of aciurate information: his facts, therefore, may be depended on. Much of their interest will, no doubt, be lost in Britain, where no tobacco is raised; but to the Virginians, whose riches, in a great measure, depend upon that plant, they will, doubtless, prove very interesting. The book consists entirely in an account of the mode of cultivating the tobacco plant, in Virginia ; of the method of packing it up, after it is ripe, in order to transport it across the Atlantic; and of the duties to which tobacco, imported into Britain, is liable. We shall present our readers with a short abridgement of it for their amusement and instruction; taking the liberty, at the same time, of altering the arrangement, and of omitting what we consider as of little importance, or not connected with ihe salsject.

Tobacco was cultivated by the Virginian Indians long before they had any intercourse with Europeans. Our author, alter considerable search, could not succeed in tinding the plant growing wild in that country. Hence he conjecturks, that it is not a native of Virginia, and that it was brought originally from the inure southern parts of the Continent of America, probably by the Chackaw and Chickasaw nations, who seem to be descendeid from the Tlascalans, , and to have migrated to the eastward of the Mississippi, soon after the conquest of Mexico, by the Spaniards. The first accounts of it appear to have been brought to Britain by Sir John Hawkins, in 1565. Sir Walter Raleigh introduced it into England, about the year 1585.

It was first iinported into Spain from Tobaco, a province of Yucatan, whence its cominon name, tobacco. Repeated attempts had been made, by Sir Walter Raleigh, to form a settlement in Virginia, but none of them succeciled. Tobacco, however, had beca gradually introduced into Britain as a medicine or luxury; for, in $606, King James I. laid a daty of six shillings the pound upon it in order to put a final stop to its consumption, N

in

In 1606 two companies of adventurers were established, under the names of the London and Plymouth companies; and they formed the first permanent settlement in Virginia. The planters applied themselves immediately to the cultivation of tobacco, which was soon raised, in considerable quantities, and imported into Britain. In consequence of the attention constantly paid to the culture of this plant, and the wise regulations formed by the Virginia planters, their t bacco soon acquired a superior reputation, which it still continues to enjoy. The botanical name of tobacco is nicotiana. It was thus named from lean Nicot, ambassador from Francis II. to Sebastian, King of Portugal; because that gentleman first brought it to France. The species cultivated is the tabacum, an annual plant, with large lanceolate leave; there are many varieties of it, but our author, who is no botanist, does not pretend to give any description of them.

Tobacco requires a rich soil. The Virginia planter prefers land in its natural uncultivated state. He cuts down the trees with which it is covered, and rails in a suflicient quantity of it for his purpose. In March or April, beds, previously prepared, are sown with tobacco seed, usually mixed with lettuce seed, and a border of white mustard is often sown round the bed to protect the young

tobacco plants from a caterpillar, which, without this precaution, would prove very destructive. The caterpillar prefers the mustard, and therefore never attacks the tobacco while any mustard remainş. From these beds the plants are transplanted, on the first favourable season that occurs, between the beginning of April and June. The groumd intended for their reception has been carefully dug up, with hoes, and formed into loose hiilocks, each as high as a man's knee, and their centres are from three to four feet distant from each other, a tobacco plant is planted on the top of each of these hillocks. The time pitched upon for planting is always during a shower of rain, because the plants do not succeed well if the ground be dry. During the whole of the season the planters are busily employed in keeping the ground perfectly clean, and in turning it over frequently, that the earth may lie loosely around the plants. After the plants have arrived at a certain size, the planters rip off the lop of each, leaving only from five to nine leaves on every plant, according to their respective vigour. This operation is performed by the finger and thumb, and the Virginia planters allow the nail of their thumb to grow long for the purpose. The remaining leaves become stronger and require greater flavour: in like manner all the small shoots which make their appearance, at the origin of the leaves, are nipt off. When the plants are ripe, which is judged of by the size and firmness of the leaves, and by their yellowish green colour, they are cut down, almost by the root, with a sharp knife. After remaining on the field till they become so pliable that they can be handled without danger of breaking, they are carried into a large open house, like those used in this country for drying paper, where they are hung upon poles and kept to dry slowly. Ii' the weather be moist, emali fires are kindled in different part of the Hoor to promote the drying. When the plants are so far dried that no moisture can be

squeeze

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