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shape of a bell, and from this resemblance denominated Great Tom of Lincoln. The distance from this point to the extremity of the cavern is not considerable: the vault gradually descends, the sage contracts, and at length nearly closes, leaving no more room than is sufficient for the course of the water, which flows bither through a subterraneous channel of some miles from the distant mines of the Peak-Forest.

“ The effect of the light, when returning from the recesses of the cavern, is peculiarly impressive; and the eye, unaccustomed to the contrast, never beholds it without lively emotions of pleasure. The gradual illumination of the rocks, which become brighter as they approach the entrance, and the chastened blaze of day, which

shorn of its beams' arrays the distance in morning serenity, is one of the most beautiful scenes that the pencil can be employed to exhibit. The entire length of this wonderful fissure is 750 yards ; and its depth from the surface of the mountain about 208.”

The chapel in Oakhampton Castle has considerable merit as an engraving, but as a picture it excites little interest. Newark Castle has far superior attractions; yet, if our recollection fails not, Mr. Munn has, in this view, sacrificed fidelity of representation to picturesque effect. The accompaniments of boats, &c. are not natural to the spot; and we remember several peculiarities in the architecture of the castle which are not at all indicated in the print. These things, however they may be disregarded by the generality of draughtsmen, we cannot but consider as deserving of reprehension. The same degree of truth that is requisite in portrait-painting, should be extended to local delineations: not any feature that distinguishes character should be omitted; nor should any adjuncts be introduced to de stroy the resemblance, however they may be calculated to set off the beauty. Rivaux Abbey is a most inspressive composition: it possesses all the sweetness of an Italian landscape ; and the building itself is so happily introduced, as to excite the idea of a Greek or Roman temple rising in classic grandeur amidst a proud luxuriance of umbrageous foliage. The engraving is finished in a very superior style; and it furnishes a strong proof of that exalted taste, and vivid feeling for the excellencies of his art, which characterises the performances of Mr. Middiman. It is intended, according to the prospectus, that this work shall be comwhich are to be engraved by Mr. Middiman, who we are happy to find is sole proprietor of this publication; Mr. Brayley having undertaken to supply the descriptions from motives of private friendship only. We have been long aware

of the manifold inconveniences and disadvantages to the graphic art, which arises from the intervention of printdealers, who, planting themselves in the mid-way, intercept those streams of liberal patronage that ought only to flow upon the artist. There are few branches, either of science or of living, in which the middle men have not a fatal operation on the best interests of the public. To the arts of engraving and painting they are particularly obnoxious; and though the latter, we trust, is about to be for ever rescued from their grasp by that patriotic establishment, the British Institution, the former is still within their withering power. How gladly should we hail the dawn of a more equitable dispensation !

This publication is fully deserving of the most extensive patronage. We know of no other of the same class, and of equal merit and price, that has ever appeared in this country. It possesses also that truly commendable, though most rare, qualification in a periodical work, of the latter numbers being in every respect quite equal, if not superior, to the preceding ones; and we therefore doubt not but that it will proceed in the same course, and terminate in the samne spirit

. That -Mr. Middiman may obtain that enlarged encouragement which bis talents deserve, is our most sincere wish. The numbers are stated to appear in quarterly succession; but we believe that a longer interval occasionally elapses, through the impossibility of one person completing the engravings in sufficient time.

Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole, selected from his Cor

respondence and Papers, and connected with the History of the Times, from 1678 to 1757. Illustrated with Portraits. By Wm. Coxe, M. A. F. R. S. F. A. S. Rector of Bemerton. Second Edition, corrected and enlarged. 2 vols. 8vo. About 480 pages each. Longman and Co. 1808. THE first edition of these Memoirs not having been reviewed in the Antijacobin, we have now the pleasure of noticing them in an improved state. The work is a necessary supplement to the author's Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, and must be ranked among the best Memoires pour servir à l'histoire of the age in which these fraternal statesmen lived. Horatio, afterwards Lord, Walpole -- the subject of the present Memoirs, brother

of Sir Robert Walpole, first Earl of Orford -- was born at Houghton, in Norfolk, December 8, 1678. He was educated at Eton; and in 1698 admitted in King's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished himself for the elegance of bis Latin compositions, as well as for his satirical wit on the tories and jacobites, among whom were the then provost and fellows. Descended from a family distinguished by their attachment to the ostensible principles of the whigs, he embraced the views of this


with zeal, and may be said to have outlived, if not extinguished, the distinction between whig and tory.

“ From an early period of his life, Lord Walpole was engaged in a public capacity. In 1706, he accompanied General Stanhope to Barcelona as private secretary, and was employed in various missions of consequence. In 1707, he was appointed secretary to Mr. Boyle, first as chancellor of the exchequer, and afterwards as secretary of state; and, in 1709, accompanied the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Townshend, who were plenipotenliaries at the Congress of Gertruydenberg. Soon after the accession of George the First, he was succesively under-secretary of state, secretary to the Treasury, and envoy at the Hague, until the schism of the Whig Ministry, which terminated in the resignation of Lord Townshend and his brother, as well as his

“ In 1720, he became secretary to the Duke of Grafton, lordlieutenant of Ireland; was re-appointed secretary to the Treasury, and again deputed to the Hague.

“ In 1723 he commenced bis embassy to Paris; and continued to fill that important station until 1730. In 1733 he was nominated embassador to the States-General, and remained at the Hague until 1739, when he returned to England.

During the whole period of Sir Robert Walpole's administration, Lord Walpole was an able and useful coadjutor to his brother, both in and out of Parliament; and was consulted in all business of state, particularly foreign transactions. During his residence abroad, besides official dispatches, he maintained a private intercourse of letters with his brother, and even a confidential correspondence with Queen Caroline, who reposed the fullest reliance on his talents and integrity.

" Although, from the time of his brother's resignation, he filled no official station; yet, in consequence of his abilities, experience, and weight among his party, he retained a considerable influence over many of the ministers; he was confidentially consulted by Mr. Pelham and Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, and often gave his opinion in the miost frank and unreserved manner to the Duke of Newcastle, to the Duke of Cumberland, and even to the King.

" The importance of his correspondence and papers will fully appear

from this sketch of his life; and it would be difficult to point out another character, who, for so long a period, was more


P. ix.

trusted with the secrets of government, more acquainted with the motives and springs of action, and possessed more influence in the direction of foreign and domestic affairs.”

The materials from which the author has composed this work, were, he informs us, Mr. Walpole’s Apology, written by himself towards the latter end of his life, and still preserved in his own hand-writing, containing a candid and lively narrative of his transactions from 1715 to 1739; his extensive correspondence during his embassy at Paris; his correspondence with Queen Caroline, and other branches of the royal family, not before printed, particularly his letters to the Duke of Cumberland in 1746 and 1747; his miscellaneous correspondence from 1742 to 17.5.7; thoughts on Prussian alliances in 1740; rhapsody on foreign politics, occasioned by the treaty of Aix-laChapelle in 1748, and that with Spain in 1750; and several drafts of speeches in Parliament, on continuing Hanoverian troops in British pay, 1743; on the supply to the Empress-Queen in 1749; and the fulfilment of his majesty's engagements with the King of Poland in 1752. In addition to these, Mr. Coxe has also been favoured with permission to copy or extract from the Hardwicke papers, the Hampden papers, and those of Sir C. Hanbury Williams, in the possession of Capel Hanbury Leigh, Esq, as well as Mr. Etough's " Minutes of Memorable Conversations with the fate Lord Walpole, Baron of Wolterton, with Remarks on his Character and Conduct."

" The principal documents from which I have compiled these Memoirs, being in manuscript, i have had little occasion to draw my materials from printed narratives; but I have not omitted to cite those authors on whose testimony I have advanced any ma terial fact."

“ From the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole, I have expatiated more largely on the history of the times. I have attempted to develope the characters and administrations of Lord Granville, Mr. Pelham, and the Duke of Newcastle; to sketch the state of parties, particularly the contests for power between Lord Granville and the Pelhams, and between Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox; and to form a counected narrative of political transactions, from 1742 to the death of Lord Walpole in 1757. With this view, besides the correspondence of Lord Walpole, I have introduced various letters from the Duke of Newcastle, Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, Mr. Pelham, and Mr. Fox,"

The death of his college friend, the young Marquis of Blandford, in 1703, disappointed Horatio's hopes of en

P. XY.

P. xvi.

tering the army; be took chambers in Lincoln's-Inn, and cominenced the study of tlie law, but relinquished the profession, being appointed in 1705 secretary to Brigadier-general Stanhope, envoy and plenipotentiary to the Archduke Charles, son of the Emperor Leopold, and acknowledged King of Spain by the allies. Such a subordinate situation of course precluded him from any particular distinction); and he only animadverted on the superstition and pblegm of the Archduke Charles, who, although contending for the Spanish crow?, stopped at Barcelona and Montserrat to return thanks to the Virgin and St. Antonio. Unhappily both Austrians and Spaniards are still the slaves of such pestiferous superstition; and hence one of the principal causes of all their disasters. It was, however, during his enibassy to Paris that Mr. Walpole's character was developed and his skill and address properly called into action. The following statement of the origin and progress of the alliance between George the First and the Duke of Orleans, as regent of France, although stated in the manner most forcible to the Walpolian whigs, unfolds one of their fundamental errors.

“ The peculiar situations of the Duke of Orleans and George the First changed the discordant politics of the two cabinets, and united the interests of Exgland and France. By the treaty of: Utrecht it was stipulated, that the crowns of France and Spain should never be joined in the same person; and Philip Duke of Anjou was acknowledged King of Spain on renouncing his right to the crown of France, which was to devolve on the Duke of Orleans should Louis the Fifteenth die without issue male. The young monarch being of a sickly constitution, this event was not improbable; and Philip, notwithstanding his renúnciation, entertained designs of ascending the throne of France, and was countenanced by a considerable party in the kingdom. Hence the Duke of Orleans, threatened with the loss of the succession, favourahly received the overtures of England as the only power able to support his right: and George the First was equally anxious to conciliate the friendship of France, as the principal means of counteracting the schemes of the jacobites, and annihilating the hopes of the Pretender. When their interests thus concurred, it was not difficult to adjust the conditions of a treaty of alliance: after a few obstacles and delays, occasioned by the volatile character of the Regent, a negociation was commenced by the Earl of Stair at Paris, continued by Mr. Walpole and Chateauneuf the French minister at the Hague, and finally concluded by secretary Stanhope, and du Bois the confidential friend of the Regent.

- The principal articles of the treaty which formed the bond: of union between the two countries, were, on the side of the Regent,

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