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ago than March last, and he was then well clothed, and made no complaint to me of any kind. I heard both his master and mistress call upon him on Sunday morning to get ready to go to meeting, and tell him of his frequently delaying and shuflling till it was too late, and he made not the least objection about clothes. I did not think it any thing extraordinary, that he should be sometimes willing to evade going to meeting, for I believe it is the case with all boys, or almost all. I have brought up four or five myself, and have frequently observed, that if their shoes were bad, they would say nothing of a new pair till Sunday morning, just as the bell rung, when, if you asked them why they did not get ready, the answer was prepared, 'I have no shoes,' and so of other things, hats and the like; or if they knew of any thing that wanted mending, it was a secret till Sunday morning, and sometimes I believe they would rather tear a little, than be without the
“ As to going on petty errands, no boys love it, but all must do it. As soon as they become fit for better business, they naturally get rid of that, for the master's interest comes in to their relief. I make no doubt but Mr. Parker will take another apprentice, as soon as he can meet with a likel In the mean time I should be glad if Benny would exercise a little patience. There is a negro woman that does a great many of those eriands.
“I do not think his going on board the privateer arose from any difference between him and his master, or any ill usage he had received. When boys see prizes brought in, and quantities of money shared among the men, and their gay living, it fills their heads with notions, that hall distract them, and put them quite out of conceit with trades, and the dull ways of getting money by working. This I suppose was Ben's case, the Catharine being just before arrived with three rich prizes; and that the glory of having taken a privateer of the enemy, for which both officers and men were highly extolled, treated, presented, &c. worked strongly upon his imagination, you will see, by his answer to my letter, is not unlikely. I send it to you enclosed. I wrote him largely on the occasion; and though he might possibly cuse that slip to others, complain of his place, you may see he says not a syllable of any such thing to me. My only son, before I permitted him to go to Albany, left my house unknown to us all, and got on board a privateer, from whence I fetched him. No one imagined it was hard usage at home, that made him do this. Every one, that knows me, thinks I am too indulgent a parent, as well as master.
“ I shall tire you, perhaps, with the length of this letter; but I am the more particular, in order, if possible, to satisfy your mind about your son's situation. His master has, by a letter this post, desired me to write to him about his staying out of nights, sometimes all night, and refusing to give an account where he spends his time, or in what company. This I had not heard of before, though I perceive you have. I do not wonder at his correcting him for that. If he was my own son, I should think his master did not do his duty by him, if he omitted it, for to be sure it is the high road to destruction. And I think the correction very light, and not likely to be very effectual, if the strokes left no marks.
“ His master says farther, as follows :—' I think I can't charge my conscience with being much short of my duty to him, I shall now desire you, if you have not done it already, to invite him to lay his complaints before you, that I may know how to remedy them.' Thus far the words of his letter, which giving me a fair opening to inquire into the affair, I shall accordingly do it, and I hope settle every thing to all your satisfactions. In the mean time, I have laid by your letters both to Mr. Parker and Benny, and shall not send them till I hear again from you, because I think your appearing to give ear to such groundless stories may give offence, and create a greater misunderstanding, and because I think what you write to Benny, about getting him discharged, may tend to unsettle his mind, and therefore improper at this time.
“I have a very good opinion of Benny in the main, and have great hopes of his becoming a worthy man, his faults being only such as are commonly
incident to boys of his years, and he has many good qualities, for which I love him. I never knew an apprentice contented with the clothes allowed him by his master, let them be what they would. Jemmy Franklin, when with me, was always dissatisfied and grumbling. When I was last in Boston, his aunt bid him go to a shop and please himself, which the gentleman did, and bought a suit of clothes on my account dearer by one half, than any I ever afforded myself, one suit excepted; which I don't mention by way of complaint of Jeminy, for he and I are good friends, but only to show
you the nature of boys.* ** The letters to Mr. Vanhorne were sent by Mr. Whitfield, under my
" I am, with love to brother and all yours, and duty to mother, to whom I have not time now to write, your affectionate brother,
" B. FRANKLIN." The first part of the volume is occupied chiefly with letters to the various branches of his family, and were written previously to his first going to England, on political business. While in England, he resided in the family of Mrs. Stevenson, whose daughter seems to have been a favorite with him. The volume contains many of his letters to her, on a great variety of topics, amusing and instructive.
As years move on, the correspondence becomes gradually involved with political events; and many of the letters on these subjects, written in France, are highly interesting, especially those relating to the movements and operations of the celebrated John Paul Jones.
The volume is concluded with what are called Miscellaneous Pieces-chiefly arguments, and memoranda of arguments, on the political controversies in which Franklin was engaged. The spirit and force of his writing gives interest to what would othererwise, now, deserve little attention ; and the whole closes with a very amusing article, entitled the “ Craven-street Gazette,” in which the occurrences of a few days, in the family in which he resided at London, are pompously described, in the technical phraseology used by the newspapers, in recording the measures of a ministry. The whole is highly interesting and instructive, and of decidedly good moral tendency.
9.-Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on the Gospels; design
ed for Sunday school teachers and Bible classes. Albert Barnes. In two volumes. pp. 396 and 544. New York: Jonathan Leavitt. Boston : Crocker & Brewster.
1833. Mr. Barnes says, in his preface, that “his object has been to express, in as few words as possible, the real meaning of the gospels; the results of their critical study, rather than the process by which these results were reached. He wished to present to
Benny after this appears to have done well.
Sunday school teachers, a plain and simple explanation of the more common difficulties of the book which it is their province to teach." The work is also designed for a harmony of the gospels. The different narratives are brought together, particularly in the notes on Matthew, on the principle, that the sacred narrative of an event is what it is reported to be, by all the evangelists. Throughout the whole, references to parallel passages of scripture, are made an essential part of the explanation of the text.
We have examined portions of these volumes, and are satisfied of the fidelity and accuracy of Mr. Barnes's labors. In respect to the interpretation of various passages, the appositeness of an illustration, or the legitimacy of an inference, there will be, of course, diverse opinions. With the general character of the book, for industry, skilful exposition, honest intention, and strong desire to write as become the oracles of God, there can be but one sentiment.
While on this subject, we cannot forbear to say, that, opinion, biblical geography demands far more attention than it now receives in our Sabbath schools and Bible classes. It is a source of unfailing interest. It stimulates inquiry, in respect to the present site of places mentioned in the Bible, the character of their inhabitants, and all the discoveries of modern travellers bearing on the subject. It is essential to the right interpretation of some passages, and to the perfect elucidation of many others. Not a few educated men, who are habitual readers of the Bible, are sadly deficient in close, accurate knowledge of the geography of the scriptures.
10.-The Iliad of Homer, from the text of Wolf; with English
Notes, and Flarman's Illustrative Designs. Edited by C. C. Felton, A. M., College Professor of Greek in Harvard University. Boston: Hilliard, Gray & Co. Cam
bridge: Brown, Shattuck & Co. 1833. pp. 478. The text of this edition of the Iliad is an exact reprint of the Leipzig edition, published by Tauchnitz, in 1829, after a most severe revision. A reward was offered for the detection of every error, and a text, comparatively immaculate, was thus obtained. In the preparation of the notes, Mr. Felton has selected those passages for comment, which appeared, from several years' experience in the class-room, most to require it. Among other commentators, Heyne and Trollope were freely consulted. A portion of the notes are designed to call the attention of the reader to the intrinsic poetical beauties of the Iliad.
The illustrations of Flaxman, designed originally for bas-reliefs, were enthusiastically welcomed on their first appearance, and have been repeatedly published in England, Germany, France and Italy. He has penetrated, says the London Quarterly Re
view, with a far deeper sense of the majesty of Homer, into the Iliad and Odyssey, than Canova, who dedicated his whole life to the renovation of the antique, nor has he failed to catch the peculiar inspiration of whatever poet his fancy selected for publication. To the aid of his art, he brought a loftier and more poetical mind, than any of the preceding English sculptors. He has the same grave majesty and severe simplicity, as his great originals. Flaxman died in London, in 1829, at an advanced age.
We rejoice that an individual, so well qualified as Mr. Felton, has brought out a new edition of Homer. The text is printed with a full and distinct type, on strong and durable paper. The notes occupy about eighty pages, and are inserted at the close of the volume. We quote one passage from Mr. Felton's preface.
“ The splendor of the Homeric dialect is worthy of the greatest admiration. There is a certain point in the progress of every people, when their language is most fitted for poetical composition. It is when they have risen above the state of barbarism to a condition of refinement, yet uncorrupted by luxury, and before the intellectual powers have been given much to speculative philosophy. Then the rudeness of language is worn away, but the words are still used in their primitive meanings. They are like coins, lately from the mint, with the impressions unworn by long and various use in the manifold business of life. The numerous secondary meanings which the ever-increasing intricacy of the social relations, and the new views and abstract ideas of science, impart to words, sometimes to the concealment of their original senses, have not yet confused or effaced the impressions. Such was the condition of our own noble language in the time of Elizabeth. The words of Shakspeare and Massinger have a truth to nature, a clearness and graphic power, a simplicity, force, and freshness, which few subsequent writers have been able to rival. Such was the condition of the Greek language in the age of Homer. Formed under the genial influences of a serene and beautiful heaven, amidst the most varied and lovely scenery in nature, and by a people of a peculiarly delicate organization, of the keenest susceptibility to beauty, and of the most creative imagination, the language had attained a descriptive force, a copiousness, and harmony, which made it a fit instrument to express the immortal conceptions of poetry. Its resources were inexhaustible. For every mood of mind, every affection of the heart, every aspect of nature, it had an appropriate expression, and the most delicate imagery. Its words and sentences are pictures; in such living forms do they bring the thing described before the reader's eye. The metrical harmony of the Iliad has never been equalled. The verse flows along freely and majestically, more like the great courses of Nature, than any invention of man.”
United States. The American Encyclopedia is just completed in thirteen large octavo volumes. It was translated from the “ German Conversations Lexicon," by Dr. Francis Lieber. It has received considerable enlargements in the department of American biography, history, and politics. Dr. Lieber was assisted by E. Wigglesworth and T. G. Bradford. It is calculated that the publication of this work in Boston, brought into the State of Massachusetts a sum exceeding $80,000. The proprietors live in Philadelphia. The work is one of great value, and inestimable for reference. We should have been better pleased with it if more attention had been paid to missionary and religious biography. No notice is taken of such men as Milne, Buchanan, Isaac and Joseph Milner, and other eminent men.
The plan of republishing foreign literature in periodical numbers, and at a very low rate, is becoming common in this country. The principal British Magazines are in this way in a course of wide diffusion. We rejoice that so much reading is rendered accessible to our communities in so cheap a form, though no reasonabl man would wish that a considerable portion of what Bulwer, and Maryatt, and Prof. Wilson write, should find its way across the Atlantic. The principal “ Libraries,” are the Family, and the Boys' and Girls', of the Harpers at New York; Waldie's, Greenbank's, and Key and Biddle's at Philadelphia. The last named, published in semimonthly numbers of forty-eight pages each, at five dollars a year, is preferable in its selection of matter to any which we have seen. It is called the “Christian Library," and if the conditions of the Prospectus are complied with, it will well earn the public favor. The “ Christian Observer” is to be published as an appendix, at one dollar and twenty-five cents. Dr. Gregory's Life of Robert Hall, Smedley's History of the Reformed Religion in France, and Taylor's Life of Cowper, are already published in the Christian Library.
Rev. Dr. Jenks of Boston, assisted by several clergymen, is preparing for the press a comprehensive Commentary of the Bible, in five or six large volumes. Henry's Exposition is to be made the basis. Illustrations and notes are to be selected from all the other principal commentators. We learn that several thousand subscribers for the work are already obtained. An edition for the use of the Baptist denomination is also in a course of preparation.-Several ministers of the Lutheran church are engaged in the preparation of an original commentary on the New Testament, for the use of the Evangelical Lutherans. It will be published in numbers; the gospel of Matthew may be expected in the autumn. It is said that such a work has long been desired by the members of that communion.