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1825.] Antiquarian Researches.

165 For the art of forming vases of pottery- vases may be distinguished from others' by ware, and of ornamenting them with paint- the inferior quality of their materials, by the ings, may not only have existed in various dulness of their coating, but especially by degrees of perfection in different places at the greater rudeness of their forms and the same time, but the state of this art had painting, as well as by certain characters of also, without doubt, been very different at the representations peculiar to the ancient different periods. And not only have earthen Etruscan art*. These differences may be Fases of very different degrees of fineness very clearly seen in the Florentine Collecbeen manufactured at the same time and in tion, where authentic Etruscan vases are the same places, but also plain vases, with- placed in the same apartment with others of out any paintings, in all other essential re- Grecian origin. lu the great collection at spects agreeing with the painted ones, and Naples, I was shown only a single mutilated destined for the same general purposes.

true Etruscan vase. Of the painted earthen vases, dug up in No vestiges of ancient painted vases have, different parts of Italy, those found in Lower in so far as I know, been found in Italy to Italy and Sicily are the finest. The best of the North of the Appenines. Those which all, however, are those found at Nola, both are preserved in the Museum of Bononia, in respect to the excellence of their mate- Turin, and other cities of Northern Italy, rials, and the elegance of their forms, to- have migrated into those parts from southern gether with the beauty of the paintings and Italy. the lustre of their varnish-like coating. It is not my design, in this treatise, to Many of them are so perfectly preserved, institute any inquiry into the periods at that you might imagine them newly made. which these vases were manufactured, not Next to the Nola vases, are those of Locria only because investigations have already been and Agrigentum. Many vases have also made with respect to this point by many been found near Pæstum, the ancient Capua authors of great learning, but especially (Dow S. Maria di Capua), Sancta Agatha also because the settlement of it would inSothorum, Trebbia, Aversa, Avella, Taren- volve an examination, entirely foreign to tum, and in some other places of Apulia, my views, of the various inscriptions oband of the Neapolitan province named served on those vases, as well as of the subAltuzzo, the greatest number of which are jects and characters of the paintings. It is remarkable for their beauty. Of late years, undoubtedly more easy to discover the vases have also been dog up in the vicinity period up to which these vases may have of the cities of Angi and Pomarico in Cala- been fabricated, than the time at which the éria. The largest and best collection of art, commonly considered as of Grecian invases found in these and other places of vention, but assuredly possessed of claims to Lower Italy and Sicily, arranged most ele- a much higher antiquityt, took its origin. gantly and in the best order, is preserved in It seems not improbable, that the latest the Royal Museum of Naples ; this collec- period at which these vases were manufaction has, of late, been much enlarged by the tured in Italy, was the time of the civil purchase of the extensive one made at Nola, wars I. The Roman vases, of latter periods, belonging to the family of Vicenzio. Of the dug up in many parts of Italy, as at Nola, private collections at Naples, the most re- Pompeii, and Rome, have a very different markable is that of the Archbishop of Ta- character. They have no paintings, but rentum, which is preserved at his seat near are frequently ornamented with raised figures, Portici, elegantly adorned with choicest and usually have a red coating ; characters aorks of ancient and modern art; and what

which are also observed in the Roman vases renders this collection still more deserving dug up in some parts of Germany and France. of attention is, that it is illustrated by a To a later period also belongs the vases a learned description drawn up by its ac- dug up in great quantity near Aretium, so complished proprietor himself

. A great far down as the time of Vasarius ß, many of number of vases, dug up in Lower Italy, which are preserved in the Florentine Mubave also been deposited in the Vatican Li

These vases have a red or blackish brary at Rome, and the public Museum of coating, and, in other respects, are of similar Florence.

composition with the oldest Etruscan vases !! In the middle part of Italy painted vases have been found much more rarely. In

ische Vasengemalge, i. ii. p. 5, 20.—Peinsome places of ancient Etruria, as for ex

tures de vases antiques vulgairement apample, near Voltena and the cities of Chinsi, pellés Etrusques, gravées par A. Clener ; Vierlo, and Corneto, a few were formerly accomp. d’Explications par A. L. Millin, dug up, some of which are preserved in the 1808, vol. i. p. 6, note 34. Florentine Museumt. The true Etruscan

* Lanzi de vasi antichi dipuiti, volgar

mente chiamati Etruschi. Dissertazioni Millingen, Peintures ant. et ined. de

tre, p. 23. Vases Grecs, p. vii.

+ Ritter, i. cit. p. 230. + Flea ad Winkelmannum, t. i. p. 215.- Millingen, Peintures antiques, p. 8. Meyer in Boettiger's work, entitled, Griech- § Lanzi, l. c. p. 39. || Ibid. p. 37.


Antiquarian Researches.

(Aug. with which they are sometimes confounded. concealed beneath the surface of the ground, It seems not improbable, that they belong and constructed of stone in a rectangular to the Aretine vases, so highly esteemed in form, placed near the remains of the dead ancient times, which have been praised by body, and sometimes also suspended upon Martial*, and taken notice of by Pliny † the walls ; as is clearly shewn by the exceland Isidorus, although it is difficult to lent representations delineated by Knipius, arrive at any certainty with regard to this added to Teischbein's plates of vases, as point I.

well as by the accurately executed models The painted earthen vessels of Grecian exposed in the royal collection of vases at origin, which have been found in Lower Naples. Many vases are often found in the Italy, seem to be of different ages. Accord- same sepulchre, of various sizes and qualities. ing to the opinion of the celebrated Millingen, Some of these sepulchres which are small, and some other antiquaries, an opinion and constructed of rough stones, usually which seems to be well grounded, the vases contain a smaller number of a coarse kind. commonly, but incorrectly, called Egyptian, In other sepulchres of larger size, conwhose paintings are of a dusky red colour structed of hewn stones, and covered over upon a yellow ground, in which condition with slabs like the roof of a house, some of some vases have also been dug up in Greece, which I have seen before the gates of the are the most ancient s. The vases, commonly ancient Pæstum, vases of superior quality called Sicilian, which have black paintings are found in greater number *. Sometimes upon a reddish yellow ground, are, accord- they occur in their original position, and in ing to the same opinion, less ancient, but a perfect state of preservation ; at other more so than the vases with reddish yellow times, however, they are crushed and defigures and ornaments upon a black ground, stroyed. Some of them have retained in a which are the most common of all ll. This surprising degree their polish and original opinion has indeed been lately opposed by colours; others, especially those dug up in the celebrated Rossi, who has shown the moist places, are slightly incrusted with a vases with black figures to be of the same white calcareous substance, easily soluble in age with the rest : his arguments, how- acids, which has probably been precipitated ever, do not seem to inwalidate the former upon them from the water that had peneopinion **

trated through the walls of the sepulchre. Many vases, either having no paintings at This preservation of vases, constructed at so all, or, instead of figures, having other sin- remote a period, of such frail materials, and gular ornaments, have been dug up, both with so thin a coating, is a subject of much along with painted vases and by themselves, interest, and not less than the perfection of not only in Lower Italy, but also in ancient the art as practised by the ancients, invites Etruria, which have either the natural to the investigation of their mode of formacolour of burned clay, or a black coating, tion. or have been manufactured of clay evidently We shall endeavour to distribute the most mixed with some black matter. The orna- ancient earthenware vases, whether Greek ments upon the black vases are very fre- or Etruscan, according to their mode of quently of a white colour, sometimes yellow composition, into classes, for the purpose or red. Not only the forms, but also the of obtaining a more distinct perception of colours of the black coating and ornaments, their varieties. as well as the other circumstances, corre- We shall place in the first class those spond with those which are observed in vases in which the colour of the clay is navases adorned with more perfect and more tural, without glaze, or other coating or complex paintings; from which it may be painting. Of this kind are some vases which supposed that these rude and less elegant were dug up at Cumæ, as well as near S. vases are of the same age and manufacture Agatha Sothorum, along with others of a with those more beautiful productions of black colourt. art, which, without doubt, were more highly In the second class, we shall place those esteemed in ancient, as they are in modern in which the natural colour of the clay is times.

somewhat heightened by their having a very The vases dug up in Lower Italy are thin glaze or coating I. found in Grecian sepulchres more or less To the third class belong those vases

which have been manufactured of clay inLib. xiv. Ep. 98.

termixed with black matter. These vases + Hist. Nat. Lib. xxxv. cap. 12.

are found, either simple, that is, without * Origen, l. xx. cap. 4.

ornaments, either impressed or in relief ; Ś Mezer in Boetlinger's work, Griechische or they are painted with a white or yellowish Vasengemälde, I. 2.

Il Mengen, Peintures Antiques de Vases • Hamilton in Boettiger's Work, cited Grecs, p:

above, 1. I. p. 34. Ibid. Third letter addressed to M. Mil. + Sul metodo degli Antichi nel dipingere lingen by the Chev. Rossi.

i vasi. Due Lettere del Canonico Andrea ** Gottingische gelehrte Auzeign, 1820, de Jorio al. Sig. Cav. M. Galdi, p. 4.

iv. v.

Jorio, loc. cit. p. 8,


p. 739.

Antiquarian Researches.

167 colour. Of this description are many of the with superstitious veneration by the common rases dug up, not only in Lower Italy, but people. Mr. Ure thinks that these beads also in the districts of ancient Etruria have been brought to our island by the Phoem

To the fourth class belong those vases nicians; I confess I am inclined to assiga whose clay is evidently covered over with a them a much higher antiquity. Sir Walter black glaze or coating Like those of the Scott, in speaking of the Tumuli of Scotland, third class, they are either simple, or with says, that they are generally of a conical ornaments either impressed, or painted with form, though sometimes square, and mena white, yellowish, or red covering.

tions, that he has in his possession an um The fifth class may contain those vases, found in one of them, wbich was opened at in which, upon a basis of clay, either of the Roughlee, or Ruthlee, in Liddesdale, in natural colour, or with a somewhat brighter which were ashes and bones, and some beads. glaze, there are ornaments or painted figures (Ova Anguina) made of coal instead of glass ; of a black colour, sometimes with impressed and Sir Walter seerns to think that this mode lines. These vases, which have been dug of burial was subsequent to, and in imitation up in various places, although they com- of, that practised by the Romans when in monly go by the name of Sicilian, are either possession of the country, an opinion which, simply painted with black, or ornamented perhaps, that distinguished individual may with figures, in which the red and white previously to this time have abandoned. It colours are covered over with black; of may be proper to mention some reasons for which kind some exquisite vases have been the belief that the Tumuli, or Cairns, found found, as for example in the vicinity of in different countries, and the Logan Stones, Pæstum.

and Circles of stones which have vulgarly To the sixth class we shall refer those been referred to the Druids, are the work of painted vases, the most common of all, the same people. In almost all situations in which have figures and ornaments either of Scotland, where tumuli have been found, the natural colour of clay, or somewhat the word or syllable Ruth, or Rath, which heightened; the general ground, however, in Celtic signifies circular, may be detected; and some lines, being black; some of them thus we have Rutherglen, in the neighbourare of more simple construction, others are hood of which there are vast numbers of ornamented with white, red, yellowish, or those conical tumuli; also Ruthven, and dusty colours.

Rotbiemurcus, where there are both tumuli The seventh class includes those vases of and circles; Logie Rait, &c.; and in one rarer occurrence, in which the ground is situation where the syllable occurs, it is black, and the figures which are red are laid curious to observe, that there is a rocking upon a white colour, covering the black, stone, but no tumuli (probably time has the lines being impressed so as to penetrate obliterated all trace of the latter) ; this is at to the black ground.

Ruthwell, and Mr. Pennant describes it as The eighth class we shall appropriate to having stood in the situation where the those very rare vases, commonly but falsely parish church was built, which, from its called Egyplian, in which the ground is dimensions, and the account he gives of it, yellowish, and the paintings of a coffee. there can scarcely be a doubt was a Logan colour ; which, however, does not cover the stone, or Lingan, and which, from its being ground perfectly, there being sometimes a continued to be looked upon with feelings of covering of white and red colours. The religious veneration by the people, was overvases found in Lower Italy correspond, in thrown and broken in pieces, by an order of so far as regards the colour of the clay and the Presbytery, soon after the Reformation. paintings, with others discovered in Greece, The same fate befell

, one in Cornwall, which one of which that had been dug up at Athens, was cast down by order of Cromwell's goveris preserved in the Museum of our Uni- nor of Pendennis Castle, because the lower versity, having been presented to it by the classes viewed it with a certain degree of celebrated English traveller Hawkins. veneration. The ornaments and Runic cha

racters, which Mr. Pendant says are to be ANCIENT BEADS AND TUMULI. seen on the stone at Ruthwell, there can be The Glass Beads mentioned by Dr. Clarke

no doubt are of a much later date than that (says a writer in the Scots Magazine) as

of its original erection. It is also related being found in the Tumuli at Seccara—by that these stones were common in Ireland, Mr. Ure as those which have been found in and that the first Christian Bishops who the Tumuli near Rutherglen-and by Mr.

went to the country expelled Demons from Pennant as having been found in some

them, and shattered the stones to pieces by Tumuli in England, are neither more nor

means of exorcism. less than the Ova Anguina, which Pliny

ANCIENT Boats. describes as an article which formed part of those employed by the Druids in their rites, In making the common sewer, in Lonand which, he says, were formed by a num- don-street, Glasgow, from the part near the ber of serpents, which mingled their saliva Cross, which is finished, down to the Mo. to effect this purpose. In Scotland they are lendinar Burn, there was found, some time called Adder Stones, and are still viewed ago, at the depth of about ten feet, the 168


Antiquarian Researches.-Select Poetry. -(Aug remains of a boat lying in a bed of hlue clay,' nia, about 1740 years ago'; at which period, which was covered and surrounded by fine there seems little reason to doubt, the sand, like that found on the shores of a greater part of the ground on which Glasgow navigable river or wide frith. Some of the now stands, and all the low lands on both nails which were used as fastenings were in banks of the river, to a considerable distance, the wood, which was fine oak, and become were covered by the water of the Clyde. quite black from its long immersion under the earth. The calking used for the boat

Mexican CURIOSITIES. appeared to have been wool dipped in tar. The Government of Mexico has recently It is a curious fact, that some years ago, passed á law prohibiting the exportation of when the common sewer was cutting in the any article of antique sculpture, or relic of Stockwell, that a boat of a similar descrip-' curiosity.' The Mexicans have been induced tion was found a little above Jackson-street; to take this decisive step preparatory to their which would indicate that these two places forming a National Museum of their own where the boats have been found, were then upon a very extended scale. Mr. Bullock, the line of the shore of the frith, or bed of who visited the country amidst the confusion the river. These boats must have lain in of its revolution, was fortunate enough to the places where found many centuries. It obtain a vast assemblage of these treasures, is not probable they belonged to, or were which, on the dissolution of his exhibition constructed by, the aborigines of the coun- (announced to take place in September), will try. The workmanship would indicate that infallibly pass into private hands, unless the they were formed by a people considerably Directors of our national collection have advanced in civilization. It is probable they the judgment to possess themselves of spewere constructed by the Romans, about the cimens so truly unique and valuable. period of Agricola's expedition into Caledo



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Byrrhia. Dave, quis ignotum casus te his appulit 'oris ?

Dic mihi; quæ tantæ causa molesta viæ ?
Davys. En ego Londini : (quod vulgo fertur) egestas

Lege carens, hos me fecit adire locos.
Urbs hæc, immensum famâ celebrata per orbem,

Tam longum Davo per mare suasit iter.
Audieram vicos auro splendere superbos,

Æraque de loculis sternere lapsa vias ;
Audieram fulvis hortos frondere metallis,

Et caro gemmas imbre rigare solum !
Byrr. O infanda virûm mendacia! quanta, viator,

Quàm multa, haud aliis aspicienda, videt!
Davus. Aut si non cernit, saltem se cernere fingit ;

Hinc capit incautos spes malefida viros.
Quot mala me patria digressum huc usque sequuntur,

Tentantem primum cærula dorsa maris !
Vix littus patrium, conscenså puppe, reliqui,

Dum torquent animum spesque metusque meum,
Cùm subito assurgens tempestas aspera, cælum

Abstulit, iratas miscuit Auster aquas !
Horrifici ruptis micuerunt nubibus ignes,

Ingemuit tonitru pulsus uterque polus !
Ut me infelicem cruciavit nausea ! sic, ô

Sic! ægri capitis transiit ossa dolor!
Byrr. Talibus (o miseri, quibus intentata nitescit!)

Hospitiis, nautas excipit alma Thetis.
Consilium hoc tibi, care, dabo ; si quando redibis,

Ne mare transieris; det tili terra viam !
Davus. Hoc faciam ; ausculta-cecidi, vertigine captus ;, :

Languentes oculos pressit amica quies.
Optatâ tandem recipit me Thamesis unda,

Gaudentem visu ; sed graviora manent.
Namque ducis monitu, navem conscendo, ferentes

Spernentem ventos, auxiliumque maris.
Excipit hîc nullus venientes carbasus Austros,

Nec remi pulsu labitur alta ratis.


Select Poetry.

169 At nigrum malus fumum, mirabile dictu,

Evomit; inclusus vexat ahena focus.
Fit sonus horrendus lymphis undantibus ; ingens

Hinc rota fert faciles, acta vapore, vias!
Obstupui; tandem, posita formidine, mentem

Implebant rursus gaudia vana meam,
Mirabar virides ripas, Auviumque profundum,

Qud fert congestas undiqué mundus opes.
Mirabar vestes varias, populosque remotos,

Nautarum fremitum, veliferasque rates.
Cum subitâ insonuit puppis convulsa ruina,

Infandum! fractæ dissiluere trabes!
Membra virům semusta leves torquentur in auras,

Et tingunt fluvium ; brachia, crura, manus !
Me vix ex undis ereptum-Byr. Dave, quiescas ;

Ut semper, garris ; nec tibi finis erit.
Hoc nihil est Anglis—longas jam siste querelas ;

Omissis speres jam meliora malis.
Davus. Sed, quid agam, dubito.—Byr. Solers hîc verna -Dav. Recuso ;

Ingenium poscit jam magis alta meum !
Byrr. Aut ferulâ armatus, pueros moderare--Dav. videtur

Hic mihi servitio durior esse labor!

[Enter Sosia as an old Jew Clothesman.]
Vest! Vest !-Dav. Quid poscit ? ----Byr. Vir vestimenta misellus,

Omne genus, duplo quæ modd vendat, emit.
Sos. to Byr. O here, num tunicam parvi vis ?-Byr. Improbe, abito.
Sosia. Aut braccas ? parvi; num quod ematur, habes ?

[Shewing a Sixteenth of a Lottery Ticket.]
Visne emere hanc partem ? poteris cras-Byr. Ni rapis hinc te,

Hoc, dicto citius, fuste dolabo caput.
Sos. to Dav. O Here, ne spernas fortunam ;-crastina forsan

Det tibi nummorum pondera larga dies.
Dav. to Byr. Quid vult ?-Byr. Fortunæ hæc est alea, Lottery dicta ;

Hæc perdit multos, hæc aliquando beat.
Davus. Stultum; ast experiar-quanti ? --Sos. Tres, optime, libras
Da mihi-Byr. Quid tibi vis ? accipe dimidium.

[Exit, crying · Vest / Vest!'
BYTT. Aut pete torpentes crudeli frigore terras,

Quâ sceptrum æternum fert Borealis hyems.
Davus. Haud ego-non sævis mecum sic convenit ursis

Fors, Indi in verubus viscera tosta ferant !
An mercator ero?-Byr. Nunc, heu ! industria vana est :

Nil per se virtus, non sociata, valet !
Davus. Quid si Comædus.—Byr. Vita est tua purior illis ;

Nec tragico ritu turpis adulter .ris !
Davus. At statuendum aliquid; mihi consule.-Byr. Siste, priusquam

Audieris, dederint quid tibi fata boni.
[Scene changes, and discovers Charinus, as Lottery-office Keeper, sitting

at a lable, with a book before him. Pamphilus and Chremes standing

at the table, with their tickets in their hands.]
Pamph. Quæ bona vel mala sors mihi contigit ?-Char. At numerus qui?
Pamph. Centenus decimus tertius.-Char. (shewing the book) Ecce, nihil!
Pamph. Ut semper.-Chr. Fortuna mihi num favit ?-Char. amabo,

Quis numerus ?--Chr. Nonus.-Char. Sunt tibi quinque minæ.

[Enter Mysis, running and speaking very quickly.] O Here, (namque potes) lætam mihi dicito sortem.

Quindecimus.-Char. (looking at the book) Doleo; sed tibi, cara, nihil,
Pam. to My. Argento hợc pulchram potuisses quærere vestem.
My. (crying) Nil est, at miseræ non mihi sponsus erit !

[Enter Byrrhia and Davus.]
Davus. Tertia quid sibi pars ?-- Char. Tibi gratulor, 0 here, namque hanc

Millia librarum bis duodena manent.

Harum sexdecimam partem tibi trado ! -Dav. (taking the money) Valeto. Gext, MAG. August, 1825.



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