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be added to it. An ointment * thus prepared will be found greatly superior to any preparation of tar or bees’-wax, and it has the additional advantage of not affecting the colour of the wood, or being too difficult to scour.
It is also necessary that we should in every practicable case use either the produce of our own country or that of our colonies—a principle which the use' of this preparation happily supports, The general application, as recommended by Mr. Bakewell, of a thin ointment to the skin of the sheep immediately after sheering, and another thicker one at the approach of winter, we are persuaded from experience would not only increase the quantity and improve the quality of the English fleece, but also save the lives of great numbers of sheep, which would be not a little advantageous to our meat-markets. From the author's observations, he concludes;
“ That the hard quality found in some wool, prevents it from making cloth of the same value as the softer wools, if the former are considerably finer than the latter. That the application of unctuous matter sufficiently soft and tenacious to cover and remain upon the fleece, will defend it from the action of the soil, and is found to produce the soft quality of wool so desirable to the manufacturer. . Hence the greased fine wools of Northumberland and Yorkshire, possess a superior degree of softness to any ungreased wools in the kingdom. Hence sheep that have received the benefit of this practice, and are driven into other counties not remarkable for soft wools, still preserve the distinguishing softness of their fleece. H ce we learn the reason why ointments, when casually employed to cure some disease of the animal, have also generally been found beneficial to the wool.
• If these facts and inferences be admitted, we may also infer, that an improved method of greasing fine-woolled sheep should be adopted in every part of the kingdom, and that it would greatly improve the quality of the wool, and annually save many thousand sheep from perishing by the severity of the climate."
We object in toto to the project of washing sheep with alkaline lees, or adopting in our climate the method used in Sweden: the reasons must be sufficiently obvious. The author asserts (p.88.), what we previously adduced in nearly the same terms, < that in proportion to the regularity of the temperature in which sheep are kept, and to the regular supply of nourishment they receive, will the hair or fibre of the
* In cases where the fleece is much exposed to calcareous earth, or to be torn by thorns or bushes, a little common resin may be added to the prepared oil to give it greater tenacity. --Rev.
wool preserve a regular, even degree of fineness.? We stated, in esamining Mr. Luccock's volume, that “a temperate regular habit of life is the most advantageous to the animal economy, and consequently the most likely to effect that uniform elongation of the laminous filaments, or laminous tubes, which produces the finest and strongest pile." The reader will perceive the identity of the propositions. The South-sea seal produces wool, which, being buried under coarse hair, was long neglected. It is now, we are told, manufactured into cloth and shawls by Messrs. Fryers of Rastrick, near Halifax: these shawls exceed in softness those of Persia, India, or even of Cashimire. Mr. Bakewell says he has seen wool from Buenos Ayres, some of the staples of which measured 20 inches. The following appeal does honour to the author's head and heart; and although we fear that humanity will not, yet we trust that a proper sense of their own interest will, make farmers attend to his remonstrance, after two such severe winters in succession.
“Both interest and humanity call upon the farmers to provide some shelter for their flocks during the severity of winter. I trust the efforts which Lord Somerville has for some time made to awaken the northern farmers from their supineness, will not be in vain. It is not only in the northern counties, but in every part of our island that more attention is required to provide occasional shelter against the inclemencies of the climate, both for sheep and all other animals which are exposed in the fields. In proportion as they are made comfortable, will be their tendency to improve; and it is not only our interest, but every humane man must feel it a duty, to provide for the comfort of those animals which are entrusted to his care. In the northern districts such attention seems absolutely necessary. The farmers in the midland and southern counties can scarcely form an idea of the tremendous wintery storms which sweep over the Cheviot hills, and the wild fells of Cumberland and Westmor. land, or the still bleaker mountains of Scotland. At such times the heavens are darkened with descending snows, and sleet driven by furious gusts of wind, which compel the sheep to seek protection in hollows and glens near the bottom of the mountain. Suddenly an impetuous blast uplifts whole fields of snow from its shelving sides above, and driving aloft in tumultuous whirl, precipitates the contents on the miserable flock, which are in a moment buried deep under the surface. In vain may the shepherd try to trace them over a driving expanse of snow: were he to attempt it he might share the fate of his flock. But all effort of this kind is fruitless; for the summits, the sides, and the very base of the mountain, ó are involved in tempests and a night of clouds," which bury every object in impenetrable gloom. Sometimes these immense volumes of rolling vapour dispart, and open for a few moments to disclose the horrors of the scene.
The shepherd, No.128, Vol. 32. Feb. 1809.
Inindful of his own safety, returns home, and day after day awaits the hour when he may wander out safely in search of his flock; whilst they, in the mean time, sickening with hunger and perishing with cold, are at last relieved by death from their long protracted nisery. Thus have perished during the last winter many thousand sheep in Northumberland, and other northern parts of our island. The owner, whilst he wanders over these wild and melancholy wastes, and observes his thinly scattered flocks, may perhaps murmur at the order of nature: let him rather accuse his own supineness, and learn at length to profit by the lessons of a dearly purchased experience.” p. 143.
It is not a little extraordinary that a “a race of black sheep should be suffered to exist among any of our Merino flocks;” and Mr. Bakewell very properly and learnedly remonstrates against it. Here our author brings the pastoral pipe of Virgil and the battering ram of Pliny, to aid in abolishing such a pernicious custom. Considering the slow progress of knowledge among farmers, the general ignorance of the nature and properties of wool, and the great national importance of the subject, we cannot hesitate to recommend these “ Observations to the attention of all persons interested in agriculture. Every new volume on wool, although more expensive than necessary, must still contribute something to the diffusion of useful knowledge; and as the principle plan here recommended deserves the highest approbation, it should be generally and immediately adopted by all the sheep-farmers of the United Kingdom.
Picturesque Views and Antiquities of Great Britain, en
graved by S. Middiman, from Drawings by the most eminent Artists; with Descriptions, in English and French, by E. W. Brayley. Nos. I. II. III, und IV. Long 4to. 10s. 6d. each, on French Paper; Proof Impressions, il. ls. Clarke.
THE cultivation and spread of the Fine Arts are intimately connected with the best interests of the human race; and those countries where they most flourish must ever be regarded as pre-eminently adapted to increase the enjoyments and forward the happiness of mankind. In proportion as the higher faculties of the mind are brought into action, the sensations become more delicate; the grossness of the passions is chastened by an enlightened
understanding; and the heart best preserves its virtues when both the taste and the judgment are improved together.
The day-spring of the arts, which beamed upon Great Britain under the patronage of Charles the First, was long over-clouded from the effects of the disastrous Civil War, which puritanical zeal, and a too vehement maintenance of kingly prerogative, combined to produce in the time of that sovereign. During the succeeding reigns, till about the middle of the last century, the light still shone with a sickly ray; but, after the accession of his present majesty, and through a happy combination of events, partly fortuitous, the feeble lustre of the dawı) was changed into the blaze of day, and the sun of British art is now advancing witḥ a steady, perhaps rapid, pace, towards the full radiance of meridian splendour.
The very general diffusion of the love of the fine arts in this country, is strongly marked by that fondness for pictorial embellishment which pervades all ranks. Scarcely a book of whatever kind can now offer itself for general circulation, without illustrative or ornamental engravings; and though we readily admit, that mediocrity alone is attended to in the majority of these productions, yet we cannot help regarding even that feeling, as the undoubted harbinger of a far better taste. We can perfectly remember the time when the ill-drawn and badly engraved representations in Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales, were considered as valuable specimens of art; yet were sneh views to be published in these days, they would never obtain purchasers. With society in the aggregate, indeed, it is the same as with the individual. Knowledge can be acquired only by degrees, and from experience; the man rejects the toys of his childhood, and the community of an improved age contemns the things which gave pleasure in a less civilised state. engraving was but of late introduction, and it has not yet arrived at its zenith.
The work before us appears to have a two-fold object; that is, to unite picturesque effect and scenery with architectural accompaniments. As an engraver of landscape, Mr. Middiman has long held a distinguished rank; and the present undertaking does by no means detract from his acknowledged merit. Every, number contains four engravings, with a page of letter-press to each, on which the descriptions are printed in double columns. A professional analysis of the engravings themselves will not be
In this country
expected from us: indeed, it could convey but little irformation to any except those who had the work before them, and in that case would hardly be necessary. Gene. rally speaking, they possess considerable beauty, and have all the richness of Vivares, combined with the clearness and precision of Brown and Woollett. In some few instances, we think, the brightness is too vivid and snow-like. The descriptions that accompany them possess considerable neatness of style, and have all the characteristic energy and good sense which distinguishes the writings of their author, Mr. Brayley. The French descriptions are correctly translated from the English, without any further alterations than what the different idions of the language require.
The first number contains views of Arundel Castle, Lanercost Priory, Kirkstall Abbey, and Eggleston Abbey; the three former from drawings by P. S. Munn, the latter from a drawing by the late T. Girtin. Eggleston Abbey is thus described.
Eggleston Abbey, Yorkshire. « The ruins of Eggleston Abbey occupy a beautiful and elevated spot, on the southern bank of the river Tees, which separates the counties of York and Durham, and through a great part of its course unites in the composition of some of the most wild and romantic scenes in England. Its interesting character is particularly apparent in the vicinity of the abbey, where the rocks are bold, and the current rough and impetuous; the bed of the river being full of massive fragments and ledges of rock, over which the water foams with tumultuous rapidity. The contiguous banks are, in many parts, covered with rich hanging woods, whose pendant branches, as if in respectful homage to the Naïades of the stream, wave over the circling eddies with inexpressible grandeur. In the Saxon times, Eggleston formed part of the possessions of the brave Earl Edwin; but after the Norman invasion, it was granted, with the whole of Richmondshire, and the Earldom of Richmond, to Alan, Earl of Bretagne, nephew to the Conqueror, and commander of the rear guard of his army at the battle of Hastings. Conan, fifth Earl of Richmond (a descendant from the Earl of Bretagne), who died in the year 1171, is recorded by Camden and Speed to have been the founder of Eggleston Abbey: but Tanner, on the authority of a manuscript in the Ashmolean Museum, gives that honour to Robert de Multon, whose family held their lands under the Earls of Richmond. This latter statement appears to be the most correct, as the Lord Dacre, who married the heiress of the Multons, was patron of this house at the time of the Dissolution. **
Dugdale has arranged this foundation among those of the Augustine order; but it seems to have actually been founded for