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because she had been, from her childhood, instructed in the divinely inspired scriptures, and • had ordered her conversation by them; and she needed no other instruction. Recollect, then, * those words, which teach us to moderate the passions; which promise eternal life; which de• clare the abolishing of death; which assure us of the general resurrection of all men.'
VII. I shall add some explications of scripture, and some remarkable observations.
1. By the “spirit that moved upon the face of the waters ;” Gen. i. 2, he thinks to be meant, not the Holy Spirit, but the air, or wind.
2. God, foreseeing how Adam would act, and that he would become mortal by transgression, gave him a suitable nature, and made the sexes.
3. The doctrine of the Trinity was not clearly taught the Jews, because of their imperfection. If it had been so revealed, they would have made it an occasion for Polytheism.
4. By “ the eye-witnesses and ministers of the word,” Luke i. 2, the evangelist - does not mean ministers of God the word, but of the doctrine of God the word.
pon Is. ix. 1, he says, that · Galilee was the native country of Christ's apostles; and there he wrought many miracles, particularly his first miracle of turning water into wine, as is related by John the divine.
6. Upon Rom. i. 4. Theodoret says, that during his life here on earth, Christ was not reputed to be God, either by the Jews, or by the apostles.
7. Upon 1 Cor. xiii. 7, he says: “The Spirit is still given to those who are baptized, though • not visibly: but then the baptized immediately spake with tongues, and wrought miracles ; • whereby they were confirmed in the belief of the truth of the doctrine of the gospel : 'therefore, I think, miracles were not wrought by Christians, in Theodoret's time.
8. Again, upon 1 Cor. xii. 9, · Because of the prevailing infidelity, many miracles were • then wrought, to convince men of the truth. That miracles of healing were then wrought, • giving health to the sick, feet to the lame, and eyes to the blind, is manifest from the history 6 of the Acts.'
9. Theodoret seems to have supposed, that the apostle Paul received the whole doctrine of the gospel immediately from heaven; for, upon Gal. i. 18, he says, that k Paul had been taught
of God, and needed not any human instruction; though he made a visit to Peter, and shewed: • him due respect, as the chief of the apostles.' VIII. Theodoret admirably represents the success of the doctrine of the gospel, or the
progress of the religion, especially in his books against the gentiles: I must transcribe some passages, and refer to others.
1, The' All-wise Deity committed the culture of a barren world to a few men ; and those fishermen, and publicans, and one tentmaker.
By this, and other passages, it may be perceived, that Theodoret did not reckon Barnabas an apostle, in the highest meaning of that word.
2. Upon Gen. xlix. 9, 10, 11, he says: The TM apostles were Jews; and not only they, but the seventy disciples also ; and the three thousand, whom the chief of the apostles caught in his net at once; and five thousand ; and many myriads, of whom the thrice blessed James makes mention to the most excellent Paul. See Acts xxi. 20.
3. He says, that " by the holy doctrine of the apostles, God had made the earth: a heaven; having converted many, in every nation, from the pursuit of earthly things, and disposed them to embrace a heavenly conversation.
4. From Theodoret’s books against the Gentiles it appears, that the heathen people often expressed a contempt of the holy scriptures, because • they were not eloquent. Theodoret, there. fore, says, he ? will compare the most celebrated lawgivers of the Greeks with our fishermen, • and publicans, and tentmakers, and shew the difference: for the laws of the former were soon
a In Gen. T. i. p. 8. D. b Ibid. p. 33. D.
c Ib. p. 170. C. Λογον γαρ ενθαυθα και τον Θεον λογον καλει, αλλα την τα Θεα λογα διδασκαλιαν. Γm Es. T. ii. p. 13. C. • T. 2. p. 41. C.
r Ib. D. 8 Προ μεν τα σαυρε και τα παθος, ο δεσποτης Χριςος και μονον τοις άλλοις Ιεδαιοις, αλλα και αυτοις απονολαις, εκ εδοκει ειναι Θεος. κ. λ. Τ. iii. p. 11. Β.
T. ii. p. 179. D..
1 Δια γαρ την τηνικαύλα καλεχεσαν απισιαν, πολλα τοιαυλα εθαυμαλεργον εις εκπληξιν, δια τελων αυθος σοδηγενίες προς. την αληθειαν. κ. λ. T. iii. p. 180. B. C..
* T. ii. p. 367. D.
forgotten after the death of those who enacted them ; but the laws delivered by fishermen have • flourished and prevailed, and have been received, not only by Greeks and Romans, but also by
Scythians, Persians, and other barbarians: and, indeed,' says he, the · doctrine of the divine • oracles is worthy of God, and approves itself to the judgment of wise and thoughtful men. • There is much more reason to hearken to the apostles and prophets, than to Plato ; for in them * there is nothing impure, nothing fabulous and incredible; nothing but what is worthy of God; ' nothing but what is holy and useful: between Moses the lawgiver, and David, and Job, and
Isaiah, and Jeremiah, and the whole choir of the prophets; and between Matthew also, and • John, and Luke, and Mark, and Peter, and Paul, and the whole college of the apostles, is a • full agreement: they all teach the same doctrine; there are no differences among them : and they teach things useful for all, for men and women, and people of every condition ; what ought to be done, what should be avoided : which must be approved by all reasonable men; for religion is the concern of all. Indeed, the heralds of truth, the prophets and apostles, were not masters of the Greek eloquence; but, being filled with true wisdom, they have car• ried the divine doctrine to all nations, Greeks and barbarians; and have filled the whole world,
the dry land and the sea, with writings, containing instructions relating to religion and virtue : • and now all men, leaving the dreams and speculations of the philosophers, nourish themselves . with the doctrine of fishermen and publicans, and study the writings of a tentmaker. The seven wise men of Greece are forgotten ; nor do the Greeks themselves exactly know their names: but Matthew, and Bartholomew, and James, yea, and Moses also, and David, and Isaiah, and the other apostles and prophets, all men know, as well as they do the names of their own children. If you dispute the truth of this, tell me, friends, whom Xenophanes Colopho• nius left to be his successor ; whom Parmenides, or Pythagoras, or Anaxagoras, or Speusippus, • or the rest ; or what cities follow the laws of Plato's republic? You' can shew none, who now • teach those doctrines : but we can evidently shew the power of the prophetical and apostolical doctrines; for the whole earth is filled with their words.'
• And the Hebrew writings are translated, not only into Greek, but likewise into the Latin, • the Egyptian, the Persian, the Indian, the Armenian, the Scythian, the Samaritan; in a word, • into all the languages used by the nations....Our 8 fishermen, and publicans, and tentmaker, • have persuaded not only Greeks, and Romans, and Egyptians, but all nations of the earth: nor * are our doctrines understood by those only who preside in the churches, but by smiths, and wool
combers, and taylors, and all sorts of artificers ; yea, by women, and maid-servants. And not * only they who dwell in cities, but country people likewise understand, and are able to discourse • of our doctrines. And moreover, they practise virtue, and shun vicious actions, influenced by • the certain expectation of the righteous judgment of God, and the rewards and punishments of • another world.... Compare then, my friends, the simple doctrine of our fishermen, with the
pompous titles of the philosophers; and discern the difference. Admire the conciseness of • the divine oracles; applaud their power; and acknowledge the truth of the divine doctrines.
• God' had before tried other methods : he taught all men by the wonderful frame of the "universe. The Jews he reclaimed by the law and the prophets : but a more effectual remedy
was wanting; and experience has shewn the benefit of it. The whole world has now been • enlightened, and idolatry abolished. Greeks, Romans, barbarians, acknowledge a crucified * Saviour.
• The k divine oracles (or sacred scriptures] are not to be despised, because they abound not • in a superfluity of words, but deliver truth in its native beauty and simplicity. It had been • easy for the Fountain of Wisdom, who has bestowed eloquence even upon bad men, to have * made the heralds of truth more eloquent than Plato, acuter than Demosthenes, and more ready • at syllogisms than Aristotle and Chrysippus. But his design was not, that five, or ten, or fifteen, 'or á hundred, or twice so many more, should taste the salutary waters; but that all men, • Greeks and barbarians, should have the benefit: and not only such as had been taught in • schools of rhetoric and philosophy, but shoemakers, and taylors, and smiths, and all sorts • of mechanics, and servants, and husbandmen, and in a word, rich and poor, and men and women of all conditions. For this reason he made use of fishermen, and publicans, and a tent
Ib. p. 558. A. " Ib. Serm. v. p. 552. A.
8 P. 556. A. B. C.
i Ib. Serm. 6. p. 579. D. 580. A. • Ib. p. 553. C. D. • Ib. p. 554. B. C.
* Ib. Serm. 8. p. 591, 592. I P. 555. D.
e P. 555. A.
* maker, as instruments; and by them he conveyed to men divine and useful knowledge: not * altering the manner of speech to which they had been used, and in which they had been bred, · but nevertheless pouring out, by their means, the pure and refreshing streams of wisdom. • Just as if an entertainer should bring forth to his guests rich and fragrant wine in plain cups • and glasses : they who thirst would drink the liquor, and without regarding the cups, admire the • wine. So have men acted in this case.
• How great the power of those illiterate men has been, may appear to those who will compare
the Greek and Roman lawgivers with our fishermen and publicans. They will find, that · those lawgivers could not persuade even their neighbours to live according to their laws: but • these Galileans have persuaded not only Greeks and Romans, but the tribes of the barbarians
likewise, to embrace the law and doctrine of the gospel....Our fishermen, and publicans, and • tent-maker, have persuaded all men to embrace the laws of the gospel; not only the Romans, and • others subject to their empire, but Scythians, and Sarmatians, and Indians, and Ethiopians, and • Persians, and Britains, and Germans. Indeed, they have brought all nations, and all sorts of • men, to receive the laws of a crucified man: and that not by arms, or numerous legions of
soldiers, nor by Persian violence; but by reasons and arguments, shewing the usefulness of • those laws : nor was this effected, without many dangers and difficulties. In many places they • suffered injuries; they were beaten, and imprisoned, and tortured, and underwent a variety of • sufferings, inflicted on them by those who treated their benefactors, their saviours, and .physicians, as their enemies, and as deceitful and designing men; nor have the sufferings • brought upon their followers after their death been able to extinguish their doctrine. • Romans, as well as barbarians, have done their utmost to abolish it; but they only made it • shine out the brighter: and the evangelical laws are still in force....Neitherd Caius, nor Clau• dius, have been able to abolish the laws of fishermen, and publicans, and a tent-maker: no, nor • yet Nero, their successor ; though he put to death two of the principal of those lawgivers, Peter • and Paul. He killed the lawgivers, but he could not abolish their laws: nor yet Domitian, or
any of the succeeding emperors of Rome. Buto the more the followers of Jesus, and of his • apostles, were persecuted, the more they increased, till the whole world has been filled with • them.' Here Theodoret proceeds to instance in a persecution of the Christians by the Persians ; which he represents as exceeding cruel. He afterwards observes the great alterations which the Christian doctrine had made in the manners of those Persians that embraced it and likewise, how it had civilized other people. · People' whom Augustus, and all the power of the • Roman empire, could not induce to receive their laws, venerate the writings of Peter, and • Paul, and John, and Matthew, and Luke, and Mark, as if they had been sent down from heaven.'
So writes Theodoret, before the middle of the fifth century. But I am in danger of exceeding in my extracts from so agreeable a writer: I therefore forbear to add any thing farther ; though much more follows to the like purpose.
5. One thing we can perceive from Theodoret : that the heathen people were offended at the great respect then shewn to the martyrs. Theodoret justifies it: he says, the Greeks had little reason to make exceptions of that kind. Nor did Christians bring sacrifices to the martyrs ; they only honoured them as excellent men, who had faithfully served God, and had laid down their lives for the truth.
6. He likewise insists on the celebrity of the martyrs, as an argument in favour of the principles which they professed. The memory, he says, of many triumphant conquerors is almost lost. Nobody knows where Darius, and Xerxes, and Alexander, were buried; nor can any shew the sepulchres of Augustus, and the emperors that have succeeded him. But the tombs of the victorious martyrs are well known, and often frequented ; and magnificent temples are built to them, with the materials of heathen temples. And God has brought his dead men, the martyrs, into the room of your deities.
So Theodoret : but the scriptures have given no directions for paying such respect to martyrs. And it should be considered, that by this time error had been mixed with truth; and supersti• Ib. Serm. 9. p. 608. B.
8 Και το γεραιρειν δε τες μαρτυρας καταγελασον εφάσκο», b Ib. p. 610.
και λιαν ανοητον, το πειρασθαι τες ζωνίας σαρα των τεθνεωλων «Των δε αλιεων τε και τελωνων, και το σκηνορραφε τες νομος, w Penslay wogiceobal. Græc. Aff. in Prol. T. iv. p. 461. ου Γαϊος ισχυσεν, ο Κλαύδιος καταλυσαι. κ. λ. Ιb. p. 61. D. " Ib. Serm. 8. p. 599. C. Vid. et p. 612. A....D.
i Ib. Serm. 9. p. 604, 605. * P. 605. C. D. : Ib. P. 613. B. C.
" Ib. p. 015. A.
! Ib. p. 607. A.
tion with religion : nor did the martyrs of the primitive times desire such honours to be given to them ; or to be placed in the room of heathen deities. They had protested against all idolatry: and laid down their lives, rather than give religious worship to any but God, and his Christ.
CHA P. CXXXII.
I. His works and time. II. His country. III. His history. IV. In what language he wrote.
V. Books of the New Testament received by him. VI. General titles and divisions of the scriptures, and marks of respect for them. VII. Select observations; and this writer's principles and uncharitableness taken notice of: And concerning Nestorius, against whom he wrote.
1. John Cassian," author of Monastic Institutions, in twelve books ; Conferences, in number 24; Of the Incarnation of Christ against Nestorius, in seven books, addressed to Leo, then deacon, afterwards bishop of Rome, at whose desire they were composed, reckoned his last work, and written about the year 430; is placed, by Cave, at the year 424, because he computes him to have then begun to write. S. Basnaged speaks of him at the year 429, the time of the rise of Semipelagianism in Gaul, of which Cassian is said to be the parent.
Iİ. By Cave he is said to have been of Scythian original, born at Athens. Tillemont says, • There are difficulties about his country; but the most probable opinion is, that he was of the · Lesser Scythia, a province of Thrace, where he might be born about 350, or 360. Even so ancient a writer as Gennadus, who has placed Cassian in his Catalogue, and given an account of his works, calls him a Scythian; as does - Trithemius likewise, very expressly. But Pagi, and other learned men, have cleared up this difficulty; they argue, from some expressions in his works, that he was a native of what is now called Provence in France. The opinion of his being a Scythian, seems to have arisen from his having been some while in the desert of Scete, or Schetis, or Scitis, in Egypt; and having also written an account of conferences in that country: and learned men, I suppose, do now generally assent to this account.
do now generally “ assent to this account. But Du Pin still hesitates. And since him another agreeable writer" very lately speaks of him as a native of Thrace;' because, perhaps, he had not observed, what has been said by Pagi, or the authors referred to by him. Indeed, the other opinion has prevailed very much ; and the common title of these Conferences, in the printed editions, is ·Collationes Patrum in Scythica eremo commorantium :' though it is plain, from the work itself, that all those monks or fathers dwelt in Egypt. Moreover, the title of this work in Gennadius, is,' Conferences held with Egyptian Monks.
It might have been added, as I apprehend, to other observations relating to this point, that' the Greeks were wont to write the name of that desert, Scitis ; at least it is so written in Valesius's edition of Socrates : which word might be easily turned into Scythia by some, who were not well acquainted with the geography of Egypt; and they would be carelessly followed by many others.
* Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 410. Du Pin. Bib. T. iii. p. 2. Tillem. Mem. T. xiv.
• De Cænobiorum Institutis: Collationes Patrum in eremo Scheti, sen Sceli, seu Sciti : De Christi Incarnatione adversus Nestorium. Ap Bib. PP. T. vii.
« Et ad extremum, rogatus a Leone, urbis Romæ episcopo, scripsit adversus Nestorium de Incarnatione Domini libros septem. Gennad. De V. I. cap. 61. Vid. et Cassian, in Pr. libr de Incarn. Christi.
duo monasteria, id est, virorum et mulierum. . Gennad. De V. I. cap. 61
h Joannes Cassianus, natione Scytha, &c. De Scr. Ec. cap. 111.
i Ann. 404. n. 22.., 24. k S. Basmag. Ann. 429. n. 4.
'In eremo Scythiæ, seu in eremo Scythicâ :' sine ullâ controversià scribendum esse in eremo Scheti, seu in eremo ' Scheticâ,' hoc est, ut in versione Græcâ recte legitur, EV TMs Exy7ews. Pagi Ann. 404. n. 22.
d A. D. 429. n. 4. e Joannes Cassianus. genere Scytha, ex Tauricâ Chersonneso oriundus, Athenis natus est. Ubi sup.
i Cassien. ari. 1. T. xiv.
& Cassianus, natione Scytha, Constantinopli a Joanne magno episcopo Diaconus ordinatus, apud Massiliam Presbyter condit
m Vid. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 551, 552.
Digessit etiam Collationes cum Patribus Ægyptiis. Genn.
P Και καλα μερος επληρωθη το της Νιθριας ορος, και το της EXITEOS TWY juoyazwy. Socr. 1. iv. c. 23. p. 232. F.
Besides, in the first chapter of the first Conference, and in the title of that chapter the desart is called Schyti, or Schytis, which cannot denote Scythia. This, if duly attended to, might have induced learned men to think of Scete, or Sciti, or Scitis, in Egypt, where the fathers spoken of certainly dwelt; and then they needed not to have gone to Scythia, in quest of Cassian's native country. I have stayed thus long upon this, because mistakes and inaccuracies are too common; and I think it may be of some use to correct them, when there is a fair opportunity.
III. Cassian entered early into a monastic course of life. He was, when young, for some while in a monastery at Bethlehem ; afterwards, he, and his friend German, made a visit to the monks in Egypt. In the year 403, they were at Constantinople, where Cassian was ordained deacon by St. Chrysostom. In 404, or 405, he came to Rome, and was ordained presbyter by Pope Innocent, as it seems. In the year 410, or soon after, as some think, or as others, several years before, he came into Gaul, and settled at Marseilles, where he erected two monasteries, one for men, another for women. year
of his death is uncertain. However, Cave 4 says, he died in 448, in the 97th year of his age: Basnage, about 150.
IV. It has been questioned, whether Cassian wrote in Greek or Latin. Tillemont says, • that the Institutions and Conferences, which were composed for the sake of the monks in
Gaul, of which perhaps there was not ten who understood Greek, were certainly written in • Latin. If, therefore, a doubt be admitted concerning any of his works, it can only relate to • his books of the Incarnation ; in which, near the end, he addresseth himself to the people of • Constantinople.' Nevertheless, I think it very plain, that they also were written in Latin.
V. Cassian quotes not only the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, and other books of the New Testament, which had been all along universally received by catholic Christians ; but likewise the epistle to the Hebrews, as Paul's; the ' epistle of James; the second epistle of Peter; the 'epistle of Jude; and “ the Revelation : whence we may conclude, that he received all the same books of the New Testament, which we now receive; which is worthy of observation. Cassian, who had been in Palestine, and Egypt, and at Constantinople, as well as in the western part of the empire, did not follow the peculiar opinions of any of those places; but he received all those books of the New Testament, which appeared to have been received upon good grounds by any Christians.
VÍ. General titles of books of scripture, and marks of respect for them, are such as these.
In his books against Nestorius he proves what he asserts by divine testimonies; froin the prophets and apostles; from the words of prophets, apostles, and evangelists. And he thinks that those testimonies are sufficient to satisfy any man: nevertheless, having endeavoured to prove his doctrine by the authority of scripture, he refers Nestorius 9 to the Creed of the church of Antioch, where he had been educated; and quotes also' divers ecclesiastical writers; particularly, Hilary, Ambrose, Jerom, Rufinus, Augustine, Athanasius, and 'John, bishop of Con. stantinople, or St. Chrysostom.
* Caput primum. De habitatione Schyti, et proposito * Et in Apocalypsi: Ego, quos amo, arguo et castigo.' • Abbatis Möysis.' Cum in eremo Schyti, ubi monachorum [Cap. iii. 19.] Coll. 6. c. 11. Vid. et Inst. 1. 4. c. 17. 1. v. probatissimi Patres, et omnium sanctorum morabatur perfec- c. 17. Coll. 22. c. 7. et alibi. tio, &c. Collat. 1.
n Nunc interim et Christum Deum, et Mariam matrem .... Studium tamen discipuli affectumque præsumo. Dei, divinis testibus approbemus. De Inc. Chr. I. ii. c. 2. Adoptatus enim a beatissimæ mentoriæ Joanne episcopo in • Quid ais tu nunc, hæretice? Sufficiuntne hæc testimonia ministerium sacrum, atque oblatus Deo.... De Incarn. I. vii. fidei ?.... An aliquid adhuc addendum est ? Et quid vel post c. 31. sub in.
prophetas, vel post apostolos, addi potest ? Ib. 1. iii. c. 16. in. c Pagi Ann. 433. n. 18. See also Tillem. Cassien art. 14. p Ergo quia superioribus libris Dominum Jesum Christum
Scribere orsus est ab anno 424. Obiit A. 448, ætatis non propheticis tantum, atque apostolicis, sed etiam evangelicis suæ 97. Ubi supra.
atque angelicis testimoniis, cum in carne atque in terrâ esset, e Ann. 429. n. 4.
Deum probavimus. ... Ib. 1. iv. c. 1. et passim. 8 Vid. De Incarn. l. vi. c. 3.
4 Igitur, quia neganti Deum hæretico abunde jam, ut reor, be Vid. Institu. 1. vi. c. 16. De Incarn. Chr. 1. v. c. 6. et cunctis superioribus scriptis divinorum testimoniorum auctoripassim.
tate respondimus; nunc ad fidem Antiocheni symboli virtui .... efficiamur secundum apostolum non factores, sed temque veniamus. L. vi, c. 3. judices legis.' (Jac. iv. 11.) Collat. 16. c. 16. Vid. Coll. 5. Sed tempus tandem est, finem libro, imo universo operi, c. 4. et alibi.
imponere, si paucorum tamen sanctorum virorum atque illus* Secundum apostoli namque sententiam. “A quo quisque trium sacerdotum dicta subdidero; ut id, quod auctoritate superatur, ejus servus efficitur.' [2 Pet. ii. 19.] Collat. 7. c. testimoniorum sacrorum jam approbavimus, etiam fide præ25. Conf. Inst. I. v. c. 13.
sentis temporis roboremus. Ib. I. vii. c. 24. Unus quoque apostolorum evidentius dicit: Angelos, qui Joannes, Constantinopolitanorum antistitum decus... Ib: von servaverunt suum principatum, sed dereliquerunt domici- c. 30. lium suum, &c. (Jud. ver. 6.] Coll. 8. c. 8.
i Ubi supra.