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desity and narrow.coast "ofxceeding princi


Denmark Bornholm, Jutland. Dependencies. Faro is an increasing export of home-refined sugars, Islands, Iceland, Greenland, St. Croix. Princi- as herewith shown: pal ports. Copenhagen, an exceedingly wellbuilt city on the E. coast of Zeeland. The 1865-66 harbour, a narrow channel running between

1866-67 the city and the island Amak, possesses great 1867-68

.. 635,635 depth of water, and is capable of accommo 1868-69

...................... 3,132,085 dating upwards of 500 vessels. Elsineur, the 1869-70

.. 2,896,967 second port in importance, is about 20 miles N, from Copenhagen, at the narrowest part of

These figures probably indicate an increasing

domestic manufacture. An alteration has been the strait, between the Cattegat and the Baltic. Only small vessels can enter the harbour. |

made in the sugar duties, which ought to Revenue for 1869-70, in rix-dols., 22,415,442,

interest foreign sugar refiners, especially those

of Scotland, whose imports into Denmark have Expenditure, 22,531,092 ; showing a deficiency

grown from 500,000 lb. in 1867 to 12,000,000 of 115,650, or £12,850. Balance in banks and

Ib. in 1870. The object of the change was treasuries amounted in sterling to £545, 144.

to enable the Danish West Indian planters, National debt, 1871, £13,233,000, of which about £900,000 are held by the Danish public.

whose financial affairs were in a most unsatisCommerce. As nearly all the foreign business

factory condition, to compete on an equal or is transacted in Copenhagen, the reports from

favoured footing with the foreigners. Sugars that city will suffice to show the extent and

are classed and entered for duty as follows: nature of the Danish trade. Imports, 1869-70.

Sugar candies, sugar in whole or broken

loaves, cakes, or the like answering to the The main articles may be grouped under the heads of (1) sugar; (3) coffee, rice, tea, to

Amsterdam standard No. 19 and thereover, a

duty of 6 5-10th skillings per Danish lb. Musbacco; (3) manufactured goods; (4) metals.

covados darker than the Amsterdam standard Sugar. After deducting the exports of this

sample No. 15, and other pulverized sugars group, the imports were :


not lighter than No. 9, as well as dissolved and

liquid sugars, will pay a duty of 4 4-10th skil1809-70...................... 31,247,019 1868-69...................... 33,660,681

lings per Danish lb. Muscovados answering 1867-68......................

to the Amsterdam standard No. 15, darker

38,960, 902 1866-67........

.. 33,548,348

than No. 19, but lighter than No. 9, a duty 1865-66......


of 4 5-10th skillings per Danish lb. Other pul.

verized sugars (not Muscovados) answering to There is a marked tendency to take larger the Amsterdam No. 15, but darker than No. quantities of unrefined sugars and less quan | 19, a duty of 4 8-10th skillings per Danish lb. tities of refined sugars. At the same time there I Coffee, Rice, Tea, Tobacco :

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The consumption of the articles of the above, There seems to be a diminishing demand for group, and of sugar likewise, is steadily im- the dearer and made-up articles of this group. proving, and, taken together, they yield 44 with a rising demand for the simpler kind. The per cent of the whole customs revenue of the import of yarns and raw linen goods is increaskingdom. Manufactured goods. The import ing, while that of velvets and silks is declining. of these articles, whether of cotton, linen, In his purchase of foreign goods," says Mr. hemp, silk, or wool, seems to be stationary, if Strachey, “the Danish importer or tradesman not declining. The quantities declared for seems constantly to select the worst qualities duty have been :

which he can procure. This is particularly the

case with English goods, of which, moreover, Cotton, Linens

bad foreign imitations abound in Copenhagen." Henipen. Silk. Wool.

Money. The rigsdaler = 6 marks = 96 skillings

- 29. 3d. Weights. Pound = I'1023 lb. avoir ; 1869-70 6,832,527 129,996 2,339,719

Tonder of corn=3.8270 bush.; of beer=28'9189 1868-69 2,710,025 I 145,189 1. 2,166,463 | gall. : of butter = 246 9179 lb. avoir ; of coal = 1865-66 5,580, 240 188,039 2,452,925 46775_bush. Measures. Danish foot I '020

'feet; Danish mile : 24,000 Danish foet.



Animals and Animal Substances. Metals. The most important figures connected with this group are here given :

1865-66 ....

1866-67 .................. 1,834,000
Import of
Iron and
1867-68 .........

........ 1,453,000
Raw Metals.

1868-69 .................. 1,581,000 Ib.


1869-70 .................. 1,600,000 1869–70 .... 19,417,768 ...... 59,672,593 Cereals. Great attention is paid in this 1868-69 .... 19,630,607 ...... 57,197,007 country to cattle and dairy produce. The 1867-68 .... 19,963,816 ...... 68,103,379

agricultural surplus for foreign markets seems 1866-67 .... 20,032,153 ...... 44,809,039 rather to diminish than increase. The produc.

1865-66 .... 14,785,675 ...... 58,200,066 tive soil is rated at about 6,450,000 acres, of Nearly all the raw metals come from England, which about 2,270,000 are sown with the four as well as two-thirds of the iron and iron-wares. principal cereals-wheat, rye, barley, cats. There is a general and steady consumption of These cereals make up seventeen-twentieths of these wares. It appears that 19 articles of the vegetable crop; their annual yield is about import produce 93 per cent of the whole cus- 8,600,000 quarters, valued at, say, £900,000. Of toms revenue. These are-besides the above the general cereal harvest about 17 or 18 per four groups-potables, wood, oils, salt, glass, cent. may be available for exportation, the earthenware, &c. ; fruits, chicory, &c.; cheese, average take is 800,000 quarters; or about half coal. Exports. The following figures show the the whole export. 'Denmark sends abroad as real value of the exports of Danish produce :- much grain as North Germany or Russia, half

Vegetable Substances. I as much as Austria or the Principalities.' Al1865-66 .................. 2,314,000 though the Danish producer sent less grain 1866-67

...... 2,309,000 abroad in 1870 than in 1865, he receives as much 1867-68 ..

.......... 2,118,000 money, as may be seen from the following 1868-69 .................. 1,826,000 statement :


Computed The decrease of exports is entirely in Danish


Value. goods, principally cereals and cattle. The

1865-66 .... 3,675,373 ....£2,086,000 share of Great Britain in the foreign trade of

1866-67 .. .. 2,903,896 .... 2,180,000 Denmark is more considerable than that of any

1867-68 .... 2,624,137 .... 2,140,000 other nation, being about 40 per cent. of the

1868-69 .... 1,798,653 ... 1,780,000 whole, and should the restrictions now impeding

1869-70 .... 2,471,557 .... 1,900,000 the free importation of domestic animals into | Animals. The export of animals continues British ports be removed, it will no doubt soon to show that declining movement which has resume,and probablyexceed its former standard. | been steadfastly at work for several years.

Sheep, Goats, Bucks,
Lambs, Kids.

Horses. Cows and Oxen. Swiuc and Pigs.

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It is stated that the increasing value of the will be connected from N, and S. with the Jutanimals compensates the country for the falling land railway system, and some official persons off in the number exported. The surplus are sanguine as to its future importance as a export (i.e., the whole export of animals after place of transit. Owing to its position, Esbjerg imports have been deducted) is priced for will always be open, an advantage not enjoyed 1869-70 at £655,000, against £ 676,000 for 1865-66. by any Danish port except, perhaps, Frederiks. Of the sheep exported in 1869-70 about one havn. half went to England ; of the 46,425 cows and oxen, we took 6,167 ; but to Schleswig and Hol

Value of stein went 39,379 horned beasts and 2,820 pigs

Exports. Imports. Surplus Exports with 19,865 sheep, of which animals a great number are known to be forwarded to England

Tonder. Tonder, vid Hamburg. It is with the hope of diverting

1865-66 43,376 2,106 454,000 the current of exportation from the German 1866-67

44.534 2,123 433,000 channel that the Danish Government are con- 1867-68

40,504 2,464 355,000 structing the port of Esbjerg, behind Faro, near 1868-60


303,000 the S.W. corner of Jutland, which is expected to 1869-70 55,909

577,000 be ready for use in two or three years. Esbjerg, I

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Diamond Butter. This trade is extending. About 5,000,000 lb. went to England. Navigation. nine-elevenths of the butter exported went to In 1867 the Danish commercial navy possessed England. Of the wool exported, 3, 122,958 lb., 1 3,786 ships and boats, with tonnage in commerabout two-thirds went to England. Meat. cial lasts (equal to 2 tons register) 172,460, and The exports were.

77 steamers with 4.151. . On March 31, 1870,

the figures were 2,808 ships, with 10,667 boats Meat Sausages. Bacon and Hams. Ib.


of and under 4 tons, with tonnage of commercial 1865-66 .. .. 1,977,181 ... 13,141,286

lasts 178,646 'for the former. The whole in1866-67 .. .. 1,652,860 ... 9,111.778

crease for 1869-73 was 104 ships, with ro, 170k 1867-68 .... 2,591,809 .... 7,506,787

tonnage, of which 47 ships, with 5,300 tonnage, 1868-69 .... 2,769,944 .... 7,998,171

were bought abroad. The steamers were 89 in 1869-70 .... 2,078,070 .... 8,930,500

number, with 10,453 tonnage, and 4,981 horse

power; showing an increase of 5 vessels of 276 It is to be observed that the bacon and hamshorse-power in the year. The shipping moveinclude slaughtered swine, and that the prices ment with England was 45 per cent of the of meat and bacon are rapidly rising year by whole foreign trade. This table gives a view of year. Of the bacon and ham exported, nearly the fluctuations from 1865-70:

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DEPARTURE, in navigation, is the easting and gravel or embedded in sandstone in India, westing of a ship in respect of the meridian it Brazil, and the Ural Mountains. They are also departed or sailed from, or it is the difference found in different parts of Australia, Sumatra, in longitude, either east or west, between the Java, and recently in the Cape Colony. Those present meridian the ship is under and that of the Cape, however, are of a quality much where the last reckoning or observation was inferior to the stones from the other countries. made. This departure, anywhere but under | The Indian diamond in lustre is higher than the equator, must be counted according to the Brazilian stones, but few are now found in India, number of miles in a degree proper to the the site of the Golconda mines having been parallel the ship is under. The departure, in built over and lost. The first water in diaplane and Mercator's sailing, is always repre-monds means the greatest purity and perfecsented by the base of a right-angled plane tion of their complexion, which ought to be triangle, when the course is the angle opposite that of the purest water. When they fall short to it, and the distance sailed is the hypo- of this perfection they are said to be of the thenuse, the perpendicular or other leg being second or third water, &c. The art of cutting the difference of latitude. And thus the and polishing diamonds is supposed to have theorem for finding it is always this: As radius originated in Asia, at some unknown period. is to the sine of the course, so is the distance They are cut into various forms the brilliant, sailed to the departure sought.

the rose, and the table. The first shows the DESIGN, in manufactories, expresses the gem to the best advantage, and is always set figures with which the workman enriches his with the table upwards. In the rose, the entire productions, and which is supplied to him by a surface is covered with equilateral triangles, draughtsman.

terminating in a sharp point at the summit. DIAMOND (Fr., Ger., Dan, and Du. Dia- This form is used when the spread of surface mant, It. Diamante, Sp. Diamond, Port. is too great for its depth, and it could not be Diamante, Rus. Almas, and Pol. Dyamont), cut into the brilliant form without loss. The a precious stone which has been known from table is applied to such diamonds as may be the remotest ages. When pure it is per regarded as plates laminal, or slabs, of small *ectly transparent, like crystal, but, of course, depth compared to their superficial extent. much more brilliant. Its figure varies con- The brilliant and the rose lose in cutting and siderably, but generally it is crystallized in the polishing more than half their weight. To form of a six-sided prism, terminated by a six- find the value of diamonds, Jefferies lays down sided pyramid. It is the hardest of all bodies: the following rule. He first supposes the the best tempered steel makes no impression value of a rough diamond to be settled at £2 upon it. Diamond powder can only be ob- per carat, at a medium ; then, to find the value tained by grinding one diamond against another. of diamonds of greater weight, he multiplies The specific gravity of the diamond is about the square of the weight by two, and the pro3.5. They are chiefly found disseminated in duct is the value required. To find the value Diaper

Dunnage of a rough diamond of two carats : 2 X 2 = 4, and flowing with the tide. Dry docks some. the square of the weight; which, multiplied by times become dry by the ebbing of the tide, two, gives £8, the value. For finding the value but are usually pumped out by the steamof manufactured diamonds, he supposes half engine ; they are closed by gates carefully their weight to be lost in cutting them, and, constructed to prevent the ingress of the water. therefore, we must multiply the square The most common form for this purpose is that of double their weight by 2, which will of swinging-gates, opening in the middle like give their true value in pounds. Then, to the lock-gates of a canal. The floating gate find the value of a wrought diamond weighing or caisson is a vessel with keel and stem, contwo carats, we find the square of double their structed to fit grooves in the masonry at the weight, víz., 4 X 4 = 16; then, 16 x 2 = 32, entrance of the dock. Water being admitted value 632. For the purpose of estimating into this vessel, it sinks in the grooves, forming small diamonds, the jeweller employs a gauge, in a closed gate : it is removed from its place by the handle of which are small crystals of various pumping out water sufficient to float it clear relative sizes, from 1-16th to carat, and a com of the grooves. The principal docks on parison is therewith made when there are the Thames are the East and West India numbers of various minute sizes. The Pitt or Docks, London Docks, St. Katherine Docks, Regent diamond has been valued at £400,000. Victoria Docks, Surrey Commercial Docks, The Pigot diamond weighs 49 carats, and is Millwall Docks, and others. valued at £40,000. The Austrian diamond Dowlas, a sort of coarse linen cloth, manuweighs 1397 carats; the Russian is worth factured principally in the N. of Ireland, Lan£200,000. The Koh-i-noor, or "mountain of cashire, &c. light," weighs 102} carats, but its value has Down (Ger. Dunen, Flaumfedern, Du. never been estimated properly. The following Dons, Da. Duun, Sw. Dun, Tjun, Fr. Duvet, are ascertained specific gravities of wifferent It. Penna matta, Piumini, Sp. Flojel, Pluvarieties : Brazilian, 3'444; Brazilian yellow, mazo, Port. Frourel, Rus. Puch, Pol. Þuchy, 3519; Oriental, 3.521; Oriental green, 3'524: Lat. "Plumac], the fine feathers from the Oriental blue, 3.525. The carat grain used breasts of several birds, particularly that of in weighing diamonds is different from the the duck kind. That of the cider duck is the troy grain, five diamond grains being only most valuable. These birds pluck it from equal to four troy grains. Diamonds may be their breasts and line their nests with it. We landed without report, entry, or warrant. are told that the quantity of down found in one

DIAPER Fr. Linge ouvré, Ger. Drell, It. ncst more than filled the crown of a hat, yet Tela tessuta a operel. fine flowered linen. I weighed no more than three quart.

weighed no more than three quarters of an commonly used for table-linen, manufactured ounce. Three pounds of this down may be in the cast side of Scotland and the north of compressed into a space scarcely larger than Ireland.

one's fist, yet is afterwards so dilatable as to DIMITY (It, Dobletto, Sp. Dimite, Fr. fill a quilt five feet square. That found in the Basin), a cotton cloth, cross-barred, and similar nest is most valued, and termed live down; it in fabric to fustian.

is infinitely more elastic than that plucked DISCOUNT, a term used among traders, mcr- from the dead bird, which is little esteemed in chants and bankers. It is used by the two iceland. The imports from Scotland, Norway, former in making their purchases or selling their and Iceland amount to about 63,000 annually. goods, as an allowance for paying ready money DRAB is a thick woollen cloth, woven purto instead of taking credit from the seller. posely for great-coats, and it is sometimes And with bankers, discount is the interest double-milled. It is made in Yorkshire and which they deduct from bills of exchange and in many parts of the W. of England. promissory notes when they give cash for them, DRAWBACKS, in commerce, certain duties, taking the discount for as many days as such either of the Customs or the Excise, allowed bills and notes have to run ere they become upon the exportation of some of our manudue, at a certain rate per cent. per annum. factures, or upon certain merchandise that has

Ditto, from the Italian detto (that which has paid duty upon importation. been said), is abbreviated as do., and is used in DUNGAREE, the name of a coarse cotton accounts to avoid repetition.

cloth, manufactured in various parts of India, DIVIDEND, the payment made of any joint and used by the poorer classes of natives. It is profit or fund set aside to be shared or woven with two or more threads together in divided. It is also the name given to express the web and wool. It is generally used for the proportion of a creditor's debt which he re- sails of country ships, and would no doubt be covers from his debtor's estate.

advantageously employed for the occasional Docks, an artificial receptacle or basin for light sails of larger ships, being more easily shipping, either for their security or for the pur- handled than European canvas. pose of building, repairing, or examining them. DUNNAGE, loose timber, faggots, &c., placed There are two kinds, wet and dry. The former on the bottom and sides of a ship's hold, either are usually constructed with gates to admit the first by raising the cargo when she is loaded water. Ships are admitted at high water, with heavy goods, to prevent her from be. and kept afloat by closing the gates. Basins coming too stiff, or to prevent damage from are wet docks without gates, the water ebbing leakage.

Eagle Wood .

Egypt of great durability, and susceptible of a finc polish. There are many varieties of ebony. The best is that which is jet-black, free from veins, and close-grained; besides the black, there are red, green, and yellow ebonios, but these are not much esteemed. Ebony is

chiefly used in the manufacture of chairs EAGLE Wood (Ger. Adlerholz, Du. Agel- couches, &c., and in mosaic and other inlaid hout, Da. Ornetræe, Sw. Orntra, Fr. Bois work. 'It is procured in Ceylon, Malabar, d'Aigle, It. Legno d'Aquila, Sp. Madera del Zanzibar, Mauritius, and Madagascar. Ebony, Aguila, Port. Páo de Aguia, Lat. Lignum so-called, is found in most of the countries of Aquila), a species of beautiful wood, employed the Asiatic Archipelago, from the Peninsula chiefly by turners in the formation of the finer and Sumatra to the Philippine Islands. It is articles; it comes to us from many parts of greatly inferior to the produce of Ceylon and Asia.

Mauritius EARING, in the sea language, is that part of EchantiLLON (French), a pattern or specithe bolt-rope which, at the four corners of the men. sail, is left open, in the shape of a ring. The EDIBLE SEA-WEED, a sea-weed abundant on two uppermost parts are put over the ends of the Tennasserim Coast, and exceedingly valuthe yard-arms, and so the sail is made fast to able for its nutritious and medicinal properties the yard; and into the lowermost earings, the for invalids. According to Dr. O'Shaughnessy's sheets and tacks are seized or bent at the clew. (the discoverer's) analysis, it contains as fol.

EARNEST is the money advanced to bind lows :-Vegetable jelly, 54'5; true starch, 150; the parties to the performance of a verbal wax, a trace, o's; liqueous fibre, 180; gum, agreement. The person who gives it is in 4'o; sulphate and muriate of soda, 6'5: sul

abide by his bargain, and, phate and phosphate of lime, I'o; iron, a trace, in case he declines, is not discharged upon for- 1 0'4; total, 100'0. feiting his earnest, but may be sued for the Egypt is virtually an independent state of whole money stipulated and damages; and by N.E. Africa, although nominally a pashalik the Statute of Frauds, 29 C. II. cap. 3, no con- of the empire of Turkey. Area is estimated tract for sale of goods to the value of 10 or roughly at 31,000 geographical square miles. more is to be valid unless such earnest is given. Pop. about 7,000,000. Districts. Masr-el

EAR-RING (Ear-rings. Ger. Ohrringe, Du. Bahri, or Lower Egypt; El Dustani, or MidOor-ringen, Da. Oreringe, Sw. Orringar, Fr. dle Egypt; and El Said, or Upper Egypt. Boucles d'oreille, Pendans, It. Orrcchini, These districts are sub-divided into eleven Pendenti, Sp. Arracadas, Port. Arrecadas, provinces, which contain 4,379 villages. ComRus. Ssergu, Pol. Kolczyki), an ornament merce consists, to a great extent, of goods in worn by women, usually composed of gold, transit. Exports from Egypt to Great Britain and frequently adorned with precious stones, in 1866, 615,368,824; in 1867, £15,498,292; in pearls, &c.; manufactured principally at Bir- 1868, 617,584,616; in 1869, £16,796,233; in mingham and London.

1870, £14,116,820; in 1871, £16,387,424. ImEARTHENWARE [Ger. Irdene Waaren, port's of British home produce in 1866, Du. Aardegoed, Da. Leerkar, Sw. Lerkaril, 27,556,185; in 1867, 68,198,111; in 1868, Fr. Vaisselle de terre, Poterie, It. Stoviglie, 26,056,404: in 1869, 27.982,714: in 1870, Terraglia, Sp. Loza' de barró, Port. Louca, 28,726,602. Capital and Ports. Cairo, Alex: de barro, 'Rus. Gorschetschnue' possudu, Pol. andria, and Suez. Cairo,t he trade and comGliniane naczynia). This is a general term merce of, consists of the export of native promade use of to express all kinds of articles duce, of which the chief items are-ivory, gums, made of earth for culinary and such like pur- hides, ostrich-feathers; from Upper Egypt, poses; the principal English potteries are in cotton and sugar; and of the importation of Staffordshire.

indigo and shawls from India and Persia: of EASING, in the sca language, signifies the sheep and tobacco from Turkey and Syria; of slackening of a rope, or the like; thus, "to cotton and woollen goods, prints and hardease the bow-line or sheat," is to let them go ware, from Great Britain and Germany, and of slacker; “to ease the helm," is to let the ship cloth, furniture, and millinery from France and go more large, more before the wind, or more Austria. During the first half of the year 1872 larboard.

about 30,000 bales of gum arrived in Cairo, EAU DE COLOGNE, a celebrated prepara- each bale containing about four kantars. The tion for the toilet, consisting of aromatized best quality of gum-arabic is sold at about £5 alcohol. It is extensively manufactured in per kantar; an inferior quality, called “lalkh," France and other parts of the Continent, from is sold at about 62 per kantar. During the silent brandy, mixed with sage, thyme, cam. same space of time about 30,000 kantars of phor, cloves, and other herbs and spices, the ivory reached Cairo, which was sold at about whole being macerated together and then dis-£27 to £32 per kantar. This article is sent tilled.

almost exclusively to Great Britain. From EBONY [Fr. Ebene, Ger. Ebenhols, It. the Hegaz ox-hides are imported for home Ebeno), an exceedingly hard and heavy wood, consumption and re-exportation to Europe.

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