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surprise, that the polity of Solon did not felt it to be so essential to the stabioutlive himself, but that he himself saw, lity of his infant commonwealth to without the power of preventing it, the suppress this passion, that he devised the growing influence of Pisistratus, which most effectual means of counteracting it, terminated in tyranny and despotism. by diminishing the motives of such wealth,

But the wisdom of Lycurgus, the Spar- and by inspiring a contempt for pomo tan legislator, and the excellency of his and splendour. He at length succeeded polity, chiefly appears in effectually to his utmost wishes; and thus far more guarding against the licentiousness of de effectually guarded Laconia than if it had mocracy on the one hand, and the op- been surrounded by the most impregnapression of despotism on the other, ble fortresses, Power was so exactly balanced, and so If an estimate of the excellence of a checked and guarded on every hand, that constitution be derluced from its permano sooner did one branch of the hody nent effects, that of Lycurgus has no policie overstretch its just limits, and aim common claims. It stood upwards of at the ascendency, than the others com. 500 years, during which period intestine bined to curb and restrain it. This af- comrnotions were scarcely known, nor forded the surest pledge of stability and did hostile armies dare to invade them. almost invincible power; this rendered If any fie presunied to attack them, they Sparta the bulwark of all Greece; this were either completely subdged, or, com constituted the inhabitants of Lacedæmon vered with shame, retreated. Sparta a band of herces, who feared not to com- stood alone when all the other states of bat singly the innuinerable myriads of Greece either bowed to the shrine of Per ia.

wealth, or to the sceptre of despotic The British constitution, which has power, and defended with her blood the been so long and deservedly admired: expiring liberties of Greece. Nor was she through the whole world, is formed in a weakened by intestine commotions, or great degree upon this model; since the subjugated to a foreign yoke, till the spi. three branches of the executive power riç and force of these wise laws enacted amongst us bear a close ajalogy to those by Lycorgus were lost; and hor rigid of Sparta, and are calculated in the same simplicity was exchanged for the inebria manner to preserve the balance of power. ting luxuries of foreign courts. Besides i he grand outline sketched by

OBSERVATOR, the masterly hand of Lycurgus, some of the more minute features of this civil

For the Monthly Alugazine. code have been held in universal admi. racion. The influence of education upon ABSTRACT of a JOURNAL. kept in MARY, . the national character, and its importance

LAND, in the yeurs 1805 and 1806. to the state, did not escape the pene. TT needs, I think, no great depth of trating sight of this truly wise man. I prophecy to foretel the result of the He felt the necessity of cleansing the present contest with France. By the fountain-head, in order that the streams preponderance of her power, she will might be rendered pure, or (to borrow a over-run the continent with her arins, as metaphor from the sacred Scriptures) England does the ocean with her ships: first to make the tree good, that its fruit France will bave an empire terre firme; might be good also. Such were the ele. Englaort will have an empice oceani signs of those laws which rendered the incerties infructuosi. France will bave children the property of the state, which dominion over men-England over the provided for their public education, by great Leviathan. France will shut up the means of which patriotism, magnanimi continent against the cominerce of Engty, and subordination, were instilled into Jand-and England will be the victim of their minds from the tenderest infancy. false speculations, of bankruptcy, and of

Nor should those bold and decided ruin. .Eirgland will then wish she had measures be forgotten by which Lycur kept herself in the bounds of moderation, fus proposed to exclude from the com- and had pursued the arts of peace. She monwealth every incentive to luxury and would have become more truly great in avarico. Avarice is a passion which so contracts and debases the character; .. The writer of this interesting paper is both public and private, that it is with unknown to us, but we wish him to continue the greatest reason, and by the highest his observations on this and other collateral authority, called the root of all evil, subjects, at this time of such deep import However hazardous the step, Lycurgus ance.


individual happiness, and in national or three hundred miles from the sea } prosperity and glory, than she has coast, have been induced to embark in rendered herself terrible by arins : mercantile speculations with the mer. and I, a wretched exile from the land of chants of the sea-ports. They have had my nativity, should have been spared my nothing to do, but to deposit the titlewanderings, and the heart-rending excla- deeds of their estates in the different mation of, “ Oh, my country!"

bauks, and have received paper currency, - I pass on from this digression on Eng- or cash, in proportion io their valae, lish commerce to that of America. As without incurring any legal expense of the people in Europe present the spec. murigage, deeds, &c. Many of the rich tacle of preceding their old governments, capitalists of Europe, finding their con in enlightened ideas, and in plans of mercial operations impeded by the war, amelioration, so in America the govern- have transferred their capitals to Ames ment has held this precedence of the peo- rica, and have either formed new estaple since her revolution. It has been blishments, or joined old ones, in order to the opinion of the wisest men of the dif- prosecute their object upder the supposed ferent administrations, that America protection of the neutral flag. Such are should have ploughed her land before the powerful causes of the origin, the she ploughed the ocean. They have amazing and rapid encrcase, and the thought, ihat agriculture was a pursuit prosperity of American commerce. Ita more mavifestly necessary, more conge- effects may be traced in splendid estanial to her wants, more consonant to her blishinents, numerous carriages, elegant republican institutions, and more fac equipages, magnificent buildings, and in vourable to her political independence, all the conveniences, luxuries, dissipa. her morality, prosperity, and happiness, tions, debaucheries, and diseases, of bu. than the pursuits of commerce. But man life! America has been peopled with adveileB ut one of the most deleterious effects aurers from all quarters of the globe, upon the American character of such a whose object has not been so much the prosperous commerce, derived from the enjoyment of liberty and a moderate source of European calamity, is not only competence, as the amassing of wealth; an hear hepish indifference to war, but a and they have pursued coramerce as the criminal desire for its continuance, so most rapid means of acquiring it. The long as America steers her bark in peace Northern States, and a long line of coast and safety. In short, the apathy of the to the southward, extending two or three Dutch, with the villainy of the African hundred miles to the west, are completely merchant, may be recognised in the commercial. The troubles of the Euro- American dealer. Two instances, pean continent have given to America amongst numerous others of this unthe carrying trade from the colonies to blushing depravity, I will mention. I the mother countries; in addition to call it unblushing, because at the time which, she has obtained the greatest por- that all commerce in goods contraband tion of that in Europe, which was for- of war, was interdicted by the American merly shared by the English, the Dutch, government, hetween America and the and the Hanseatic Towns. From the rebels of St. Domingo, at the intercessame causes she has einbarked very ex- sion and on the reinonstrance of the tensively, in the East India trade, by French ambassador, I heard a merchant which she supplies her own and the cona of Baltimore say publicly, that he was in tinental market. Baltimore, which ten the habit of supplying the rebels with years ago had but one ship in that trade, powder and bali, which he enclosed in has now seventeen large ships of from casks, lined two or three inches thick five to eight bundred tons burthen; and with butter, and which were entered at the other sea-ports have encreased cheir the custom-house as butter, of course Ivonage in a similar proportion.

called so in the ship's papers, and passed This trade, it is true, drains the coun. as such to the place of their destinacion, try of her precious metals; to supply Another instance was that of a number which, sbe bas substituted a large and of Philadelphia merchants, celebrating extensive paper currency, issued by nue the birth-day of Dessulines; and actually Dierous banks, which are, however, le- making a present of the crown which gally incorporated by the different state was to encircle the brow of that inhuinan governments, and their capitals ascere and savage monster. tained and published. Many of the sub. It might naturally enough be expected Santial planters, to the distance of two that France and England would seek to

involve involve America in the face of the minor in and embrace a species of taxatino European powers; and that they would more degrading and tyrannical than that not be at a loss for causes or pretences on account of wbich she encountered in the private conduct of her citizens, or and waded through a revolutionary war. . in the public proceedings of her govern. And if she do not submit to it, her combent, which would stimulate ali those merce is neutralised. The only wise acts of aggression, spotiation, and in course which she can now, and must sults, which have evinced the implacable then, pursue, will be to close her inter. comity of those two powers; their envy course with the belligerents, till they at her increasing commerce and prosin listen to the voice of reason. She can perity, and their studied desire and secret do better without their manufactures machinations to compromise her peace, and their empoisoned luxuries, than they independence, and glory.

can do without her four, rice, and tin. This state of things has originated two ber. Let her withhold these precious parties, viz. the friends of peace, and necessaries but for a short time, though those of war. The party for war is again many American merchants may be rusplit into two factions, viz. the English ined, the West Indies will cry out for and the French. The friends of peace, bread, the belligerents will be brought at the head of whom is the government, to their senses by famipe. are certainly the most numerous, the America shall preserve the lives of her most enlightened, and respectable. It citizens, her territorial riches, het is difficult to appreciate the relative peace, independence, and happiness. streagıb, influence, and wealth, of the It will likewise be a powerful stimulus to two factions. Perhaps an insight may her domestic, manufactures. . But the be obtained by contrasting their opposite reverse of this picture is to be dreaded. qualities. If the English party be more It is to be feared, from the influence of mercantile and wealthy, the French is the two war factions, even in the national more numerous ; if the former have more councils, and from the fluctuating events good sense, the latter shews more viva of the war, that the negociations with city and activity: if the English bave the belligerents will necessarily partake the influence of wealth, the French has of a double-faced policy:, she will have that of agreeable qualities, which mask to. conciliate both; and in the attempt its superior skill: at intrigue, foresight, she inay find it impracticable. Her combination, and effect. At all events, policy will be oscillating, she will make the unjust causes of England and France, laws and abrogate them; and thus, by which they respectively defend, their being the butt of the implacable hatred mutual recriminations, their appeals to, and envy of the belligerents, she will and abuse of, the federal government, become the scorn and contempt of her are calculated to give it considerable unself and the world. easiness and alarm,

The consequence will be, that she will To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. find great difficulty in deciding upon the SIR, cause she has to pursue. The spoliations IT is a striking peculiarity that our and aggressions upon her commerce will 1 moon always presents nearly the same continue and increase; it is highly pro. face towards the earth; and it has been bable likewise that the events of the ascertained that the satellites of Jupiter, war will shut up the continent against and the largest of those of Saturn, are England; and though France may not similarly circumstanced as to their rewish to prevent America from trading spective primaries : whence, it seems with the continent, yet it will be under reasonable to infer, that the case is the limitacions; she must not touch at a Bri. same with all other secondary planets; tish port, nor import upon the continent and such appears to be the opinion of our British manufactures. The policy of best astronomers. England will render this impossible to. At first it might seem that this must be America, from her maritime superiority. disadvantageous to the minor planets, as England will force America to bring her one half of their surface can never recargoes to British ports, and through ceive any benefit from the light reflected British custom-houses, before she is per by their primaries; while all paris of mitted to re-export them to the contis those primaries enjoy, successively, the nent. If America submit to this, het beautiful and useful light afforded by the independence is a dead letter, as she secondaries. It can scarce indeed be will sail across the Atlantic to acquiesce doubted, but that the inhabitants of one MONTILY MAG. No. 210,


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hemisphere possess a considerable ado name to this country. Galicia, being a vantage over those of the other in this synonyme of Celticn, needs no other exrespect; but we may be confident that planation. But to return: Celt Iberia, the wisdom and goodness of the Creator from the above, implies the Water Border had some important end in view; whereby Head Territory. It is said by all writers these globes are, upon the whole, greatly that Arragon was Celt Iberia; but though benefited by the above arrangement. this country were a part, Arragon is not a Not having met with any opinion, or translation of it. conjecture, formed upon this subject, I. With the assertion of Herodotus, that therefore beg to propose as a

the Cynesii inhabited the sea.coast, and QUERY" What benefit, of consequence,

the Celtæ the interior, I cannot agree; is attained, or (which is the same) what the word Cyn implies head, es is water in important inconvenience is avoided, by the this word; and the Cynesii were dweb secondary planets, from their having always lers at the Water Head. But we have the same hemisphere turned towards their proved the Celtæ, or the Head Inhabiprimaries."

tants, to be dwellers at the same Water COPERNICUS, Jun. Head, and therefore they were the same

people. The ancients were very often To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. incorrect in their descriptions. Appian, . SIR,

who wrote an history of Spain, or of SpaTHE part of Spain called Lusitania, is nish Wars, makes the Ebro empty itself

1 by some derived from its herbage; into the Bay of Biscay. but generally this country is said to come Espana, Ispana, or Hispana, is de from Luz, an almond. “A modern rived from ls, water, as in the word etymologist, however, is said to derive it Island, (Water Land) as in the river Isis. from Luz and Tani, or Tana, an alınond or in the river Isel. Pan is a variation and fig."

of Pen, a head; as Ham is of Hem, bor, · Herodotus observes, that the Cynesii der so that Espana is a translation of inhabited the sea.coast on the Atlantic; Cynes; and the rabbits, though numer. and the Celtæ the interior.

ous, gave names to their holes only, and · Of the first of the above, Iberia comes not to the kingdom, i from Ad, the sea or water, changed to lo, In Lusitania the herbage may be good; as in the river Ivel, and this to Ib, as in but we should not mistake a coat for its the rivers Ibber, and Iber. Er is Celtic owner, The figs and almonds too are for border, end, point, &c. la is cerri very plentiful; but these make better tory: Iberia then implied the Sea or Water desserts than etymons. Lusitania comes Border Territory, and included, I suppose; from Los, a tail or end, Tan land, and la all Spain. To this Cell was added.' The country; and the word means no more Promontory of Galicia was otherwise than the Land's End Territory. Lisbon called Promontorium Celticum. The or Lysbon, also comes from Los, a tail or word Col, is head. It is often written end, and describes the land on the sea Cal and Gal, as in the instances before. belonging to this settlement. The word mentioned, and in this very head-land. Bon, is a variation of fonn, land, which In numberless instances a is written e, as is often changed to Von, Bon, and even may be seen in Lhoyd's Archæologia. A Mon. is indeed called the changeable vowel, Portugal is another name for this coun, from e being so often written for it in old try: we have seen that Galis head point, hames. Hence then Cal became Cel, or end; and Port, of which Porta may Kel, and often Kil, and each of these be the plural, is not very difficult: this is would mean hill, hend, or end; as the either a bank, or a road, &c.; and when end of this very head-land proves. The applied to a stream, it may be rendered syllable Ic takes T in the word Celticn, the Water Road or Port; and Porta may in the same manner as Iror Ireland, také be the Ports; but, if so, Portugal means al in Ceantire, an head-land; Promonto the Port's Head Land. But the nanie rium Celticum is translated Cape Finis. may be otherwise rendered. terre, the End's Land, or the Land's End, Guul. I will now carry my colonists into And Celt, in Celticum, the Head at sea France; and here we have to encounter or the End at land, took its name from a figure of rhetoric, in Gallia Celtica. its situation; the Celci of Spain were Gallia comes from Gul, an head, and Herefore named from this head and its la, territory or country. In like manner, continuation, and not from a Celtic peo- the Galic word Guilia implies a Head ple, who have been supposed to give Piece. But it is said by authors, that it

is demonstrated next to mathematical press this word with less syllables, used certainty, that this country was peopled the letter b for a or u, and thus Cumar, by Gomer's posterity. The probability or Cumur, in wbich the syllable ur meant of this I will not dispute, but I have seen border land, or land, they expressed by BQ such proof as here mentioned. Be Cuinbr; and hence the word Cumari was this however as it may, the Celtes or expressed by Cumbri. There are se. Gauls are said “ actually to be derived veral head lands, or corners, which are from the Gomerians.” I will set this in said to have taken names from the Cum. is proper light,

bri; these are engmerated in our dictiLet Can, a mountain or head, (which onaries of proper names, and from these is often changed to Cal and Gal, when it I will select Cimbria, part of the couna takes another syllable,) be changed into try now called Denmark, god which Cav, and this to Cam; as in the Cambri; takes the naine Cimbrica Chersonesus, and into Cum or Cym, as in the Cumbri This name is certainly, Mr. Editor, or Cymbri; these changes will be the nearly allied in rhetorical analogy to same in analogy with Tao, Tau, and Gallia Celtica. The point of land which Tax, words for water or stream, derived gave these Cimbri name is Jutland: you from Tamh, or Tav: and the syllables can scarcely select a point of land whichi Cam, or Cum, will, in composition, im- answers to its old name better; its new ply the same as Cau, Cal, or Gal, a one is a translation of the old. Jutland head, bill, point, or end. But as Al, gives name to the Jutlanders; and the Ingh, takes D in Dal, a dale, and V in Cumar, or Corner Land, gave name to the Vale; so Cao, Cam, and Cum, will lie old Cumari, of this region. I will, Mr. found in some names to imply a cavity Editor, give no further proofs of this or bollow: and, in a similar way, the roots plain case. The mathematical certainty of words for depths, are often derived therefore of Gomer's posterity peopling from those for heights. A Combe, Jutland is very uncertain: we shall (sometimes written Cwm and Cuin,) is a hereafter find how it peopled France.' corner, which includes a valley or bot. In the dispersion of mankind, and the tom, and is surrounded on every side, settlement of the earth, the Bible is our except one, by a ridge of Hill Land. only safe guide. In other books we The word Cublar, or Cumar, is corner; combat all sorts of fables; but, froin the but let us suppose that, instead of a raised names in these compared with situa. corner, or height, which this often im. tions, a vocabulary may be formed of all plies, you conceive a similar hollow. the old Celtic terms which refer to the The word Cum, or Combe, will in this features of nature; and from these should case be the hollow; the syllable Ar is all names be compared and analysed. ! the land, and the same as Ic, or Tic, in I have repeatedly mentioned in what Celtica. There is in Devon a Combe, I have written that ambiguities arise not into which several small ones terminate; from common words of a particular lantese lands are therefore called the Cue guage, when referred to common things; mari. In like manner the word Cel for these are formed and varied to convey may sometimes imply a bottom in names, common ideas only. But in the knowand the Celtici and the Cumari may be ledge of proper names, necessarily formed supposed the same people; but in this for every particular district, and for every we have been totally mistaken. For local purpose, the number and variations towns on streams constantly took syno, of which exceed our ordinary conception, Dymous names, and these were distin- and whose roots, only in the common guished, not by their like meanings, but language, often denote the names of by their different spellings; and although places, and of oatural things, we are very the same naines of one country were deficient. Let une illustrate this by a found in another, it did not follow that late author's derivation of Corycus. the people of the one were the same as, “Corycus," says he," is a lofty moun. or allied to, the people of the other. It tain near Teos, and not far from Érythra; was the same by these people, the Celtici it is said to abound with crocusses ;" and the Cumari. I have proved that the "Ultima Coryco quæ cadit aura Croco." features of Spain gave name to the Celts, "Chorachim," he says, “ is Hebrew for or Gauls, of that country; I must do the these flowers, and from this word, slightly same of the Cinbri. But first I must changed by the Greeks, I conceive tho sliew how the word Cumbri, or Cimbri, mountain to have been named." is formed; I have given what Mons. I have often charged people to see Pezron says of it. The Romans, lo ex. that there is an agreement between things

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