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dey had every disposition to re- Spain presented to Europe, it had ceive new lights, if new lights were operated upon Russia ; what Spain to be afforded; no such lights had had done, she, possessing indeed been supplied. He trusted the the superior advantage of an united noble lords would see no ground government, had done also : and for an inquiry, no reason to sup- he hoped that every country, pose that any of the expectations attaching itself to its own constiof lord Wellington had been disap. tution and sovereign, would look pointed. The ministers had two to its own energies for the means enemies to contend with those of defence and security, Spain who thought every thing, and those had led the way, and Russia had who thought nothing could have followed it with suécess: and he been done; those who thought trusted the brilliant example would Portugal was indefensible, and not be lost on the other nations of those who thought the French the world. might be driven out of Spain. The The house divided; when the predictions of failure were at any numbers were, fate falsified.

Portugal was sé. Content 31 Proxies 889 cured, and Spain relieved. But Not content 70 Proxies 45115 the great advantage of the campaign was the example which Majority

76

CHAPTER y,

Debates on the Mutiny Billon Lord Castlereagl's Resolution on the Renewal

of the East India Company's Charter-On tbe Finances of the Country-Es. aminations of Mr. Warren Hastings and Lord Teignmouth on the Affairs of the East India Company-Debate on the Ways and Means - Mr. Lockhari's Motion on the Bankrupt Laws Debate on the Marquis of Wellesley's Notion or renewing the East Indian Charter-Sir William Scott's Motion for the Regulation of Ecclesiastical Couris-Mr. Wbarton's on Westminster Improve ments-Mr. Rose's on Apprenticeship Laws-Mr. Smith's on the 7'rinity Acts -Debate on Lord Darnley's Motion on the Naval Administration-Impor. tant Appeal Cause and Decision-Civil List,

commons resolving itself into make it unlawful for any general, a committee on the mutiny bill : commanding officer, court-martial,

· Lord Palmerston moved for leave &c. to inflict the punishinent of to insert a clause, inflicting a pe- flogging on any of the troops nalty on those persons who raised serving in Great Britain, Ireland, recruits under false pretences, Leave the Isles of Guernsey, Jersey, and given.

the Isle of Man. 2. To make it Captain Bennett moved to insert lawful to sentence the troops several clauses relating to the in. serving abroad to receive corporal fiction of corporal punishment in punishment, provided this punish

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ment did not exceed 100 lashes. five times, to receive them. But 3. To make it unlawful for any whatever now the disuse of officer, after a part of the sentence this barbarous and humiliating had been inflicted, to order any custom, or the limitations imposed man to be brought out a second on its exercise, he wished that no time to receive the remaining lashes. discretion slould be left on this In the proposal to insert the last subject to court-martials, or comclause, he hoped for the concurrence manding officers. At presenta of the judge advocate (Mr. Man brave and veteran soldier might be ners Sutton), who had on a former sentenced to this punishment by an occasion declired his opinion that unfledged ensign, and not only have such renewal of the punishment was the flesh torn off his bones, but an illegal. He then mentioned an indelible stigma fixed upon his instance related to him by an off character, and upon

the
peace

and cer lately come from the peninsula, lasting happiness of his mind. This of a general who, disapproving of punishment could do no good; it the mode of punishing a soldier by was never known to reform a bad confinement, had ordered the black soldier, but had often destroyed book to be brought, and finding good ones. Those regiments were him debtor so many lashes, imme- uniformly the best disciplined where diately had him tied up to the hal- corporal punishment was the least berts to receive them.

used. The honourable baronet Lord Palmerston said that, after thought that there should be a the repeated discussions which had scale of rewards in the army, as taken place on this question, he well as a scale of punishments; should not trouble the house with and įlat if a decent provision were any observations, but he should feelit made for those who had served for his duty to resist the introduction so many years in the army, to of the proposed clauses.

which however they would not be Sir T. Burdett said, that the sy. entitled without a good character, stem of flogging was reprobated by this would be a strong inducement every thinking and humane mind, to good behaviour. as an ignorant substitute for the Mr. Manners Sutton thought it only proper mode of punishment quite impossible to get rid of corfor smaller cffences, namely, con- poral punishment at present. It finement. The facts and argil. had, however, fallen very much into ments which had been brought for. disuse. Though the number of ward on this stibject, had had the court-martials now were three times beneficial effect of bringing this as many as formerly, the actual punishment into comparative diso aggregate of cases in which corpouse ; but he should rever rest con ral punishment was inflicted, was tented without its total abolition. considerably less. The sentence of He wished to have known from the flogging was exchanged, in two noble lord, how far the restriction cases out of three, into that of geimposed by the orders of the com neral service; and in most other mander in chief, respecting the cases confinement was adopted. number of lashes, extended? For There was a general disposition, nearly 1500 were often given, and almost an avidity, in commanding the unfortunate victim was some- officers, to avail themselves of any times brought out three, four, or mode of punishment in preference

to

to flogging. He then adverted to owing to the interference of the some cases of a peculiar hardship right honourable gentleman oppo brought forward by sir Francis site (Mr. M. Sutton), the punish. Burdett last year. Into all of these ment was in a great degree got rid supposed cases inquiry had been off. He (Mr. Whitbread) should made, and the accusation was found not press the point at that moment, in every one of them to have ben ul as it was not then ripe for discusterly groundless. As to the system sion; but he was convinced that by of reward proposed by the hon. the silent progress of time, when baronet, he would only say, that if the officers should find the disadsuch a system were shown to be vantageousness of this sort of pupracticable, there was no one who nishment, it would gradually di would more gladly assent to it than minish, until finally abolished. himself : but the theory of philan

March 22.

The house of com. tropy was one thing, and the mons having resolved itself into a power of making every body rich committee on India affairs, and was another.

to consider a petition which had Colonel Duckett spoke in favour been presented by the company of the present system. He at the for the renewal of its charter, same time repelled an insinuation Lord Castlereagh said they had of Mr. Bennett, that in the militia to discharge a duty unprecedented they sometimes flogged all round. in any other state. They had to In the militia, he said, there was provide for the happiness, comfort, much less flogging than in the re and government of a body of men gulars, and yet it would be found exceeding three-fold the population that the discipline of the militia of the parent state. He had no was superior to that of the regulars, difficulty in stating, on his own

Mr. Whitbread congratulated part, and on the part of those with the house on the temper with whom he acted, that if the regulawhich the question had that night tions which he was about to propose been debated, and the progress for the adoption of the house, in which had been made towards the the form of resolutions, must have abolition of the punishment in ques- the necessary consequence of ention. About 20 years ago, when dangering-farm 3 if it must he was a young member of that have the effect of pulling down the house, he mentioned for the first system by which the Indian em time, in his place, this practice, so pire had hitherto been acquired and much to be reprobated, of bringing held together, they would feel out men twice to receive one sen themselves called upon to hesitate tence. It was then said, in oppo much before they recomínended the sition to him, that it was most hor- adoptivy of such a mode of prorible to mention any thing of the ceeding. At the same time, how. kind in the house, that the sol- ever, he must be allowed to say diers had by no means too much that the lapse of years ard existing flogging,-hat a lash could not circumstances had rendered a parbe spared. Now, however, owing in 'tial change in the syst»ın of policy a great degree to the honourable hitherto observed towards our Ina baronet behind him (sir F. Bur- dian possessions indispensably re. dert), who had brought the matter quisice, and that there was no part repeatedly into discussion, and of the empire more concerned in

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adopting that change than the should feel it no reproach to their East India company itself. The understandings to admit that they mode of government adopted by had been mistaken, and that the the East India company had cer- plan which had occurred to them tainly raised and preserved an em was not that which was most conpire unprecedented in the history of sorant to the interests of all parties the world; and they had governed concerned. He hoped, however, the people under their control, on when he had stated the view he en. a principle eminently calculated to certained of the matter, the house produce the happiness of the go- would be of opinion, that it was not verned. He did not believe the such a proposition as went in any history of the world had ever pro- unnecessary degree to break in duced its parallel-a system by upon the chartered rights of the which a population of 50 millions company. The first question to be of native subjects were governed, considered was, whether the house while the civil officers of the com- ought to persevere in the old sy. pany by whom the government was stem as to India ; whether it ought conducted did not exceed 1600; now to adopt a new system ; or if and this too under a government it would not be better to pursue a than which there never a middle course, without going to milder, nor one by which the hap- either of the two extremes? With piness of the people was more con- reference to the first proposition, sulted. He did not know that and being of opinion that the char. there was ever a government pos- ter, if to be renewed, ought not to sessed of servants of greater ability be renewed for any shorter space or character than those of the East than 20 years, his lordship had no India company. He said, and he hesitation in saying, that the system said so with sincerity, that he did acted on for the last 20 years could not know of any set of public ser. not be persevered in for another vants whose merits' were so con- space of the same endurance, with spicuous, or whose acts of delin. regard to the interests of the pubquency were so few, as those of the lic at home, to those of the native East India company. Ministers, he population abroad, or to the genesaid, were called on to form a ral interests of the East India comjudgement as to what was fit to be pany itself. It was not desirable done, so as to consult the just rights that discussions of the nature of of the public of this country, and of the present should too frequently the East India company, taking care be gone into : therefore, if to be at the same time, not to lose sight renewed at all, he thought the

of the happiness of the native in- company's charter should be rehabitants of our Eastern empire. newed for 20 years. If this was They might have formed an erro- to be the case, then he could see no neous judgement in these respects. principle of justice or policy which They only wished, however, to be could warrant the house in tying convinced of this to retract. They up the capital of one-half of the had proceeded on a firm conviction globe, and confining the exclusive that what he had now to propose trade to India to the company, was safe and expedient. They were and to foreigners. That was so open, however, to conviction; and monstrous a proposition-one so if convinced they were wrong, they much out of the course of nature

that

that no principle could be found that the private trade had of late to support it. On what pretence years greatly increased, notwith. could it be argued that all British standing all the restrictions to which capital was to be excluded from it had been subjected by the East Intrade to British settlements, ex. dia company. Within the last 19 cept the capital of this com- years, it had risen towithin one-third pany; and that, in addition to of the total of the company's trade : the company, foreigners only this too, notwithstanding it was a were to be allowed a free trade? trade not carried on by those in. When it was said that the company terested in its extension, but rather had extended the trade to India to through the medium of an adverse the full amount to which it could commerce. It was impossible, in be carried, he could not help these circumstances, that this could doubting the assertion. But sup- be an inviting commerce, but much posing that to be so, he could by the reverse. Looking to it even no means go along with the idea in its present state, it was a trade that the trade to India was to re- much beyond the strength of the main stationary for the time for company to carry on to its full exwhich it was his intention to tent. He had long been of this propose that the charter should opinion; and that, the trade to be renewed. He was aware that India being one which was capable great danger was to be appre- of being gradually extended, it was hended from an over-speculation at quite inconsistent with the duty of the first throwing open of such a parliament to confine it within the Irade. Good, however, often came trammels of a chartered company, out of evil; and though he looked The only way of extending the with apprehension to the burst trade to its proper limits was, by which might be expected at the opening it to the public of this first opening of the trade, that was country, as it was only through the not a sufficient cause for a great shipping of this country that the country to despond, or to shut out object could be effected. Feeling the enterprising spirit of her mere the magnitude of the question, and chants. It was with commerce as the great length of statement with war; in the latter, many value into which he must necessarily able lives were sacrificed for the enter, his lordship said, he should country, and though the immediate at present avoid going into arguloss was to be deplored, yet the ments in support of his

propositions, country would thereby often have reserving to himself to do so on her dearest interests promoted. So some future occasion; his object it was with commerce. The first to-night being rather to develop his adventurers in a new trade might resolutions generally. The first go too far. They were the pio- resolution would be, in its general neers, however, who cleared the character, declaratory of the prinway for others; and though, at ciple, that the whole system of the first, a loss might arise from exceso East India company, as by law sive speculation, there could be established, should continue in full little doubt that new channels force, except far as it might be would, in that manner, be opened modified by the resolutions subfor the trade and manufactures of sequently to be moved: the course an enterprising and persevering of legislation, therefore, intended people. His lordship apprehended to be proposed, was the recognition

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