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their limbs broken by the fall of the stones in the Streets; you may easily judge what prodigious numbers must have perished in the churches and convents, as the first shock happened at high mass, when they were assembled at their devotions.

The whole number of persons that perished, including those that were burnt, or afterwards crushed to death whilst digging in the ruins, is supposed, on the lowest calculation, to amount to more than sixty thousand; and though the damage in other respects cannot be computed, yet you may form some idea of it, when I asa sure you, that this extensive and opulent city is now nothing but a vast heap of ruins, that the rich and poor are at present upon a level, some thousands of families, which but the day before had been easy in their circumstances, being now scattered about in the fields, wanting every conveniency of life, and finding none able to relieve them.

A few days after the first consternation was over, I ventured down into the city, by the safest

ways I could pick out, to see if there was a possibility of getting any thing out of my lodgings; but the ruins were now so augmented by the late fire, that I was so far from being able to distinguish the individual spot where the house stood, that I could not even distin. guish the street, amidst such mountains of stones and rubbish which rose on every side. Some days after, I ventured down again with several porters, who, having long plied in these parts of the town, were well acquainted with the situa. tion of particular houses; by their assistance, I är last discovered the spot; but was soon con..



vinced, to dig for any thing there, besides the danger of such an attempt, would never answer: the expence ;

and what further induced me lay aside all thoughts of the matter, was the sight of the ruins still smoaking, from whence I knew for certain, that those things I set the greatest value on must have been irrecoverably lost in the fire.

On both the times when I attempted to make this fruitless search, especially the first, there came such an intolerable stench from the dead bodies, that I was ready to faint away; and though it did not seem so great this last time, yet it had like to have been more fatal to me, as I contracted a fever by it; but of which, God be praised, I soon got the better. However, this made me so cautious for the future, that I avoided passing near certain places, where the stench was so excessive that people began to dread an infection : a gentleman told me, that going into the town a few days, after the earthquakes, he saw several bodies lying in the streets, some horribly mangled, as he supposed, by the dogs; others half burnt; some quite roasted ; and that in certain places, particularly near the doors of churches, they lay in vast heaps, piled upon one another.

They have been employed now for several days past in taking up the dead bodies, which are carried out into the neighbouring fields ; but the greater part still remain under the rub. bish, nor do I think it would be safe to remove, them, even though it were practicable, on aca: count of the stench.

I shall mention only one circumstance more, relating to this dreadful affair, as there appear.


ed something very extraordinary in it. One Mr. Burmaster, a Hamburgh merchant of this place, had received a letter from his partner at Hamburgh, advising him to remove a large quantity of flax, and other valuable effects, from the house he then resided in, to several distant warehouses in different parts of the city, giving as a reason for his desiring him to use this precaution, that he had dreamed, for fourteen nights together, the city of Lisbon was all on fire. You may depend on the veracity of the fact, as here related, since Mr. Burmaster publicly shewed this letter to every body. But whether the advice was owing to any supernatural warning, or merely accidental, it was of no manner of signification, as he did not pay the least regard to it; so that his goods shared the same fate with the rest of his

neighbours. Thus, my dear friend, have I given you a genuine, though imperfect account of this terrible judgment, which has left so deep an impression on my mind, that I shall never wear it off. I have lost all the money I had by me, and have saved no other clothes than what I have on my back; but what I regret most, is, the irreparable loss of my books and papers. To add to my present distress, those friends to whom I could have applied on any other occasion, are now in the same wretched circumstances with myself. However, notwithstand. ing all I have suffered, I do not think I have reason to despair, but rather, to return my grateful acknowledgments to the Almighty, who hath so visibly preserved my life, amidst such dangers, where so many thousands perished : and the same good. Providence, I trust, will Vol. XV.



still continue to protect me, and point out some means to extricate myself out of these difficulties.

As the place is in such disorder and confusion, that the administration of justice is put a stop to, and it is not likely that


business will be carried on for some time, I intend to take my passage for England, as soon as a convenient opportunity offers.

I am, &c.


CHAP. I. From the Accession of Euric to the Subversion of

the Gothic Monarchy by the Moors. THE kingdom of Spain, situated between between forty-six and forty-four degrees of north latitude, is bounded by the Pyrenean mountains on the north, by the Mediterranean on the east, by the Straits of Gibraltar on the south, and by the Atlantic Ocean on the west. It is said to be seven hundred miles long, and five hundred broad; and is supposed to contain about ten millions of inhabitants, on a surface of 150,763 square miles.

The soil is naturally good, though in many parts destitute of cultivation; and the face of the country is prettily diversified with extensive pastures, fertile vineyards, and numerous plantations of mulberry trees, which afford sustenance to myriads of silk worms, and offer an inviting umbrage to the way-worn traveller.


The mountains are clothed with verdure, and feathered with shrubs, to their very summits; the valleys are annually crowned with an exuberance of odoriferous herbs, delicious fruits, and valuable drugs; and even the bowels of the earth are enriched with several invaluable mines and quarries. Some salutiferous springs are, also, found at Granada, Seville, and Cordova ; and the refreshing breezes which frequently blow from the hills are admirably adapted, by an all gracious Providence, to counteract the effects of the intolerable heat, to which the southern districts are exposed, in the months of June, July, August, and September.

Among the animal productions of this country, horses claim the most distinguished place, as being deemed the most handsome, swift, and serviceable of any in Europe; the sheep are universally famed for their beautiful wool; mules and black cattle are also tolerably good ; and the wild bulls are so extremely ferocious, that a bull feast was formerly accounted one of the most magnificent entertainments at the Spanish court. Game and wild fowl, similar to those of the neighbouring countries, abound in most of the provinces; and the Spanish seas are stored with various and excellent species of fish.

In ancient times, Spain was famed for its valuable mines of gold and silver, and, though these have disappeared, it still affords iron, copper, lead, cornelian, agate, crystals, marble, porphyry, jasper, and various kinds of precious stones. The vegetable productions are also extremely numerous, particularly oranges,

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