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United States Coast Guard
Source: Office of the Commandant
The function of the United States Coast Guard is to enforce all Federal laws on navigable and territorial waters of the United States and to promote safety and security to vessels that use our waters for legitimate commerce and pleasure; to have all Coast Guard vessels and stations prepared for active war time duty with the Navy and to organize yachts and small craft and train their crews for duty in case of national emergency. The origin of the Coast Guard dates from August 4, 1790, when there was created by Act of Congress what was known as the Revenue-Marine and later as the Revenue-Cutter Service. Under the Act of January 28, 1915, the Revenue-Cutter Service and Life-Saving Service were merged into one single organization-the United States Coast Guard-which constitutes by law, a part of the military forces of the United States, operating under the Treasury Department in time of peace, and as a part of the Navy, subject to the orders of the Secretary of the Navy, in time of war or when the President shall so direct. The Coast Guard was further augmented when on July 1, 1939, as a part of President Roosevelt's reorganization plan number 2, the former Lighthouse Service was consolidated with it.
The Coast Guard has a personnel averaging for the calendar year 1941 about 600 commissioned officers, 800 chief warrant and warrant officers, 17,000 enlisted men and 4,000 civilian personnel. Ranks and ratings in the Coast Guard are similar to those established in the Navy and carry the same At present provisions as to pay and allowances. the Coast Guard material is composed of a fleet of 267 cutters (consisting of vessels of over 65 feet in length with armaments of 1-pounders, to the largest cutters of 327 feet in length carrying 5inch broadside batteries); 229 picket boats, 15 auxiliary craft, 30 lightships and 9 relief lightships. The aviation wing comprises 10 air stathe coast, and operates 50 tions, encircling planes. The shore establishment includes 197 active Coast Guard lifeboat stations, 47 inactive Training fastations and 3 houses of refuge. Coast Guard Academy, 4 cilities include the training stations for enlisted men, 4 Maritime Service Training Stations, and the Coast Guard Institute. In addition to these, there are the Coast Guard Yard for the construction and repair of boats and vessels, a communication sys
tem consisting of radio stations and some three thousand miles of coastal land wire and submarine cable, administrative offices, stores and bases. About 2800 small boats are attached to the ships and stations of the Service.
Organizing and training of yachtsmen is provided under the provisions of an Act of Congress of Feb. 19, 1941, which authorized a United States Coast Guard Auxiliary composed of citizens who are owners of motorboats or yachts and who may ministered by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. voluntarily enroll therein. This Auxiliary is ad
This act also created the Coast Guard Reserve, an organization similar to the Naval Reserve insofar as military obligations are concerned, the members of which, however, are not organized into active units. During the present emergency Reserve personnel are being called to active duty. The Coast Guard Academy, at New London, Connecticut, accommodates about 300 cadets. military embracing engineering, The course, A well rounded program of is for four years. science, cultural and other professional subjects, athletics is carried out, and each year a practice Upon graduation, a cadet is commissioned by the cruise, usually touching at foreign ports, is made. President as an ensign in the Coast Guard, receiving the same pay and allowances as an enwith a commuted ration. They are required to sign in the Navy. Cadets are paid $789 a year deposit $200 on entrance into the Service, to assist in paying for their uniforms; after this the pay is sufficient to meet all expenses.
Entrance is by competitive examination, held the middle of May each year at designated cities. A sound body is a requisite and the age limits are from 17 to 22 years. Applicants should be graduates from a high school, and a year of college or other preparation is desirable.
In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, according to official reports, Coast Guardsmen saved 8,928 lives.
Ships and aircraft of the Coast Guard have participated in the neutrality patrol which has been maintained for the past several months. Coast Guard officers have been designated as Captains of the Port in practically all the important ports of the country, and under their direction a large volume of defense patrol work is daily being carried out.
The U. S. Neutrality Act-Before and After
The so-called Neutrality Act of 1939-it was actually a joint resolution of the Senate and House set forth its purposes, as follows:
The United States, desiring to preserve its neutrality in wars between foreign states and desiring also to avoid involvement therein, voluntarily imposes on its nationals by domestic legislation the restrictions set out in this joint resolution.
Bo so doing the United States waives none of its own rights or privileges, or those of any of its nationals, under international law, and expressly reserves all the rights and privileges to which it and its nationals are entitled under the law of nations. Section 1 of the 1939 law said that, "whenever the President, or the Congress by concurrent resolution, shall find that there exists a state of war between foreign states, and that it is necessary to promote the security or preserve the peace of the United States or to protect the lives of citizens of the United States, the President shall issue a proclamation naming the states involved; and he shall, from time to time, by proclamation, name other states as and when they may become involved in the war."
Section 2 of the 1939 law said that whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of Section 1 it shall thereafter be unlawful for any American vessel to carry any passengers or any articles or materials to any state named in such proclamation.
Section 3 of the 1939 law said whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of Section 1, and he shall thereafter
find that the protection of citizens of the United States so requires, he shall, by proclamation, define combat areas, and thereafter it shall be unlawful, except under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed, for any citizen of the United States or any American vessel to proceed into or through any such combat area. The combat areas so defined may be made to ply to surface vessels or aircraft, or both.
Section 6 of the law of 1939 provided that whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of Section 1, it shall thereafter be unlawful, until such proclamation is revoked, for any American vessel, engaged in commerce with any foreign state to be armed, except with small arms and ammunition therefor, which the President may deem necessary and shall publicly designate for the preservation of discipline aboard any such vessel.
The 1939 Act (joint resolution) was approved on Nov. 4 of that year, at 12:04 p.m.
THE JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1941
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That Section 2 of the Neutrality Act of 1939 (relating to commerce with States engaged in armed conflict), and section 3 of such Act (relating to combat areas), are hereby repealed. Section 2. Section 6 of the Neutrality Act of 1939 (relating to the arming of American vessels) is hereby repealed; and, during the unlimited national emergency proclaimed by the President on May 27, 1941, the President is authorized, through such agency as he may designate, to arm, or to permit or cause to be armed, any American vessel as defined in such Act. The provisions of
section 16 of the Criminal Code (relating to bonds
Approved, Nov. 17, 1941, 4:30 p.m. E.S.T. (Eastern
The Act of 1939 stated that "it shall be unlawful
Any vessel violating that provision is denied for 3 months the right to enter the ports or territorial waters of the U. S. except in cases of force majeure.
United States Pension Statistics
Source: An Official of the Administration
(Includes pensions, compensation, disability allowance, and Emergency Officers' retirement pay) By Executive Order of July 21, 1930, the Veterans' Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions, and the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, were consolidated in accordance with the Act of Congress, approved July 3, 1930, by the President. The com
Year Soldiers | Widows | Tot. on | Total Disb. (Fis'l) on Roll on Roll Pen. Roll for Pensions No. No. No. 1890... 415.654 122,200 537,914 1900... 752,510 241,019 993,529 1901... 748,649 249,086 997,735 1902... 739,443 260,003 999,446 1903... 729,356 267,189 996,545 1904... 720,921 273,841 994,762 1905... 717,761 280,680 998,441 1906... 701,483 284,488 985,971 1907... 679,937 287,434 967,371 1908... 658,071 293,616 951,687 1909... 632,557 313.637 946,194 1910... 602,622 318,461 921,083 1911... 570,456 321,642 892,098 1912... 538,362 321,932 860,294 1913... 5C3,633 316,567 820,200 1914... 470,623 314,616 785,239 1915... 437,723 310,424 1916... 403,372 306,200 1917... 370.147 302.964 1918... 341,632 307,865 1919... 338.216 335.616 1920.. 419,627 349,916 769,543
709,572 673.111 649,497
bined organization is known as the Veterans' Administration under the direction of Brig. Gen. Frank T. Hines, formerly Director of the Veterans' Bureau, now Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.
Soldiers Widows | Tot. on Total Disb. on Roll on Roll Pen. Roll for Pensions No. Dollars 768,572 380,025,874 772,379 377,158,125 778,180 388,606,769 762,547 345,489,769
816,380 403,629,677 834,364 410,765,338 831,964 418,820,440
1921... 138,462,130 1922. 430,942 138,531,483 1923.. 436,776 137,504,267 1924... 427,153 137,759,653 1925... 456,530 141,093,571 1926... 472,623 141,142,861 1927... 489,805 139,000,288 1928... 516,566 138,155,412 1929... 525,961 153,093,086 1930... 542,610 298,223 840,833 418,432,808 161,973,703 1931... 790,782 289,205 1,079,987 159,974,056 1932... 994,351 283,695 1,278,046 157,325,160 1933... 997,918 272,749 1,270,667 152,986,433 1934... 581,225 257,630 838,855 174,171,660 1935.. 585,955 252,982 838,937 374,407,169 172,417,546 1936.. 600,562 251,470 852,032 398.992,478 165,518,266 1937.. 598,510 243,427 841,937 396,030,052 159,155,089 1938.. 600,848 236,105 836,953 402,768.696 160,895,053 1939.. 602,757 239,674 842,431 416,703,868 180,176,694 1940.. 610,122 239,176 849,298 429,138,465 233,460.635 1941.. 618,926 237,515 856,441 433,113,953 316,418,029
Figures for widows on roll represent the number of deceased veterans.
PENSIONERS ON THE ROLL, JUNE 30, 1941 (1940 Figures in Parentheses)
War with Spain Soldiers and nurses, 153,072 (159,230); widows, etc., 60,555 (57,720),
Indian Wars-6oldiers, 1,955 (2,216); widows, etc.. 3,836 (4,055).
War with Mexico-Widows, etc., 107 (130).
Regular Establishment Soldiers, 37,520 (36,051); widows, etc., 10,860 (10,126).
World War Soldiers, service connected. 349,724 (348,164); non-service connected, 72,478 (60,296);
Emergency Officers receiving retirement pay, 2,617 (1,784); widows, etc., service connected, 96,833 (99,479); non-service connected, 22,010 (17,524). Pensioners by classes Soldiers, 618,926 (610,122); widows, etc., 237,515 (239,176).
Pensions paid during fiscal year 1941-Civil War, $23,173,466.95; War with Spain, $127,357,083.20; World War, $261,939,634.55; all other, $20,643,768.06.
The total number of ex-service men admitted to hospitals or facilities to June 30, 1941, was 1,218,762.
OTHER VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES On June 30, 1941, there were 91 facilities under direct control of the Veterans' Administration for hospitalization and domiciliary care of veterans and, in addition to these, 37 hospitals of other Governmental Agencies and 102 Civil and State Institutions were being utilized by the Veterans' Administration.
The total disbursements made by the Veterans' Administration to June 30, 1941, exclusive of amounts disbursed under the Civil Service and Canal Zone Retirement Acts, amounted to $24.992,076.54 was from insurance premiums and trust 613,636,993.12, and of these disbursements $1,309,
The total number of veterans remaining in all facilities and hospitals on June 30, 1941, was 58,160 under hospital care and 13,978 under domiciliary
The largest items are: Adjusted Service Certificates, $3,751,769,477.11 (which amount represents payments made on Adjusted Service Certificates and amounts reimbursed to the U. S. Government Life Insurance Fund on account of loans made from the fund on certificates under the provisions of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act as amended and the Adjusted Compensation Act of 1936); compensation and pension benefits to veterans and dependents of deceased veterans of all. Wars including Regular Establishment soldiers from 1790 to June 30, 1941, $14,564,974,831.28; military and naval insurance (Term), $2,162,392,039.28; vocational training, $644,874,599.36.
The Berlin-Rome axis-a term used to describe the political friendship and collaboration between Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the German Reich, and Benito Mussolini, Premier of Italy-was born out of the Italian-Ethiopian war. At that time (1935) when the League of Nations applied economic penalties to Italy in an effort to cripple her military adventure, Germany refused to subscribe to the sanctions. Hitler paid a State visit (May. 1938) and was wildly acclaimed by 300,000 spectators. The visit was in return to one paid to Berlin (Sept. 1937) by Mussolini. In the absorption of Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and Memel, Mussolini has given approval to the tactics of Hitler and in return received Hitler's support in the conquest of Albania.
Germany and Italy signed in Berlin (May 22, 1939) a ten-year unconditional and automatic of
fensive and defensive alliance that provides for the closest political, economic and military collaboration in peace and war. The declared object of the alliance is to reorganize Europe and promote aggrandizement of the two nations and thereby create a just peace" throughout the world. The pact provides:
In peace constant contact between the two govinterests or the European situation. ernments in all matters affecting their common
In case of danger, immediate consultation on the full political and diplomatic support for counter-measures to meet the danger. Finally, in case of war involving one partner, all military forces by land, sea and air. no matter how started, full mutual support with
have supreme command on the land and Italy or In war it was understood that Germany would
American Army Battle Casualties in World War
Source: United States Army and Navy Records
A. E. F.
Nature of Casualty
A. E. F. (Sib.) Off- Enl.
Offi- Army Ent. Aggrecers Nur's Men Total ic's Men Tot. cers Nur's Men gate
United States Navy Losses at Sea in World War-Killed in action, 30 officers and 326 men; died of wounds. 6 officers and 52 men; lost at sea, 41 officers and 416 men; total, 77 officers and 794 men,
26 27 8 8 559 48 52 6,475 87 8,690
Declarations of War 1914-18 to Armistice Nov.
Source: Government records here and abroad
The Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) made declarations of war against the following Allies on the dates named(1914) Serbia, July 28; Russia, Aug. 1; France, Aug. 3; Belgium, Aug. 7; Montenegro, Aug. 9; Japan, Aug. 27; Britain, Nov. 23.
(1916) Portugal, March 9; Roumania, Aug. 27. The following Allies and their associates (Britain, the United States, etc.) made declarations of war against the Central Powers on the dates named(1914) France, Aug. 3; Britain, Aug. 4; Serbia and Montenegro, Aug. 6; Japan, Aug. 23; Russia, Nov. 3.
(1915) Italy, May 23; San Marino, June 6.
(1916) Roumania, Aug. 27; Portugal and Greece, Nov. 23.
(1917) the United States, April 6; Belgium, Panama and Cuba, April 7; Siam, July 22; Liberia,
(1918) March 3, in Brest-Litovsk, between Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey; (1918) March 7, between Germany and Finland: (1919) June 28, in Versailles, between Germany and Allies; (1919) Sept. 10, at St. Ger
Aug. 4; China, Aug. 14; Brazil, Oct. 26; AustriaHungary, Dec. 7.
(1918) Guatemala, April 21; Nicaragua, May 6; Haiti, July 12: Honduras, July 19.
The joint resolution of Congress, approved April 6. 1917, provides "That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared."
The existence of a state of war between the United States of America and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government was declared by joint resolution of Congress approved Dec. 7. 1917. Russia surrendered to Central Powers Dec. 16, 1917; Roumania, May 6, 1918.
Bulgaria surrendered to the Allies Sept. 29, 1918; Turkey, Oct. 30, 1918; Austria-Hungary, Nov. 3. 1918; Germany, Nov. 11, 1918.
main, between Austria and Allies; (1919) Nov. 27, in Neuilly, between Bulgaria and Allies; (1920) June 4, in the Grand Trianon, between Hungary and Allies; (1920) Aug. 10, in Sevres, between Turkey and Allies.
U. S. PEACE PACTS WITH (Memorandum by the Department of State) "Treaty between the U. S. and Germany Restoring Friendly Relations signed at Berlin, Aug. 25, 1921; ratification advised by Senate, Oct. 18. 1921; ratified by the President, Oct. 21, 1921; ratified by Germany, Nov. 2, 1921; ratifications exchanged at Berlin, Nov. 11, 1921; proclaimed, Nov. 14, 1921.
Treaty between the U. S. and Austria Estabhishing Friendly Relations signed at Vienna, Aug. 24, 1921; ratification advised by Senate, Oct. 18, 1921; ratified by the President, Oct. 21, 1921: ratiGed by Austria, Oct. 8, 1921; ratifications exchanged |
at Vienna, Nov. 8, 1921; proclaimed, Nov. 17, 1921. "Treaty between the U. S. and Hungary Establishing Friendly Relations signed at Budapest, Aug. 29, 1921; ratification advised by Senate, Oct. 18, by Hungary, Dec. 12, 1921; ratifications exchanged 1921; ratified by President, Oct. 21, 1921: ratified at Budapest, Dec. 17, 1921; proclaimed Dec. 20.
"In proclaiming the treaties Restoring Friendly Relations with Germany and Austria, the President declared the state of war between the U, S. and the Governments of Germany and Austria to have terminated on July 2, 1921."
Chief Dates in First Two Years of War in Europe
Sept. 1-German troops invade Poland under cover of air bombardments. Poland appeals to Great Britain and France for aid.
Sept. 3 Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. Liner Athenia sunk with loss of 142 lives.
Sept. 5-President Roosevelt proclaims the neutrality of the United States.
Sept. 17-Russian troops cross the border and begin occupation of Eastern Poland.
Sept. 22--Germany and Russia agree to the partition of Poland.
Sept. 27-Warsaw capitulates unconditionally after devastating air bombardment.
Sept. 29-Germany and Russia divide Poland. Oct. 6-Chancellor Hitler makes first peace offer in a speech in the Reichstag.
Oct. 14-German submarine torpedoes and sinks British battleship Royal Oak in Scapa Flow; 786 lives lost.
Nov. 30-Russia attacks Finland by air, land and sea.
Dec. 2-British cruisers Exeter, Ajax and Achilles engage pocket battleship Graf Spee in 11-hour battle off Montevideo; German warship forced to take refuge in harbor.
Dec. 17-Germans scuttle damaged Graf Spee in Montevideo harbor when time for repairs expires. 1940
March 12-Finnish-Russian peace treaty signed in Moscow.
April 9-Germany invades and occupies Denmark virtually without opposition. German troops seize chief cities in Norway.
April 15-British and Allied troops land in fjords
May 2 Allies withdraw troops from Norway south of Trondheim.
May 10-Germany invades Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg. Neville Chamberlain resigns as Prime Minister of Great Britain and is succeeded by Winston Churchill.
May 14-The Netherlands capitulates to the German forces. Queen Wilhelmina flees to
May 17-Nazi troops enter Brussels after Allied troops suffer reverses on a line from Antwerp south to Bethel, 100 miles from Paris.
May 18 The German High Command opens a drive to separate the Allies with a smash to the Channel ports.
May 19-Gen. Maxine Weygand replaces Gen. Maurice Gamelin as Generalissimo of the Allied forces.
May 26-German forces reach the Channel and Occupy Boulogne.
May 28-King Lecpold and the Belgian army surrender. Allied troops capture Narvik.
May 29 British troops begin evacuation of Dunkirk under heavy dive bombing attack.
June 3-Nazi bombers raid Paris. Germans mass force of 600,000 troops on Argonne front in a thrust to turn the left flank of the Belgian line. June 5-Germans open new offensive along the Somme.
June 10-Italy enters war against France and
June 14 German troops occupy Paris.
premier of France and seeks an armistice with Germany.
June 22-Armistice is signed in same railroad car in Compeigne where Germany sued for peace in 1918. Armistice terms give Germany control of entire French coast.
June 25-Armistice with Italy is signed. Hostilities in France end.
June 28-Russia begins occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukowina in Rumanía.
July 3-The British Navy destroys or incapacitates the major units of the French fleet off the harbor of Mers-el-Kebir, the naval base of Orán. Aug. 8-Germany opens an air blitzkrieg against Great Britain.
Aug. 19 Great Britain withdraws from British Somaliland.
Aug. 28-German raiders drop incendiary bombs on London and the British bomb Berlin for three hours.
Sept. 16-President Roosevelt signs the Selective Service Act and proclaims Oct. 16 as registration day.
Sept. 22-Japanese troops enter French IndoChina and establish a base for operations against China.
Sept. 27-Japan joins the Berlin-Rome Axis. Oct. 4-Reichchancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini confer under heavy guard at Brenner Pass on joint future moves in the war.
Oct. 10-St. Paul's in London is bombed by German fliers.
Oct. 11-German troops occupy strategic military points in Rumania. Rumanian army is disbanded. Oct. 18-Great Britain reopens the Burma road. Japanese planes bomb the highway.
by German air raiders as the attack enters its Oct. 19-Heavy damage is inflicted on London seventh week. Royal Air Force continues raids on invasion ports and industrial centers in Germany.
Oet. 24-Chancellor Hitler and Marshal Petain, accompanied by Gen. Franco of Spain confer in Occupied France.
Oct. 17-Italian planes join in the bombing of England while the R. A. F. reply with attacks on German and Italian cities.
Oct. 28-Italy invades Greece; Great Britain promises help to Greece.
Nov. 8-Chancellor Hitler in Munich speech rejects any compromise.
Nov. 13-Chancellor Hitler and Soviet Commissar Molotov confer.
Nov. 14-Greek army launches a general offensive against the Italians.
Nov. 15-Coventry, England, is blasted by German air bombers.
Nov. 20-Hungary joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. Nov. 23-Rumania joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. Nov. 24-Slovakia joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. Dec. 17-British capture three Italian forts in Africa.
Dec. 21-Berlin suffers longest and most destructive air raid of the war.
Dec. 24-Pope Pius pleads for a "just peace." Dec. 29-Greek troops capture three strategic Albanian villages.
Dec. 31-Chancellor Hitler, in a New Year's speech, promises German people victory in 1941. (For chief dates of war in 1941 see War Chronology).
Roosevelt's Warning of a "Shooting War”
President Roosevelt, in a speech broadcast to! the American people and the world (Sept. 11. 1941), warned Germany and Italy that from that date on the United States Navy and its planes would fire on sight at Axis war vessels-he called them "the rattlesnakes of the Atlantic"-if they ventured into seas that were vital to United States defense.
After citing Axis attacks and the loss of four United States ships in widely separated waters, the President said:
"Upon our naval and air patrol-now operating in large number over a vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean-falls the duty of maintaining the American policy of freedom of the seas-now. That means, very simply, very clearly, that our patrolling vessels and planes will protect all merchant ships not only American ships but ships of any flagengaged in commerce in our defensive waters. They will protect them from submarines; they will protect them from surface raiders.
"It is no act of war on our part when we decide to protect the seas that are vital to American defense. The aggression is not ours. Ours is solely defense.
"But let this warning be clear. From now on, if German or Italian vessels of war enter the waters the protection of which is necessary for American defense, they do so at their own peril. "The orders which I have given as Commander in Chief of the United States Army and Navy are to carry out that policy-at once.
"The sole responsibility rests upon Germany. There will be no shooting unless Germany continues to seek it.
"That is my obvious duty in this crisis. That is the clear right of this sovereign nation. This is the only step possible, if we would keep tight the wall of defense which we are pledged to maintain around this Western Hemisphere."
The United States Navy, under "shoot first" orders, began a convoy patrol (Sept. 16) for LendLease cargoes in transit from the United States to Iceland.
Peace Aims of United States and Great Britain
President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met "Somewhere on the Atlantic" early in August, 1941, and issued a joint declaration of the peace aims of the United States and Great Britain. The official statement, covering the meeting, issued in Washington (Aug. 14), said: The President of the United States and the Prime of the peoples concerned: Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, have met at
They have been accompanied by officials of their two governments, including high ranking officers of their military, naval and air services.
The whole problem of the supply of munitions of war, as provided by the Lease-Lend Act, for the armed forces of the Unted States and for those countries actively engaged in resisting aggression has been further examined.
Lord Beaverbrook, the Minister of Supply of the British Government. has joined in these conferences. He is going to proceed to Washington to discuss further details with appropriate officials of the United States Government. These conferences will also cover the supply problems of the Soviet Union.
The President and the Prime Minister have had several conferences. They have considered the dangers to world civilization arising from the policies of military domination by conquest upon which the Hitlerite government of Germany and other governments associated therewith have embarked, and have made clear the steps which their countries are respectively taking for their safety in the face of these dangers.
They have agreed upon the following joint declaration:
The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world.
First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;
Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes
Full adherence to the Atlantic Charter as drawn up by President Roosevelt and Prime Mininter Churchill was pledged (Sept. 24, 1941) by the free governments of nine European countries and by the
Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;
Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity:
Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic adjustment and social security;
Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;
Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance;
Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT,
Soviet Union. The nine governments are Belgium, Free France, Czecho-Slovakia, Greece, Luxemburg. the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia.
Proclamation of Unlimited National Emergency
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WHEREAS on September 8, 1939, because of the outbreak of war in Europe a proclamation was issued declaring a limited national emergency and directing measures "for the purpose of strengthening our national defense within the limits of peacetime authorizations,"
WHEREAS a succession of events makes plain that the objectives of the Axis belligerents in such war are not confined to those avowed at its commencement, but include overthrow throughout the world of existing democratic order, and a worldwide domination of peoples and economies through the destruction of all resistance on land and sea and in the air, and
WHEREAS indifference on the part of the United States to the increasing menace would be perilous, and common prudence requires that for the security of this nation and of this hemisphere we should pass from peacetime authorization of military strength to such a basis as will enable us to cope instantly and decisively with any attempt at hostile encirclement of this hemisphere, or the establishment of any base for aggression against it, as well as to repel the threat of predatory incursion by foreign agents into our territory and society,
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, President of the United States of America, do proclaim that an unlimited national emergency confronts this country, which requires that its military, naval, air and civilian defenses be put on the basis of readiness to repel any and all acts or threats of aggression directed toward any part of the Western Hemisphere.
I call upon all the loyal citizens engaged in production for defense to give precedence to the needs of the nation to the end that a system of government that makes private enterprise possible may survive.
I call upon our loyal workmen as well as employers to merge their lesser differences in the larger effort to insure the survival of the only kind of government which recognizes the rights of labor or of capital.
I call upon loyal State and local leaders and officials to cooperate with the civilian defense agencies of the United States to assure our internal security against foreign directed subversion and to put every community in order for maximum productive effort and minimum of waste and unnecessary
I call upon all loyal citizens to place the nation's needs first in mind and in action to the end that we may mobilize and have ready for instant defensive use all of the physical powers, all of the moral strength and all of the material resources of this nation.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington this twenty-seventh day of May, in the Year of Our Lord Nineteen Hundred and Forty-one, and of the Independence of The United States of America the [Seal] One Hundred and Sixty-fifth. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
By the President:
CORDELL HULL, Secretary of State.