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Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and Würtemburg, desiring to extend to armies on the sea the advantages of the Convention concluded at Geneva the 22d of August, 1864, for the amelioration of the condition of wounded soldiers in armies in the field, and to further particularize some of the stipulations of the said Convention, have named for their commissioners:

Rights of emARTICLE I. The persons desigployees, etc., in hospitals or amnated in Article II. of the Convenbulances; their tion shall, after the occupation by

release and departure.

the enemy, continue to fulfil their duties, according to their wants, to the sick and wounded in the ambulance or the hospital which they serve. When they request to withdraw, the commander of the occupying troops shall fix the time of departure, which he shall only

Les Gouvernements de l'Allemagne du Nord, de l'Autriche, Bade, la Bavière, la Belgique, le Danemark, la France, la Grande Bretagne, l'Italie, les Pays-Bas, Suède et Norvége, la Suisse, la Turquie, le Wurtemberg, désirant étendre aux armées de mer les avantages de la Convention conclue à Genève, le 22 août 1864, pour l'amélioration du sort des militaires blessés dans les armées en campagne, et préciser davantage quelques-unes des stipulations de la dite Convention, ont nommé pour leurs Commissaires:

ARTICLE I. Le personnel désigné dans l'article deux de la Convention continuera, après l'occupation par l'ennemi, à donner dans la mesure des besoins, ses soins aux malades et aux blessés de l'ambulance on de l'hôspital qu'il dessert. Lorsqu'il demandera à se retirer, le commandant des troupes occupantes fixera le moment de ce dé part, qu'il ne pourra toutefois

1On the 20th of October, 1868, the above additional articles were proposed and signed at Geneva on behalf of Great Britain, Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, North Germany, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and Würtemberg.

be allowed to delay for a short time in case of military necessity. ART. II. Arrangements will have to be made by the belligerent powers to ensure to the neutralized person, fallen into the hands of the army of the enemy, the entire enjoyment of his salary.

ART. III. Under the conditions provided for in Articles I. and IV. of the Convention, the name "ambulance" applies to field hospitals and other temporary establishments, which follow the troops on the field of battle to receive the sick and wounded.

ART. IV. Inconformity with the spirit of Article V. of the Convention, and to the reservations contained in the protocol of 1864, it is explained that for the appointment of the charges relative to the quartering of troops, and of the contributions of war, account only shall be taken in an equitable manner of the charitable zeal displayed by the inhabitants.

ART. V. In addition to Article VI. of the Convention, it is stipulated that, with the reservation of officers whose detention might be important to the fate of arms and within the limits fixed by the second paragraph of that article, the wounded fallen into the hands of the enemy shall be sent back to their country, after they are cured, or sooner if possible, on condition, nevertheless, of not again bearing arms during the continuance of the war.

[Articles concerning the Marine.]

différer que pour une courte durée en cas de nécessités militaires.


the term


ART. II. Des dispositions de- Salary of neutrals etc., when vront être prises par les Puissances i n enemy's belligérantes pour assurer au personnel neutralisé, tombé entre les mains de l'armée ennemie, la jouissance intégrale de son traitement. ART. III. Dans les conditions Definition of prévues par les articles un et qua- bulance." tre de la Convention, la dénomination d'ambulance s'applique aux hôpitaux de campagne et autres établissements temporaires qui suivent les troupes sur les champs de bataille pour y recevoir des malades et des blessés.

ART. IV. Conformément à l'esprit de l'article cinq de la Convention et aux réserves mentionnées au Protocole de 1864, il est expliqué que pour la répartition des charges relatives au logement de troupes et aux contributions de guerre, il ne sera tenu compte que dans la mesure de l'équité du zèle charitable déployé par les habi


Charges for quartering of troops, and contributions, etc.

returned to their

dition of not

ART. V. Par extension de l'arti- Wounded to be cle six de la Convention, il est country on constipulé que sous la réserve des offi-again bearing ciers dont la possession importerait arms in the war. au sort des armes, et dans les limites fixées par le deuxième paragraphe de cet article, les blessés tombésentre les mains de l'ennemi, lors même qu'ils ne seraient pas reconnus incapables de servir, devront être renvoyés dans leur pays après leur guérison, ou plus tôt si faire se peut, à la condition toutefois de ne pas reprendre les armes pendant la durée de la guerre.

Articles concernant la Marine.


ART. VI. The boats which, at their own risk and peril, during and after an engagement pick up the shipwrecked or wounded, or which having picked them up, ou des blessés, les portent à bord

ART. VI. Les embarcations qui, Boats picking up the shipà leurs risques et périls, pendant wrecked wounded, etc. et après le combat, recueillent ou qui, ayant recueilli des naufragés

'This interpretation is of especial importance in the United States, where the term "ambulance" is generally applied to a vehicle for the transportation of the sick and wounded.

tured vessel declared neutral.

convey them on board a neutral or hospital ship, shall enjoy, until the accomplishment of their mission, the character of neutrality, so far as the circumstances of the engagement and the position of the ships engaged will permit.

The appreciation of these circumstances is entrusted to the humanity of all the combatants. The wrecked and wounded thus picked and saved must not serve again during the continuance of the war.

Religious, medART. VII. The religious, medical, and hospital staff of a cap-ical, and hospital staff of any captured vessel are declared neutral, and, on leaving the ship, may remove the articles and surgical instruments which are their private property.

Duties of staff officers, etc.

Pay and allowance of staff.

to be used for

ART. VIII. The staff designated in the preceding article must continue to fulfil their functions in the captured ship, assisting in the removal of the wounded made by the victorious party; they will then be at liberty to return to their country, in conformity with the second paragraph of the first additional article.

The stipulations of the second additional article are applicable to the pay and allowance of the staff.

Captured hos- ART. IX. The military hospital pital ships to remain under mar- ships remain under martial law in tial law, etc.; not all that concerns their stores; they other purposes. become the property of the captor, but the latter must not divert them from their special appropriation during the continuance of the war.1

d'un navire soit neutre, soit hospitalier, jouiront jusqu'à l'accomplissement de leur mission de la part de neutralité que les circonstances du combat et la situation des navires en conflit permettront de leur appliquer.

L'appéciation de ces circonstances est confiée à l'humanité de tous les combattants. Les naufragés et les blessés ainsi recueillis et sauvés ne pourront servir pendant la durée de la guerre.

ART. VII. Le personnel religieux, médical et hospitalier de tout bâtiment capturé, est déclaré neutre. Il emporte, en quittant le navire, les objets et les instruments de chirurgie qui sont sa propriété particulière.

ART. VIII. Le personnel désigné dans l'article précédent doit continuer à remplir ses fonctions sur la bâtiment capturé, concourir aux évacuations de blessés faites par le vainqueur, puis il doit être libre de rejoindre son pays, conformément au second paragraphe du premier article additionnel cidessus.

Les stipulations du deuxième article additionnel ci-dessus sont applicables au traitement de ce personnel.

ART. IX. Les bâtiments hôpitaux militaires restent soumis aux lois de la guerre, en ce qui concerne leur matériel; ils deviennent la propriété du capteur, mais celuici ne pourra les détourner de leur affection spéciale pendant la durée de la guerre.

In the published English text, from which this version of the Additional Articles is taken, the following paragraph (marked in brackets) appears in continuation of Article IX. It is not, however, found in the original French text adopted by the Geneva conference October 20, 1868:

[The vessels not equipped for fighting, which, during peace, the Government shall have officially declared to be intended to serve as floating hospital ships, shall, however, enjoy during the war complete neutrality, both as regards stores, and also as regards their staff, provided their equipment is exclusively appropriated to the special service on which they are employed.]

By an instruction sent to the United States minister at Berne, January 20, 1883, the right is reserved to omit this paragraph from the English text, and to make any other necessary corrections, if at any time hereafter the Additional Articles shall be completed by the exchange of the ratifications hereof between the several signatory and adhering powers.

ART. X. Any merchantman, to whatever nation she may belong, charged exclusively with removal of sick and wounded, is protected by neutrality, but the mere fact, noted on the ship's books, of the vessel having been visited by an enemy's cruiser, renders the sick and wounded incapable of serving during the continuance of the war. The cruiser shall even have the right of putting on board an officer in order to accompany the convoy, and thus verify the good faith of the operation.

If the merchant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality will still protect it, provided that such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerents.

The belligerents retain the right to interdict neutralized vessels from all communication, and from any course which they may deem prejudicial to the secrecy of their operations. In urgent cases special conventions may be entered into

between commanders-inchief, in order to neutralize temporarily and in a special manner the vessel intended for the removal of the sick and wounded.

ART. XI. Wounded or sick sailors and soldiers, when embarked, to whatever nation they may belong, shall be protected and taken care of by their captors.

Their return to their own country is subject to the provisions of Article VI. of the Convention, and of the additional Article V.

ART. X. Tout bâtiment de com- Merchant vessels performing merce à quelque nation qu'il ap- hospital duty to partienne, chargé exclusivement be treated as neutral; visited by de blessés et de malades dont il enemy's cruiser rendering sick opère l'évacuation, est couvert par and wounded inla neutralité; mais le fait seul de further war servcapacitated from la visite, notifié sur le journal du ice. bord, par un crosieur ennemi, rend les blessés et les malades incapable de servir pendant la durée de la guerre. Le croiseur aura même le droit de mettre à bord un commissaire pour accompagner le convoi et vérifier ainsi la bonne foi de l'opération.


Si le bâtiment de commerce Cargo of merchant ship procontenait en outre un chargement, tected; la neutralité le couvrirait encore proviso. pourvu que ce chargement ne fût pas de nature à être confisqué par le belligérant.

Les belligérants conservent le Right of beldroit d'interdire aux bâtiments ligerents. neutralisés toute communication et toute direction qu'ils jugeraient nuisibles au secret de leurs opérations. Dans les cas urgents, des conventions particulières pourront être faites entre les commandantsen-chef pour neutraliser momentanément d'une manière spéciale les navires destinés à l'évacuation des blessés et des malades.

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ART. XII. The distinctive flag to be used with the national flag, in order to indicate any vessel or boat which may claim the benefits of neutrality, in virtue of the principles of this Convention, is a white flag with a red cross. The belligerents may exercise in this respect any mode of verification which they may deem necessary. gent nécessaire.

Military hospitals painted white, etc.

Hospital ships, etc., and staff to be treated as neutral.

Flag sign, etc., of neutrality.

Aid and assistance to wounded

Military hospital ships shall be distinguished by being painted white outside, with green strake.

ART. XIII. The hospital ships which are equipped at the expense of the aid societies, recognized by the governments signing this Convention, and which are furnished with a commission emanating from the sovereign, who shall have given express authority for their being fitted out, and with a certificate from the proper naval authority that they have been placed under his control during their fitting out and on their final departure, and that they were then appropriated solely to the purpose of their mission, shall be considered neutral, as well as the whole of their staff. They shall be recognized and protected by the belligerents.

They shall make themselves known by hoisting, together with their national flag, the white flag with a red cross. The distinctive mark of their staff, while performing their duties, shall be an armlet of the same colors. The outer painting of these hospital ships shall be white, with red strake.

These ships shall bear aid and and wrecked bel- assistance to the wounded and ligerents, with wrecked belligerents, without disnationality. tinction of nationality.

out distinction of

Rights of bel

They must take care not to interfere in any way with the movements of the combatants. During and after the battle they must do their duty at their own risk and peril.

The belligerents shall have the ligerents to control and visit ves- right of controlling and visiting sels, etc. them; they will be at liberty to refuse their assistance, to order them to depart, and to detain them if the exigencies of the case require such a step.

Wounded and The wounded and wrecked wrecked picked ur, etc., car: not picked up by these ships cannot be reclaimed. be reclaimed by either of the com

Les bâtiments hôpitaux militaires seront distingués par une peinture extérieure blanche avec batterie verte.

ART. XIII. Les navires hospitaliers, équipés aux frais des sociétés de secours reconnues par les Gouvernements signataires de cette Convention, pourvus de commission émanée du Souverain qui aura donné l'autorisation expresse de leur armement, et d'un document de l'autorité maritime compétente, stipulant qu'ils ont été soumis à son contrôle pendant leur armement et à leur départ final, et qu'ils étaient alors uniquement appropriés au but de leur mission, seront considérés comme neutres ainsi que tout leur personnel. Ils seront respectés et protégés par les belligérants.

Ils se feront reconnaître en hissant avec leur pavillon national, le pavillon blanc à croix rouge. La marque distinctive de leur personnel dans l'exercice de ses fonctions sera un brassard aux mêmes couleurs; leur peinture extérieure sera blanche avec batterie rouge.

Ces navires porteront secours et aux blessés et aux assistance naufragés des belligérants sans distinction de nationalité.

Ils ne devront gêner en aucune manière les mouvements des combattants. Pendant et après le combat, ils agiront à leurs risques et périls.

Les belligérants auront sur eux le droit de contrôle et de visite; ils pourront refuser leur concours, leur enjoindre de s'éloigner et les détenir si la gravité des circonstances l'exigeait.

Les blessés et les naufragés recueillis par ces navires ne pourront être réclamés par aucun des

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