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United States Military Academy, West Point, N. Y.
Source: An Official of the Institution
The authorized strength of the U. S. Corps of Cadets is 1,960 Cadets, appointed in number and from source as follows:
Six from each State at Large, 288; 3 from each Congressional district, 1,305; 3 from each Territory (Hawaii and Alaska), 6; 5 from the District of Columbia, 5; 3 from Natives of Puerto Rico, 3; 1 from Panama Canal Zone, 1; 172 from the United States at Large*, 172; 180 from among the enlisted men of the Regular Army and of the National Guard, in number as nearly equal as practicable, 180. Total, 1,960.
Of the number named 3 are appointed upon the recommendation of the Vice President, 40 are selected from among the honor graduates of those educational institutions designated as "honor military schools"; and 40 are chosen from among the sons of veterans who were killed in action or died prior to July 2, 1921, of wounds received or disease contracted in line of duty during the World War.
Candidates are eligible for admission from the day they are 17 (or 19 if from the Regular Army or from the National Guard) until the day they become 22 years of age, on which latter day they are not eligible.
Appointments to the Academy are made only to fill vacancies as they may occur, and candidates may be designated one year in advance of admission. For each vacancy from a State or Congressional district three candidates may be nominated, a principal, a first alternate, and a second alternate. The selection of these candidates is left entirely with the Senator or Representative who has the vacancy at his disposal.
Each candidate must pass a rigid physical examination and none is accepted who has any defect or infirmity which renders him unfit for military service. In addition, each candidate must pass an examination in the subjects of Algebra, Geometry, English Grammar, Composition and Literature. and History. However, graduates of accredited
high schools and students at accredited universities and colleges of recognized standing may submit educational certificates which will be considered by the Academic Board, and if satisfactory may be accepted in lieu of the regular mental examination. High School certificates must be validated by actual examinations in algebra, geometry and English. The course of study is four years, during which time the cadets are under strict military discipline. The summers are spent in camp. Academic work begins in September of each year and ends the following June. Cadets of the first, second and third classes not undergoing examinations are allowed short leaves of absence at Christmas, and those who have successfully completed the third class course are allowed leaves of absence from about the middle of June to August 28. The course is largely mathematical and professional.
The pay of a cadet is $780 per year and commutation of ration, at 75 cents per day. The total is $1,053.75, which with his initial deposit of $300 to cover uniforms, is considered enough to meet actual needs. On graduation, cadets, except Filipino and foreign, may be commissioned second lieutenants in the U. S. Army.
Each cadet when admitted to the Academy signs an agreement to serve for a period of eight years, unless sooner discharged by competent authority. The total number of graduates, including foreigners receiving instruction under special Acts of Congress, from 1802 to June 11, 1941, inclusive, is 12,661.
Detailed information is contained in an illustrated pamphlet, a copy of which will be furnished without cost, upon application to The Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D. C.
The Military Reservation at West Point contains (June, 1940) 4,122 acres, but condemnation proceedings had been started to add 15,000 acres.
West Point opened July 4, 1802 with ten cadets; West Point has been a military post since Jan 20, 1778.
United States Battleships as of June 1, 1941
(Treaty allowance of capital ship tonnage to the United States, 525,000 tons)
dard Water- Br'dth Mean Speed
Tons Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Knots No. In. Cal. No. In. Cal.
16.800 600 10.440 800
21.00 12 14 50 12
35,000,704 0 108
The South Dakota was launched on June 7, 1941; the Massachusetts, on Oct. 1, 1941; the Indiana, on Nov. 21, 1941; the Alabama, set for March 15, 1942; the Iowa, set for July 1, 1942.
Operating bases, capable of maintaining in every respect the ships that are based in them with supplies, fuel, necessary replacement equippage and repair facilities, are maintained at Balboa, C. Z.. Bermuda; Norfolk, Va.; Newfoundland: San Diego, Calif.; San Francisco; Trinidad.
Training stations, where recruits receive their initial training, are maintained at Newport, R. I.. Norfolk, Great Lakes, Ill., and San Diego. Other shore activities include recruiting stations and substations, hydrographic offices, and radio-direction finder stations at selected points throughout the country.
As of Oct. 27, 1941, the United States Navy's ships of combatant types were-
Aircraft carriers (built) 7; (building) 11; (total) 18.
Cruisers (built) 37; (building) 54; (total) 91.
Submarines (built) 113; (building) 73; (total) 186.
CALIBER OF CANNON
The caliber of a naval gun is the diameter of its bore, but in describing the length of the gun the same term is used in a different meaning. The 14" gun of 45 calibers length means that the bore diameter is 14" and that the length of the tube of the gun is 45 times the 14 inches.
As the length of the breech mechanism (in rear of the tube) is about one caliber, the total length of the gun from breech to muzzle would be 45 x 14" + 14′′ = 644".
Retired officers on active duty, 1,276; retired enlisted on active duty, 688.
U. S. Marine Corps, June 10, 1941, numbered 52,918. The authorized strength by June 30, 1942, is 75,000.
1. The above table gives strength on January 1, 1890-1899, and on June 30, 1900, and since.
2. Where figures are omitted they are not readily available in the Department.
There are navy yards at Portsmouth, N. H.; Boston, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Washington, D. C.; Portsmouth, Va.; Charleston, S. C.; Mare Island, Calif.; Bremerton, Wash.; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Cavite, Philippines.
There are outlying naval stations in Guam (naval, hospital and marine barracks); Tutuila, Samoa, Guantanamo, Cuba, Olongapo, Philippine Islands.
Puts U. S. Navy Cost at 2 Cents a Person a Day
Rear Admiral Clark Howell Woodward, U. S. N. (retired), addressing the Great Buffalo Advertising Club (Oct. 14, 1941) in Buffalo, N. Y., said: "The United States is getting the largest and most efficient Navy in the world at a cost of a little
more than two cents per person each day. At an approximate expenditure of $1,000,000,000 annually, the cost of the Navy is approximately $7.60 a person each year, while the per capita annual income is $570."
Major Navies of the World-Capital Ships, Nov., 1941
Information on navies other than that of the United States is not to be considered as official U. S. Navy data. They have, however, been corrected for announced war losses and building programs prevailing before the outbreak of the present war.
Secretary of the Navy Knox, testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Committee at the hearings on the Lend-Lease Aid Bill to Great Britain, offered the following table of naval strengths: Estimated Approximate Total Combatant Tonnage Built Estimated Comparative Strengths in Types (Does Not Include France)
2 15 47+? 300 (e)
Note: France has as immediately effective units: 1 battleship, 1 aircraft carrier, 14 cruisers, 52 destroyers, 60 submarines. It is now reported that no new construction is contemplated.
United States Naval Expenditures, 1915-1941
Totals of columns 3, 4, 5 and 6
Oct.30, 1940 8 Mainten'ce equals cols. 2 minus 7
Public Works (direct)
U. S. Naval Aviation Shore Establishments
Source: Office of Chief of Naval Operations
Naval Air Stations are a part of the Naval Shore Establishment. Their primary mission is to provide facilities in support of the operation of aircraft attached to the United States Fleet.
There are 8 Naval Air Stations whose primary mission is other than stated above. They are: Anacostia, D. C. Test and trial of new airplanes and equipment. Jacksonville, Fla.
Lakehurst, N. J. Lighter-than-air training and operations.
Miami, Fla. Training.
Anacostia, D. C.
Banana River, Fla.
Coco Solo, C. Z.
Pensacola, Fla. Training.
Corpus Christi, Tex. Training,
Naval Aviation Facilities are so designated when the establishment provides, less than a Naval Air Station.
Naval Reserve Aviation Bases are established at existing Naval Air Stations, Naval Aviation Facilities, or as independent units in or near large cities. The purpose of a Naval Reserve Aviatio Base is to provide elimination training for those civilians who are prospective Naval Aviation Cadets.
LOCATIONS OF OPERATION POINTS OF NAVAL AVIATION
U. S. Naval Aviation Facilities-Annapolis, Md.; Antigua, British West Indies; Bahamas; Boulder City, Colo.; Bremerton, Wash.; Cavite, P. I.; Charlotte Amalie, V. I.; Charleston, S. C.; Dahlgren, Va.; Georgetown, British Guiana; Jamaica: Newport, R. I.; Parris Island, S. C.; San Clemente Island, Calif.; St. Lucia.
San Diego, Calif.
Tutuilla, S. I.
Group, San Diego, Calif.; Scouting Squadron
U. S. Naval Reserve Aviation Bases-Anacostia,
Naval Aircraft Factory-Philadelphia, Pa.
United States Aviation Appropriations
The appropriations for the Army Air (Service) Corps, and the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, have been as follows:
or fully naturalized American citizens between 17 and 30 years of age, 64 to 74 inches in height, of good character, and physically fit.
Source: An Officer of the Organization The Marine Corps, formed by the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, and made a permanent organization in 1798, is under a Major General Commandant who receives orders from the Secretary of the Navy. The Corps has its headquarters at Washington, in the Navy Building.
The Marine Corps also maintains a subheadquarters at San Francisco, California, under a Commanding general of the Department of the Pacific, who supervises the administration of marines on the West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska.
The plan of organization includes a Fleet Marine Force, at Quantico, Virginia: San Diego, California; and New River, North Carolina.
The two recruit depots of the Corps are located at Parris Island, South Carolina, and San Diego, California; recruits from the eastern part of the United States receive their training at the former, while those from west of the Rocky Mountains receive theirs at the latter station.
Applicants for enlistment must be native born
The Marine Corps supplies two triangular divisions as highly trained land auxiliaries of the Navy, which include infantry, light and heavy artillery, machine gun, signal, engineer, tank, chemical, amphibuous and parachute troops; and aviators equipped with land planes, together with all other land fighting units which would be necessary to enable the Navy to carry out its mission in war.
In addition to supplying the land forces necessary to the successful operation of the Navy in war. which is known as the principal mission of the Marine Corps, all capital ships and certain light cruisers of the Navy carry a detachment of marines.
The authorized strength of the Marine Corps in 1942 (including both regular and reserve) is 75,000 enlisted men and 5,000 officers.
Military Order of the Purple Heart
The Military Order of the Purple Heart was founded by Gen. George Washington at Newburgh, N. Y. (Aug. 7, 1782), as a reward for "singularly meritorious action," and revived by President Hoover on Feb. 22, 1932, the bicentennial of Washington's birth.
The original badge consisted of purple sprigged silk edged with silver braid, and was sewn on the left breast on the uniform coat. The new decoration is a heart-shaped medal bearing a bust of
Gen. Washington on a field of purple enamel, During the American Revolution the award was won by three Continental soldiers-Sergeants Daniel Bissell, William Brown and Churchill, all of Connecticut regiments. The New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati has in its possession the only known badge of the original Purple Heart; but who was its recipient has not been determined.
British Bomb Shelters Accommodate 20,000,000
built weekly, Lord Snell said.
Bomb shelters in Great Britain accommodate | ing 725,000. Indoor steel table shelters have been 20,000,000 of the nation's 46,000,000 inhabitants, given to 555,000 and 20,000 additional are being Lord Snell told the House of Lords (Oct. 15, 1941), at the same time announcing that shelters for 1,000,000 would be constructed at once. These will be constructed in subways with bunks accomodat
Bunks for steel garden shelters will be produced until 4,000,000 are provided, according to the deputy leader of the Upper House.
Naval Education System of the United States
Source: Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department
Midshipmen, when appointed, are given four years' instruction in general and technical subjects at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.
Postgraduate Work-Postgraduate work is given line officers at the Postgraduate School, Annapolis, Md., and a few civil universities.
Naval War College-Newport, R. I., one year; advanced course for flag officers; senior course for captains and commanders; junior course for lieutenant commanders and lieutenants with at least six years' service as commissioned officers; correspondence courses for any officer ashore or afloat. Army War College-Washington, D. C., one year. Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Va., 10 months. Submarines-New London, Conn., six months. Officers must have had at least two years' sea duty to be eligible.
Naval Finance and Supply School-Philadelphia, one year.
Aviation-Pensacola, Fla., eleven months; training in heavier-than-air craft; graduates of the Naval Academy eligible for this course after completing two years' sea duty. They are also eligible for training in lighter-than-air craft, at Lakehurst, N. J. Aviation Cadets in the Naval Reserve are also available for training at Pensacola and 3 years duty with the Fleet.
Optical Instruction-Navy Yards, Washington, D. C.; and Mare Island, Cal.
Gyro Compass-Navy Yards, New York, N. Y., and Mare Island, Cal., four to six months. Gunners (E) with gyro experience available for this detail. There is available for radio electricians and chief electricians an 8-month course at the Radio Material School, at Bellevue, D. C. The Fire Control Instrument School is at Long Island City, N. Y. The Torpedo School is at Newport, R. I., for junior line officers. The Diving School (salvage and submarine rescue), for commissioned and warrant officers, is at the Navy Yard, Washington.
Correspondence Course-Correspondence courses are issued to officers requesting them, as follows: International Law, Strategy and Tactics, and marine engineering.
Training Stations-The Bureau of Navigation maintains the following Naval Training Stations: Hampton Roads, Va., Newport, R. I., Great Lakes, Ill., and San Diego, Cal.
The course of training of all newly enlisted men covers twelve weeks.
Service Schools-These schools are maintained to supplement the training carried out on board cruising vessels.
Naval Academy Preparatory Class-Hampton Roads, Va.; five months in length. Instruction is given under the supervision of officers detailed for this work. In order to attend the Naval Academy Preparatory School, the applicant must have nine months' sea duty on a ship in full commission by November 1 of the year preceding the
UNITED STATES NAVAL
The students of the Naval Academy are styled midshipmen. Five are appointed annually by the Vice-President; 5 by each member of Congress; 5 from Puerto Rico; 5 from the District of Columbia and 25 at large appointed by the President; also 100 enlisted men from the Regular Navy and Marine Corps, 100 from the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve; 40 at large, appointed by the President from among the sons of those in the Army, Navy and Marine in the world war who died in service; and 20 from honor schools and Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps units at certain colleges and universities.
year of entrance to the Naval Academy, must pass a preliminary examination, and must not be over 21 years old on April 1 of that year.
Naval Training Courses-The courses are available to all men of the Navy and are furnished free of charge to any ship or station upon official request.
Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps units have been established at Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.; Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.; University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.; University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Cal.; University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Cal.; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.; The Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La.; Brown University, Providence, R. I.; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis.; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. N. C.; University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla.; Univeristy of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C.; University of Texas, Austin, Texas; University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. The naval course at these universities is a 4-year courseand is an elective one.
Graduates of the NROTC units may be, if physically qualified, commissioned ensigns in the U. S. Naval Reserve or second lieutenants in U. S. Marine Corps Reserve. Certain specially recommended graduates may be commissioned ensigns in the Regular Navy Supply Corps or second lieutenants in the Regular Marine Corps. By recent legislation, the President may commission a number of NROTC graduates ensigns in the line of the Regular Navy after one year continuous sea duty.
Naval Reserve-The U. S. Naval Reserve is trained and educated in naval duties by annual periods of training duty on board naval ships, at naval air stations and, in some cases, at shore stations; by attendance at armory drills, radio communication drills; and by correspondence courses for officers and naval training courses for enlisted men.
Aviation Cadets-Aviation Cadets of the Naval Reserve must be between 20 and 27 years old at time of appointment; physically, morally and educationally qualified for selection. Educational requirements: 1. College graduates who are preferably (a) graduates from Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps; (b) aeronautical engineers. 2. Two years or more of college.
Upon acceptance of appointment, aviation cadets sign agreement to serve on active duty for four years, including period of training at Pensacola and active duty with aircraft squadrons of the Fleet. Must be unmarried at time of selection and remain unmarried for first two years of period of service.
ACADEMY AT ANNAPOLIS
tion, engineering, navigation, and seamanship, and to take part in a month's coastal cruise in destroyers.
Graduates in all respects qualified are probationally commissioned either as Ensigns in the line of the U. S. Navy or as 2d Lieutenants in the U. S. Marine Corps, to fill existing vacancies. Graduates who are commissioned shall serve in a probationary status for seven years from graduation, unless sooner discharged.
The height of candidates for admission shall not be less than five feet, five and one-half inches; and the minimum weight at 17 years shall be one marry, and any midshipman found to be married shall be recommended for dismissal. Graduates of the Naval Academy while serving under a revocable commission in a probationary status may not marry for a period of two years after graduation. Each candidate who has passed the required examinations must, before being admitted, deposit $100 to cover part of the cost of his initial outfit.
Candidates appointed by Senators and Repre-hundred and twelve. Midshipmen shall not sentatives may also be accepted on certificate of credits, substantiated by an examination in English and mathematics; but a candidate may be admitted without any mental examination if he is or has been a regularly enrolled student in good standing without condition in a university, college, or technical school accredited by the Naval Academy, and provided he can submit high school and college certificates filling the requirements.
All candidates, except 4 Filipinos, are required to be citizens, and must not be less than 17 nor more than 21 years of age on April 1 of the calendar year they enter the academy.
The course of midshipmen is four years, but has been reduced to 3 years until August 1, 1945. During the summer, midshipmen of the first and third classes go to sea for about three months. It is the policy to retain the second class at the Naval Academy to receive practical instruction in avia
After being admitted, he is credited with $250, which is needed in addition to the $100 cash deposit to complete paying for the uniforms, clothing, textbooks, etc. This amount ($250) is deducted from the midshipman's pay in monthly installments, but he may, immediately after entering, repay in full.
Each candidate will be required to sign articles to serve in the Navy during the pleasure of the President (including his time of probation at the Academy), unless sooner discharged. The pay is $780 a year.