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AND TRANSMITTED TO THE
load, with which load on the level it can or of their varying power at different speeds, i to defray, as far as possible, the expense travel at a speed of 40 miles an hour, using because this is equally applicable to each incurred by government in giving patents. its whole power, then assuming the friction line ; but rest upon clear mechanical prin. Hence it is not strange, that glaring iinto be 9 lbs. per ton, or ato, and that its ciples, independent of all hypothesis. perfections now appear in the law. It has whole power is consumed, the distance to Next, if the comparison be as regards been a matter of astonishment that so imand from Brighton will be travelled on each load, then the thing is very simple ; for the portant a branch of domestic polity should at a speed of 40 miles per hour, and the load is either measured by the adhesion of have been so long neglected. The time respective times will be 2. 29. 30. and 2. the wheels, or else by the pressure of steam has now arrived when the amount of rev. 44. 30. without adding for delay on the in the cylinder ; in either case, the engineenne derived from this source, the magniCroydon inclined plade.
being identifical in power and weight, the tude of the claims dependant upon the pat. But this assumes that on Sir John Ren-maximum load is measured by the friction ent law, the great delay and embarrass. nie's descending planes the engine to travel on a level plus gravity; hence the uniform ment experienced by paieniees at the of720 miles per hour. Whereas we will or more easy gradients have a clear ad-fice, all conspire io demand a thorough suppose them limited on each to 40 miles vantage.
survey of its present organization. To in. per hour; hence in going and coming there Thus, between Sir John Rennie's and sure attention to this subject, it need only will be 32 miles of descending planes, the Mr. Stephenson's lines, the proportionsbe mentioned that the number of patents time to be added will be the difference be-are as
issued annually, for a long time, did not tween travelling 32 mil at 720 miles per 15.80 = =9X 6+80=(2334)
exceed one hundred, whereas, at present, hour, and at 40 miles per hour, that is, of to 17.50=9 x 8 + 50=(2464)
the number is about eight hundred, and 45 minutes, 20 seconds, making the total | That is, a difference of 11 per cent in fa-is the desire to secure patents, that individ
will soon increase to one thousand. Such 3. 14. 50. by Sir John Rennie's line ; whilstvor of Mr. Stephenson's line in gross load ;uals have taken out more ihan fifty paon Mr. Stephenson's the time to be added but the effective load has a different pro- ||tents. is the difference butween travelling 28 miles portion still more favorable to Mr. Stephen-nually ($30 being the fee) is about $25,000.
The amount of fees for patents an. at 16 miles per hour, and at 40 miles person's line, as Mr. Rastrick admitted in his The present year it may exceed $30,000. hour, that is, of 31 minutes, 30 seconds, evidence, a ditlerence of 14 per cent. in fa. To this ainoint fees for copies and recordmaking the total time 3 hours, 16 minutes. vor of the western line, but which may un-ing are to be added, making the sum larger To this must be added the time consum-| d r various considerations amount to 20, or sill
; and no withstanding the rapid ined in stoppages, that is, on Stephenson's leven a higher per centage.
crease in the business of the office within a 2 + 3 minutes, being once at the Southampton Junction, and once for water.
few years, very little additional force has On Sir
Fium the Journal of the Ain. Institute, for August. John Rennie's, 3+3=9 minutes, being REPORT FROM THE HON. HENRY L. ELLS. || tentees complain of delay, and very justly,
been allowed for its accomplishment. Pa. once at Greenwich Junction, once Croy.
WORTH TO THE SECRETARY OF state, bul this delay must soon be greater than at don at the station, and once for water; be
SELECT present, without the interference of con. sides delay on Croydon incline, for which
gress. It may be asked if such are the 5 minutes will be a very inoderate allow
Patent Office, 1836. profits, why not apply the funds received Thus by Rennie's line ...3 14 50
Sır: I have the honor to acknowledge to the discharge of accruing business ?Extra stoppages
:he receipt of the inquiries made by the The answer is readily given. All the
honorahle chairman of the committee on money received is, by law, paid over into 3 28 50 The paient office, in the house of represent the treasury, and although to be credited
atives, anil referred by the honorable Secre. 'to “the account of clerk hire,” cannot be By Stephenson's.
3 16 0
sary of State to this office for my report in appropriated to this use without a special Extra stoppages
act of congress. The superintendent has part. As the answer must in some meas6 0
ure depend upon the organization of the of requested additional assistance, but the 3 22 0
fice, I will respectfully reply, first, to the honorable Secretary, although anxious to
following inquiry, viz: "what alteration afford every facility, has not telt authorised The difference being 6 minutes, 50 seor improvement of the law, relating to the to increase the expenditures on his own
Patentees and suitors in conds, in favor of Stepheuson's line. This granting of patents, has experience shown responsibility. is abstracted from the curves ; now, Dr. :o be requisite to effect all the objects which courts have suffered much during the last
it is desirable to obiain in this depart- year from delays in the office; cases are Lardner admits that the total curvature On Rennie's is measured by 840 deg.
inent ?" - A brief reference to the history of sometimes continued for the want of copy And on Stephenson's, by
the patent law, and the practice under it,ies, which would readily be furnished at 790 do.
will be necessary to learn the mischief," one half the lawful fees now charged if the Or, reduced to curves of a mile, and provide the "reinedy.
superintendent was permitted to get the Rennie's . .7 miles, } of a mile radius.
It is nearly half a century since the
work done. A few facts need only be ad
preStephenson's 6 sent patent law was enacted. Previously ded, to show the propriety and importance
The whole to 1793, all petititions for patents were pre- of a revision of the paient law. 22
sented to the Secretary of State, Secretary expenses of the patent office do not exceed
of War, and Attorney General, who ex. one-fourth of its income. The number of Thus the total length of the respective lamined them, and granted or refused a pa-applications for patents since the 10th of journeys
tent at their discretion. This duty having July (at which time my superintendency On Rennie's.
3 36 30
been found an arduous one, and also a cominenced) has been upwards of six hunOn Stephenson's .. 3 29 0
dred. great interruption to other business, the
The correspondence has trebled But it may be well here to remark, that|| law of 1790 was repealed, and the present
within a few years. No less than two Dr. Lardner is in error as regard the curv. act passed, which is more in conformity thousand letters have been written by the ature on both Stephenson's and Rennie's with the practice in Great Britain. - superintendent since July laşı. More than line; as the curvature
Few alierations have been made in the ex- one hundred suils are now pending in the On Rennie's is . . . 15 m., 1 m. radius, ||isting law since 1793, if we except the ex- United States courts touching rights of And on Stephenson's 11$
lension of a privilege 10 a certain class of patentees. These suits will increase unwhich would make the time a little more foreigners. While a laudable spirit promp.
til some check is put to the fraud now favorable to Stephenson's line of railway. led our legislators to encourage the arts, lloperily practised, but irremediable without Now, it may be observed, that the fore-: he poverty and distresses of the country
the aid o: congress. going calculations are altogether indepen-forbade the passage of any law for the pro Questions are frequently asked at the dent of a difference of opinion as regards lection of inventors which might increase patent office, which require several days proportion of power of engines to what the burdens of the community. Such a search to answer. Each patentee (if he is they are ordinarily called upon to exert,|'ariff of fees was accordingly established as honest) wishes to know whether his patent
will infringe upon others. This is appa ents issued since July have been transmit- || found from thirty-three to fifty per cent. rently a sinple inqniry, but only a refer- ||ted more than two hundred miles for single less. Hence there is in the patent office a ence to seven thousand patents can settle signatures. It may be asked, how is this constant desire to change situations, and the question. And here, what an embar-difficulty to be remedied ? it is believed this comparatively low compensation will rassment must arise from the want of sys that two of the three signatures can be dis- prevent able and permanent assistance.ternatic arrangement of the papers. Piepensed with ; can it be necessary or useful Will a clerk remain satisfied to labor for vious 10 July last, not a single letter re to bave the whole number ?
$1,000 in the patent office, when the same ceived was filed, and even now none aro The rights of the patentee are the same clerical services in adjoining offices bring indexed. Many volumes of records are with the signature of the Secretary of $1,250 to $1,500. The aggregate pay of also wholly unindexed, and must remain State, as with the addition of the President superintendent, three clerks, machinist, and 80 until more help is provided. And was|and Gttorney General. The great seal messenger, in the patent office, amounts to not an hourly reference to these volune: || can accompany the Secretary's signature,| $5,400, whereas the pay of the commisand correspondence necessary, the unsys || and the patent be issued in the name of sioner of Indian affairs, four clerks, and a tematic arrangeinent of papers would be the United States. It is true the Attorney messenger, is $5,700. One third of the less tedious and perplexiny.
General is bound to examine the patent ; | revenue received from patents would deThe injustice and inexpediency of the but is this necessary ? Among all the pat-||fray all the disburseinents for salaries, and present law, will appear in reference forents transmitted since July, only one has leave two thirds to be appropriated as conthe charges inade for services performed a' || been returned as imperfect, and in this gress might direct. the office, besides the fee of thirty dollars. || case the defect was not fatal to the validity I have alluded to frauds under the patent By the law of 1793, each copy of one of the patent. The best examination can law. These frauds are daily practised by hundred words is charged at twenty cents, || certainly be made at the patent office, |lpersons who take out patents without macertainly twice as much as it costs to make where the drawings and models are depos- | king any new discovery or improvement.the copy, if labor is computed at one thou-ited. If the signature of the president and The law gives neither the superintendent sand dollars or twelve hundred dollars per Attorney General could be dispensed with, nor others ary judicial powers. Every apyear for a clerk. It may be mencioner, as cnsiderable labor and much interruption plicant has a right to demand a patent i. a singular fact, that copies of the papers in would be avoided. If additional help was his papers are in order; and several patents the State department, are charged only ten given to examine the patent and the signa- :re often issued for the same thing.' Concenis per one h: odred words Euch draw. liures of the secretary of State, and the head gress seemed to have noticed the improing, whatever its size or complexity, i- ||of the bureau, only required, it is believed priety of granting two patents for the same charged at iwo dollars. A few drawing that a patent might be issued in a few days, thing by giving the Secretary power, in case are worth less than this sum, but most o whereas now the average time is two or of two pending interfering applications, to them iwice as much, and soine are worth three nionths.
order thein both to arbitration to decide furt v or fifty dollars. A fir remuneration
The present arrangeinents are not eco-jupon the right of patent, but under the rules ought to be charged to each applicant.-- ||nomical! Congress appropriated, a few established to direct the office no applicaThere are now applications pending for years since, $14,000 to bring up the rections are deemed interfering unless the padrawings, where the draughtsmen will be lords of the office by employing clerks at ipers of both are complete in all respects.compelled o lubor several days, at a sal
a compensition not exceedin: twelve and|Shuld i wo applications be precisely alike. ary of ibree dollars and thirty-three cenis
a hall cente for every hundred words. A and one of the nerd only a trifling requiper day, and earn for the government but sinail part of this appropriation remains un- ||-ite, such as an additional witness, it then iwo dollars for ihe whole time. So sensible are the patentees that the expended, and, a temporary clerk is en would be no interierence; and as there is
The employment seldom a case when the papers of both are price is much less than the usual charge of temporary cierks is objectionable': un- || in the same state or forwardness, an arbifor the same thing out of the office, that killed, they are liable to commit errors ; |tration under the law is a rare occurrence. they frequently apply to the superintendent besides, the compensation of twelve and a The oath of inventor: has been too often to get the original drawings executed in ball cents per hundred words is much high-lastly compared to the "custom-house the offic: at two dollars. This request is er than the salary of a clerk at $1,000 orvathi." There are, however, inventions always ref:sed, for patentees are bound to $1,200. It is due to those whio labor in made by persos living in differen: parts of furnish original drawings, and the patentine patent office to state, that services re our country, when both can claim origiraloffice is only required to give copies of liquired and performed there are not ex-lity; for no sooner are the wants of the pubdrawings of patents granted.
ceeded in any of the bureaux of govern- lic known than nien of ingenuity attempt to The delay of pa.ents has been alluded
ment. Great caution, much skill, and sup ly then. The late burning of baggage to. This is one of the greatest evils. Ap-some legal science, are requisite in issuing on railroad cars p:oduced immeditely plicants are always impatient ; some travel every patent.
many inventions to remedy the evil, and to this place from a long distance, and are
Notwith sanding the superintende:cy is several interfering applications were made. anxious to carry their patents home with in form a separate bureau, (yet in law a i'he issuing of paten s to those who have them; other patentees are urgent for paper: clerkship,) and the superintendent charged no claim to o iginality is truly a great evil
. to be used in courts ; especially where old with the whole responsibility of issuing the Every facility is now extemled to pirates. patents are adjudged invalid, and the right|patents, disbursing the special appropria-Even copies of models are taken by visiters of action is suspended until a new patent ison of $14,000, ant the contingent fund at the model rooms, and patents deinanded obtained ; nor will an additional number of of $2,000, accountable for all the fees re- l of a similar kind. During the last week a Clerks produce the desired relief, without|ceived in the office, and personally required || patentee was explicitly told that bis patent, some alteration of the present requisites. to conduct the correspondence, still his it granted, would be a direct infringement According to the existing law, the patent|compensation is lower than that of chielpon previous patents : " but a patent must must be signed by the President, the Secre- clerk in either bureaux of auditor or com- be had;" it was demanded, and accordingly tary of State, and the Attorney General.
missioner. If the patent office was placed ordered to issue. It is believed that seveThe Attorney General has the right to re-upen the same footing with the land officeral hundred thousand dollars are paid annulain the patent fiiteen days for examination. Jor Indian bureau, the compensation allowed||ally in the United States for patents improIt must be apparent to all conversant with would secure competent assistance. And perly obtained. public business, that there will be delay in it is desirable that those who are in the The success of past villany has embolthe signatures of such high functionaries, ffice should receive a fair rrinuan-ation as dened many to continue their deception upsince their time is demanded for more im- | .n inducement to remain after they have on the credulous. The public attach high perious duties. How much greater must ecome acquainted with its minute details. | reverence to the great seal which the pathis delay be, when the person whose sig. T'he salaries in the patent office, as com- ientoe is careful to exhibit. Fraudulent nature is wanted, is absent from the seat|pared with those of the land office, Indian: atentres are shielded in some measure by o govern nent; nearly one half of the pat-|| Pureau, or either auditor's office, will be the expense of litigation, and many, very
many, pay commutation, and submit to im- || land a caveat protects the inventor from in- | ever limited the improvement, is a common position, rather than be dragged into courtsterference for a certain period, during which error. The patentee knowing fully the exof justice. How easily, for instance, can time, if any interfering application is made, ent of his own discovery, or improvement, an individual take out a patent resembling the person who entered the caveat is noti- ought certainly to specify the same with one granted to a citizen of Maine, and sell fied. An exparte hearing is had before the perspicuity. Cases will arise, however, the same in the south-west part of the re-Attorney or Solicitor General, who decides where (in a large machine for instance) public ! An arrest of the intringer might upon the case; if there is an interference, some small part described might not be be uncertain, and indemnification still more one of the applications is rejected.
Hiere a trifling error destroys the doubtful. The pirate, after selling out his I ought, however, to remark, that such patent. While there is no sympathy for rights to States, counties and towns, might in England is the danger of giving publicity iraudulent patentees, who attempt tú deeasily pass over the borders of our territo- to inventiona before signing the patent, that|ceive the public by patented discoveries, ries and be safe. There are a great num-caveats are kept secret. Indeed, so great there is some feeling for an honest meber of cases arising out of the patent law is the anxiety to conceal from the public chanic, who, having published his parent, before the United States conrts. How the discovery, that the letter of the inven- and believing it to be correct, is not only much will the number be increased when tion is sometimes only lodged for a caveat, deprived of recovering any damages of the the eight hundred patents granted this year as for instance: “ New improvements on infringer, but obliged to pay cost to a deshall appear with their many interfering spe- steam engines,” • spinning cotton," " na tendant, who has enriched himself by the cifications ? There will be a rich harvest gating vessels,” &c. Great importance is discovery of the plaintiff. In England an for the lawyers; but how many honest me-atrached to the novelty of the invention ; effort is making to prevent a total failure of chanics and inventors will be ruined by the hence, when artists in the employment of action for partial defects, by authorising cerexpense of litigation. Is there no remedy? an inventor have mentioned to a stranger tain disclaimers to be put in a subsequent
The remark of Mr. Jefferson, who, while the discovery, and that stranger has by dex-procedure to judgment. The principle Secretary of State, was one of the board of terity set up a model of the saine, even upon which surrendry of invalid patents is examiners of patents, is worthy of observa- after application for a patent; and before permitted in this country, is an expeditious tion. In his letter to Mr. Cooper, on this signing it
, the patent has beer. Jost for want mode of correcting errors arising from subject, he writes, “instead of refusing a of novelty. Our courts have adopted a mistake,” or “ inadvertence.” And if a patent in the first instance, as the board was more liberal policy, and very justly decided discretion was allowed to the court, to tax authorised to do, the patent now issues, of that public experiments to test the value o. or withhold costs in favor of the defendant, course, subject to be declared void on such the invention, do not destroy the right on our practice would be more simple than the principles as should be established by the ground of publicity.
complex pleading which disclaimers must courts of law. The business, however, is In conformity with the established deci- introduce. Such is the temptation to pabut little analogous to their course of read-sions of this country, a caveat, if recogni- tent in this country, that it might be well to ing, since we might in vain turn over all the sed by law, could be safely lodged on file, compel each patentee to publish his specifilubberly volumes of the law, to find a sin- || describing (as fully as possible) the whole cation, or at least his specific claim. gle ray which would light the path of the invention, to protect the inventor against We can scarcely eat, drink, sleep or mechanic, or mathematician. It is more interfering applications. Our law also work, without using some patent. Take within the information of a board of acade- makes novelty a requisite for a good patent. || for instance the farmer; he dares not use mical professors, and a previous refiisal of Many have supposed the example of Eng-||a plough without paying for the patent right, a patent would better guard our citizens land and other foreign governments worthy | when, perhaps, the only new thing claimed against harassinents by lawsuits. Butllof imitation by us. Pateuts in England in the specification of the patentee who ofEngland had given it to her judges, and the are not confined to new discoveries there, fers this fine plough, is a simple boli.usual predominancy of her examples carried but granted upon importation, or introduc-While cupidity induces patentees to conit to ours.” I would respectfully suggest tion of discoveries from abroad, and this is nect their improvements with inventions of the following remedy: To vest in the head done upon the principle, that the arts will others, ostensibly claiming all as their own, of the patent bureaii, or some other tribu-be benefitted by the encouragement af- it is certainly proper that the government nal, a discretion to arrest a pending appli-forded. On this point much might be should annex some penaliy to such impocation for a patent, if it interferes with any said. When this system was adopted in /sition. A judgment against the validity of prior patent, or caveat on file, and also it England, communication with other coun- | the patent, is a suitable penalty. Should it the application is destitute of novelty. tries was comparatively limited, and the im- appear objectionable to confer the power of
If scientific men could be induced to provements in the arts correspondingly low. arresting interfering applications on the take an office in the patent bur au, as ex- | But at the present time, such are the facili-head of the patent bureau,&c.,the objection aininers of patents, their examinations, || lies of intercouse, and such the reading may perhaps be lessened, by referring the aided by a suitable library, would detect spirit of the people of the United States, that interference to three indifferent arbitrators, almost every interference or want of novelty. Il it is evidently bettor to confine patents here skilled in the art in question, and as the arNor is it to be believed there will be anyto new discoveries.
bitrators might make an improper award, objection to appropriate the sum necessary
Scientific journals bring speedily to our lan appeal could be allowed to the Secreto obtain a good library.
shores every invention from abroad, and tary of State, or other tribunal. The preTo show the importance of possessing these inventions are introduced into imme- sent modu of appointing arbitrators in interthe foreign works of art, on the subjoct of diate use, with barely the cost of manufac- fering applications, is to allow each party patents, I would remark, that in looking ac Who except the patentee would be
o choose one, and the Secretary of State cidentally at a Ger.nan work, a discovery benefitted by the issue of a patent for all the third. 'This makes a court of strong Wits there found, delineated in a drawing, foreign invention? thereby increasing the bias, as each applicant generally selects a which has been patented in this country, price at least thirty-three or filty per cent. particular friend. I ought to add that, at and which is now selling as a new inven: There would seem no occasion for offering present, there is no compensation allowed tion. A complete collection of prints and further bounty to patentees. During the or paid to arbitrators. Each appelant books, in refererce to the patent law, would last sixty days, more than two hundred ap- might be required to pay a reasonable fee, be highly useful to patentees, and citizens plications have been made for patents, a to be fixed by law. Interferences will genin general, as well as the courts of justice. sumber greater than the average number erally be found to arise from ignorance or Caveats in the United States, though fre-issued annually in England for the la-t ten fraudulent intent. Information will correct quently entered, give no protection to the years.
the former, while a rigid scrutiny will in. inventor. The existence of the caveat car I cannot omit noticing one thing more, duce impostors to withdraw their pretenbe attested as evidence of certain know.viz: in the failure of the patentee to sus- sions. It should be recollected that the Iedge at the date of the same, but proof furtain his patent, if he claims more than is first applicant is not always the original innished from the patent office gives no addi-original, or presents a defective descripticn. ventor; those who pirate upon inventions tional weight to the testimony. In Eng. The description of the whole object, how. are generally dexterous in sccuring their
It is a
whether the time allowed for recording pala 1 without any extra charge, and when rooms || respondence; issue the papers for patents;
patents as soon as possible. In such case, || reau could not, (by giving bonds, if requir- || England, and the subjects of those counwhere the honest inventor has not been || ed,) receive and pay over this money di-tries are greatly disappointed in being reguilty of gross neglect, equivalent to a legal rectly into the treasury, and save the haz-fused a similar privilege here. Congress abandonment of his right, the superintend-ard and delay of remitting it to the patentee; | has sanctioned the principle of granting ent might allow the patent to issue, and and it is also suggested, whether there patents to foreigners who apply to that the rights of parties would be settled in a would be any danger in authorizing the body. Should foreigners be permitted to court of justice ; these cases will, however, treasury to repay such patent fees as should | take out patents, and pay fees correspond be of rare occurrence. Should the above have been received into the treasury through ing to those demanded of our citizens in remedy not be thought expedient, an entry mistake or ignorance, upon a petition ap- their countries, it would not be inequitable. on the patent issued that it was deemed an | proved by the superintendent of the patent The following table will show the compa. infringement, or was destitute of novelty, || office. In answer to the inquiry, what ad- | rative charges in several countries for pawould, it is believed, go far to check im- ditional room is needed for the patent of tents: proper issues, and caution the public fice, I would observe, that the building in In Great Britain, or England, and coloagainst imposition. It has been supposed which the patent office is now kept, was
122 £ if a small part of the money received from finished for the joint use of the post
$542 21 office Scotland
84 16 patents was appropriated for the publication and patent office. It is evidently too small
60 168. 299 97 of all specifications of patents, or at least for both. The post office department needs
607 77 the claims under the specification, and the the whole building, while the rooms allowed France
46 10 206 66 distribution of the same in different States, to the patent office are entirely too small;
196 68 the money
weuld be well spent. The pub- the model rooms are full ; several hundred || United States of Amerlic would then know what patents were is-models are stored away in the garret. ica
6 10 30 00 sued, and be able to guard against spurious Those now received are piled up, waiting ones. Copies could also be easily procured for better accommodations, and what shall
It would be desirable that all foreigners without sending to the patent office, and be done with the thousand models to be re-should be allowed to take out patents for the publication might be made with so muchceived annually? While it becoines neces a fixed sum, (perhaps one hundred dollars,) care as to justify the introduction of thesary to procure more room for the patent since it would be difficult in some cases to published copies as prima facia evidence in office, it is desirable that some should be ascertain what the particnlar country 10 courts of justice.
rendered as secure as possible from fire. which the patentee might belong charged There is a common error in the assign- The destruction of the present models and for the same. By the present law, foreignment of patents ; partial assignments for rcords would produce very great embar-ers residing here two years are allowed to States, counties or towns, are not recog-rassment, especially as so many original take out patents on the same terms as citi. nised by law; and still such a large amount patents and assignments are lost.
There is an evident propriety in of property is now held, in this manner, satisfaction to state that the patent office granting patents to those who declare i heir that it deserves consideration whether some has not been, and need not be, onerous to intention of becoming citizens. Why visit. provision should not be introduced to rem- the government. There now remains iners for two years should enjoy any priviedy the evil in future, and to protect past the treasury about $150,000 to the credit leges over oiher foreigners does not readily assignments. Few patentees seem to un
of the patent office, after paying all expen- appear. I now proceed to answer more derstand the law of assignment; the pres- ses since its first organization. A part of definitely the remaining inquiry. How ent law authorizes an assignment of the this sum would furnish a commodious and many persons are necessary for ihe prompt whole patent, or any individual part of the permanent building: and should all the pat- and efficient performance of all the duties same, as one-half, one-third, one-fourth, ents be so arranged, in systematic order, connected with the office, and what should &c. Put the assignee must stand in the to show the progress of the arts in the be the respective and particular duties.
Under the present organization two addio place of the original inventor, both as to country, it would be an exhibition highly right and responsibility. In the United gratifying, as well as instructive. The tional clerks are absolutely necessary.States courts, where a plaintiff averred him- present limited rooin prevents s'ich an ar- This would give the following force : one self the assignee of the original inventor. rangement. In answer to inquiry, what ad- superintendent, Ihree clerks, one examiner, with the exception of three counties in one
one draughtsman, one machinist, one mesState, a non-suit was ordered, because the exhibition of the models of machinery, and senger. plaintiff, by his own shcwing, proved him- specimens of fabrics and other manufactures
The duties right be distributed as fol. self not to hold any legal right under the
and works of art not patented ? I reply, lows: signment. It is respectfully suggested, office could superintend this exhibition that the keeper of the models in the patent
The superintendent to conduct the corants should not be limited.
The same reasons for a limitation applies to trans- were constructing for patented models, ad- || and exercise a general supervision Chief fers of patents as to transfers of real ditional rooms could be made for the clerk to keep the accounts; compare re
recpestate. It has been before remarked that, tion of fabrics and models unpatented, with cords and transfers ; index caveats; file the fee of thirty dollars is paid into the little expense.
the applications for patents, and transmit
the same; and aid, if required, in the cortreasury. It ofien happens that this is the It is believed that there are many inven. || respondence. Second clerk to transcribe first step taken by the patentees. A far-tors who would delight to exhibit their
to exhibit their on parchment the specifications. Third ther examination satisfies the applicant that improvements in machinery and manufac- clerk to aid in transcribing specifications ; his patent could not be sustained, and he,||tures, if room Was allowed them, while and filling up patents, and recording the of course, seeks to recover his money. they do not desire to take out a patent; This, however, haviog passed into the such a collection and exhibition would be aminer, who should compare, critically,
same; and recording letters. An treasury, cannot be paid without an appli- a repository of national ingenuity, and every specification, drawing and model; cation to congress ; the sum is a small one ; || night be made highly honorable to the ascertain its interference with pending aptoo much to lose, and yet hardly worth the country. Who could fail to be instructed
Who could fail to be instructed | plications. The duty will be very arduous, trouble and expense of recovery. by such an exhibition ? And who that
some specifications containing ten or twelve 7; Applicants often forward the thirty doll was about to invest in machinery, would | pages of closely written matier, with many lars directly to the superintendent, suppos. not be amply compensated by visiting the references to drawings. In this duty the ing that he is authorized to receive the patent office. The exclusion of foreigners ||examiner might be assisted by a scientific money. As he is not permitted to do this, || from the benefits of the patent law canno: || draughtsman, whose labor in drawing it becomes necessary for him to return the ful to be noriced as an exception to thai || could only occupy part of his time. money, however distant, for the applicant | reciprocity which this government has ever || machinist is necessary to repair the models himself to pay into the treasury. It is
cherished. Citizens of the United States || and keep them in order; to classify and
sug. frosted whether the head of the patent buire daily taking out patents in France and
urange them; to exhibit them to strangers;
FUL ARTS, BEING THE SUBSTANCE OF
and to answer the many inquiries made re-f]quantity as to convert two-thirds of the manufacture of iron, that heaps of so small specting them by patentees and visiters. hydrogen into water.
a size would be attended with inconvenThe models are of much value, and the 3. Coals which contain oxygen enoughience. The shape of the heap is therefore large rooms should have at least one per-| to convert the whole of the hydrogen into changed in such cases from a cone to a long son in attendance to protect the property. I water.
prism. The breadth of this must not ex A few models have already been injured The first of these varieties fuses when ceed 15 feet, nor its height 3 feet, but its by visiters. What effect the new organiza-heated, and the excess of hydrogen uniting eng ih may be unlimited. This prism tion might have in reducing the number of with a part of the carbon, escapes in the must be set on fire in the mode we have patents cannot be determined. Some pre- || gaseous form; by the formation and es mentioned at several points on its upper sent duties would doubtless be lessened by cape of gas, the coke is rendered light and edge. In this way not only may a greater the proposed alterations; others would | porous. The second variety fuses also, quantity of coke be prepared at a single arise; applications would require a very but the quantity of gas formed is not suffi-operation, but the time is shortened, the strict scrutiny to detect interferences with cient lo render the coke porous, it is there. conical hi aps requiring three or four days for prior patents, or a want of novelty. Toavoid fore compact and massive.
their conversion into coke, while the prisms The embarrassment from the delay in fur. The third variety does not fuse, and the are finished in 24 hours. nishing copies where the pay is specific, it escape of the vapor of water reduces the
The product is usually about 40 per is most respectfully submitted, whether it mass to the form of powder. would not be advisable to authorize the Coal of the first class increases in vol. cent., but some coals, that of Virginia for head of the patent bureau to emply (if ne
instance, yield 50 per cent. If a coal, in ume when it is coked ; the other two varicessary) occasional assistance in transcrib-eties yield coke in less volume than the consequence of its containing but little hy. ing said copies, reimbursing the whole ex- coal employed. In their uses in the arts, converted into coke in this way. Such a
drogen, does not burn freely, it cannot be pense from the fees received.
This dis- the first furnishes the most valuable coke ; coal was found in Yorkshire, (England,) in cretionary power would dispense with the the last that of least value. appointment of anoiher permanent clerk, Coke may be prepared in iron cylinders render the manufacture of iron profitable. and meet the sudden exigencies as they or retorts, but this is only done when the In order to apply it to this purpose, an inarise, without suspending the ordinary bu. volatile products are to be collected; this siness of the office. I have omitted to men-method will therefore be described when we
telligent manufacturer (Wilkinson) imation that a few hundred dollars will be re-treat of the preparation of gas for illumina- gined the application of a chimney, for the quired to procure suitable tools for the ma- tion. Treated in this way, cannel. coal purpose of obtaining a more powerful chinist to repair the models.
yields about 50 per cent. of coke, and that draught. This chimney is conical in form, I am, inost respectfully, yours, of Newcastle as much as 80 per cent.
about a yard in height, and as much diHENRY L. ELLSWORTH.
ameier at bottom; the diameter at top is
When the distillation is performed at a two feet; it is built of brick, the lower Hon. SecrETARY OF STATE.
low temperature, the weight of coke is in- || courses of which are laid in such manner
as to leave openings. Around this chimAPPLICATIONS OF CHEMISTRY TO THE USE
when the volatile matters are not the prin- diús is about 6 feet greater than the outer
cipal object, to effect the decomposition of radius of the chimney. This heap is comA COURSE OF LECTURES DELIVERED IN || the coal by a sudden and high heat. COLLEGE, NEW-YORK,
posed of alternate layers of large and small
Preparation. When coal is rich in hy- coal, the lowermost layer being of pieces of
resembling the pits used in preparing char-covered with ashes or refuse coke, and fire
not less than three or four inches in each the chimney. Wet ashes are kept on hand CARBON, HYDROGEN AND THEIR dimension. The heaps are conical, having to close any cracks which may occur in COMPOUNDS.
a base 15 feet in diameter, and a height of the cover of the heap. Dense smoke flows
about 30 inches. The heap may be best from the chimney, and is followed by a blue 4. MANUFACTURE OF COKE.
covered with straw, on which is laid a flame; as soon as this appears, the top of AUTHORITIES.-KARSTEN. Metallurgie de Fer.
Dumas. Chimic appliquee aux Arts. La yer of moist earth, the straw being so ap- the chimney must be closed by a plate of BEAUMONT and DUFRENOY. Voy. ||plied that the earth cannot enter into the cast iron and the combustion will speedily age Metallurgique.
spaces between the pieces of coal. But as Rationale.-Coke bears the same rela-ll the use of straw is expensive, it is more tion to bituminous coal, which charcoal isual to cover the large coal for about the
The coal of Pittsburgh, Pa., as far as does to wood, and is, like it, obtained by height o? a foot from the ground with smal we can learn, must reseinble in quality the distillation at a red heat. Bituminous coaller pieces, and the outside with coal-dust;coal employed by Wilkinson, for although is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and the top of the heap is covered with the re'||far removed in character from anthracite, it oxygen, in very various proporttons. Infuse coke which is left in the form of pow. has not hitherto been converted into coke the variety called cannel coal, the propor- der, in handling that obtained in previous by the use of the mode first described. We tion of hydrogen amounts to 53 per cent. operations. The heap being finished, a cannot but express our belief that the meth. in the Liverpool coal it is about 34 per few lighted coals are dropped into an open- od of Wilkinson would be found sufficient cent., and in the slaty varieties does not ing of six or eight inches in depth left in for the purpose and that by its aid the man. exceed one per cent.
The quantity of car-the top; the space is then filled up with ufacture of iron from the ores might be inbon varies from 75 per cent. in cannel coal, fragments of coal, and when the combus-troduced into that city, which at present to 90 per cent. in that of Newcastle. The tion has fairly commenced, the whole is receives almost all the pig iron used in its proportion of oxygen in cannel coal is covered with earth or refuse coke. The extensive foundries and forges, from the about twice as great as would suffice to rest of the process is much the same as opposite side of the Alleghany range of convert the hydrogen into water ; in the that of preparing charcoal, but is easier, as mountains. Newcastle cual about four times as great; coal when in mass will not continue to This method has also been introduced, and in the slaty varieties, it but little ex-burn after the gascous matter has escaped, with some modifications in Staffordshire, ceeds the
where the coal is of better quality. Here
than we have described, the combustion the chimney, ani ihe finer at the o'ytside 1. Those which contain at least three would be too slow at first to form a porous of the heap, the whole bring covered with per cent. of hydrogen, and, at most, ascoke, and so rapid at the end as to render ashes or refuse coke, leaving a few orei · much
oxygen as will convert half the hy-|| it difficult to extinguish. Yet so large is ing for the admission of air. As soon as drogen into water.
the quantity of coke which is required in the coke is finished. water is poured on the 2. Coals which contain oxygen in such | some instances, and particularly in th='heap to extinguish the combustion. In