Abbildungen der Seite

Humus < Insoluble

, 1.70

0.12 )

This kind of soil appears to be peculiar || rock on which it is based ; its composition Carbonate of magnesia

0.41 to this part of the basin of the Seine ; the is almost identical with that of the sub-soil Oxide of iron

0.31 neighboring calcareous soils which apper-No. 4, of which we shall give the analyses Oxide of magnesia

0.00 tain to the basin of the Yonne, present en-below.


0.06 tirely different characteristics; they are No. 3. Sandy carth of the calcareous Ilumus, soluble

0.05 dry, it is true, but with a vegetable stratum, | plain belonging to those portions of the


0.10 they become covered with wild legumin-plain, which, in the revolution that carried ous plants, easily produce clovers, sainfoin, off the silicio-argilaceous stratum, preserved

10.00 lucerne, and in wet springs, spring crops a part of it now mixed with the soil of the

This soil is a species of marl which consucceed


tains 74 per cent. of carbonate of lime, 4 These soils have then something pecul 10 grammes of this earth contain:

of magnesia and 12 per cent.. of alumine : jar in their nature which makes them a trou Silex


its composition is quite similar to that of blesome exception in the class to which by Alumine


the analysed soils of the plain. their composition they naturally belong : Sub-carbonate of lime (repre

III. These analyses may afford us im they present an agricultural question of sented by chlorure, 0.15) 0.16

portant inferences. great importance to study, and almost new, Sub-carbonate of magnesia - 0.02

These soils evidently make, as we have and they are applicable to sufficiently great Oxide of iron


seen, a distinct class of the silicious soils. extents of soil, since they occupy more Oride de magnesie* [manga

Their properties seem to differ at least than ten leagues in length.



as much from those of calcareous soils, The analyses made of them by M. Hen Humus, soluble

0.15 properly so called, which produced sponry, at the request of M. Vilmorin, are very Water


taneously the small species of clover, on interesting, and are as follows:

Loss and charcoal of insoluble

which leguminous plants of different species No. 1. A coarse gray land, the earth of Humus


succeed easily, and manures almost always the surface composing at least three-fourths

secure good crops. It is not then to the of the ploughed soil of the plain.


carbonate of lime that they owe their infe10 grammes of this earth gave :

This earth presents a great difference in riority: its action, on the contrary, seems Silex,


composition from the preceding, since it to be nullified, since the characteristic Alumine,


contains 80 per cent. of silex and scarce-properties of culcareous soils appear no Carbonate of lime,


ly 16 thousandths of carbonate of lime, and longer to exist in these. Nor is it more Sub-carbonate of magnesia, 0.23

2 thousandths of carbonate of magnesia.—to t'e silex, the alumine, nor the oxide of Per oxide of iron,


Yet its properties, its productions and its iron, which are found in abundance in all 1.82 defects, are nearly the same as those of the good soils, that this difference can be attri

preceding numbers. On the other hand, buted. Then, of all their constituents, Water,


it would seem by its composition to be al-| there remains only the magnesia to which Loss,


most confounded with the sandy sub-soils can be owing the characters which dist n

of the plateau lying on the other side of guish them from their analogous soils. 10.00

the valley; but i: produces neither heath, It has been already fully admitted in prin. The 18 per cent of humus, soluble and broom, nor sheep sorrel, &c.; plants char-||ciple that magnesia is unfavorable to vegeinsoluble, which this analyses gave, may acterizing these sands—and it agrees, as tation. The English chemist, Tennant, cause a suspicion that the sample furnished to cu tivation ; with Nos. 1, and 2, and like formed this conclusion from the analysis of contained more of it than an average of the them, spontanəously produces euphorblia, la lime which struck with sterility all the soil. The proportion of humus would be thistles and other plants useless to cattle.— soils to which it was applied. In America quite extraordinary, since lands the most It possesses then those common properties he use of a maguesian lime quickly wore fertile contain scarcely 10 per cent: and of an active agent which must be commorout (falique') the soil; and Divy has adthere are hardly any except marsh or allu- to both, which makes them a distinct class ; mitted it as a truth. Some trials on a small vial lands which contain it in that propor- and this agent can be nothing else than the scale have shown me that while in a calca, tion: it is nevertheless established by this mixture, or perhaps combination of the car reous soil, beans, when sown, sprouted analyses that this soil contains a great pro-bonates of Time and magnesia.

soon, and came up vigorously, in the portion of humus, especially of insoluble

These two principles, therefore, have a same soil modified by an addition of inag humus.

very great effect upon vegetation, since 16|nesia, germination was retarded, and the No. 2. Represents nearly a fourth part thousandths of carbonate of lime joined to stalks especially had only a feeble and tarof the extent—the porions where the veg-| 2 thousandths of carbanate of magnesia are dy growih: yei Thaer calls into question etable stratum is very thin, where it is not suficient to change entirely the nature and the soil being niade sterile by magnesia ; ploughed on account of its deficiency in products of the soil. But let us pursue our and opposes to the conclusions of Tennant, fertility, and is used as a sheep pasture. analyses before making a de luction of all that Einhoff has analyzed a very fertilizing 10 grammes gave : their consequences.

marl which contained 20 per cent of magSilex,

1.80 Alumina


No. 4. Sub-soil of the plain. Its color nesia : and farther, it results from a careCarbonate of lime

is reddish, as is that of many calcareous|ful analyses, that the mud of the Nile, which

large Sub-carbonate of magnesia 0.47

soils of good quality ; but having been nei we know to be so fertile, contains a Oxide of iron


ther affected nor modified by the waters o! || proportion of magnesia. From these last O.ride de Magnesie* [manga

the last revolution, in consequence of the acts it may be conluded that the magnenese?] a trace


shelter given it by the upper stratum; and ian mixture in the soil may indeed, under Water


not having been exposed to the atmospher- certain conditions yet unknown, not be inHumus, soluble


ic influences, it may be regarded as the type jurious to fertility : but there still remain Loss, and charcoal of insolu

of the deposite which forms the soil of the multiplied facts, and the results of observa ble humus


plain, the deposite anterior to the silicio-ar- tions, of which our whole plain presents us glaceous formation.

with a new and great example, i hat many 10.00

10 grammes o: the sub-soil of the plain nagnesian soils are unproductive.

But how does magnesia occasion barThis earth, the least fertile of all those



renness in a soil ? This problem is doubtanalyzed, contains twice as much carbo



less of difficult solution, but very important, nate of lime and of magnesia as the former,

Carbonate of lime (represented

ince it seems probable that if we knew the the color also is whiter. It appears to re

by chlorure, 8.20)


auses which render magnesia unproduc rceive its change of color from the detritus

tive, it would perhaps be possible to reme(or broken down fragments) of the friable

* So in'the original.--Ed

dy them ; we shall attempt to point out




RESPETARSKAFTHESE ARMERKER some data which perhaps may indicate the || Loire. This soil has received the name waters have not diluted. Works judicious.

of terre de Sologne; the only differencesly made in the marsh have commenced its · And first we will remark that the mag-| which characterize the parts sloping to-|| draining, the results obtained and a suffinesian mixture takes from the soil all its wards the Seine and those which stope to ciently great slope, promise, as we shall characterestics of calcareous soil, deprives the Loire, are the challi flints in the basin see hereafter, success to the undertaking. it of all the advantages which always ac- l of the Seine and the fragments of different Vegetation in this valley is active, the trees company the unadulterated mixture of the varieties of silicious rocks in the portion of are fine, and if the magnesian principle, as calcareous principle, and gives it a charac- the plateau which slopes to the Loire.

is probable, occurs there, it does not seem ter peculiar to it elf, which distinguishes it The soil of the platcau of Barres offers ev- to injure vegetation ; in this inundated soil, whether by its mode of acting on vegeta- ery where a pure clayey sand, which con ains some principles probably exist which neution, or by the vegetables which it sponta- in great quantity the chalk flints of the ba- tralize the destructive effect of the magnc. neonsly produces, to the exclusion of those sin of the Seine, and varies little. Yet itsia. * produced by the calcareous soil.

is dry or wet, according to the sub-soil on Still farther, it would seem, that magne- which it rests; when it is based immedi. It seems a singular and illegitimate consia takes from the carbonate of lime theately on the calcareous rock of the plain, || clusion of the author, that the sterility of the property which eminently distinguishes limeit is dry; and it becomes wet when the soil of the plain” is caused by the small and all its compounds; that of rendering sub-soil is the reddish silicio-argillaceous quantity of carbonate of magnesia contained. humus soluble, and that it tends on the con- stratum which does not allow the water to It would have been much more plausible, if trary to render humus insoluble, in propor-pass through, and consequently preserves the very large proportion of carbonate of tion as it is accumulated in the soil by cul- the moisture of the surface.

lime contained had been considered as the tivation. In fact, the great proportion of This soil, compared to that of the plain, true evil. The soils giving analyses 1 and insoluble humus, which the analyses have is not of difficult cultivation. Rye, pota-|| 2, are stated to be specimens of the whole found in the soil which composes three toes and buckwheat, grow well enough calcareous and magnesian plain—and No. fourths of the cultivated plain, although alpon it; with manures, artificial meadows 4 shows the sub-soil common to both, and part might have been owing to an accident, succeed; and trees of every kind, leafy to the whole plain. In these two varieties could not proceed fiom spontaneous vege- | (feuillus) and resinous, shoot up vigorously. of the same general kind of soil, the protation in this soil which is almost always On the whole, this portion of soil which portion of carbonate of lime is 38 per cent. under the plough, and which produces few touches the calcareous plateau, on which in the first, and in the second, 69 per cent. plants. It proceeds then from cultivation : besides it rests, is superior in quality to the land the sub-soil of both, (No. 4,) has 74 but cultivation does not furnish insoluble parts of the plateau which are more distant per cent. Surely these large propertio.s humus ; the humus of the manures then from it. It is even of more easy cultiva- of carbonate of lime, are sufficient to achave passed into this state in the soil. tion, and offers especially more resourcescount for sterility, after the continuance of Now, it is not the lime, the action of which than the magnesian soil; nevertheless, exhausting and bad tillage for time immeconsists in rendering humus soluble, that'!it contains no calcareous parts, heain, morial, without looking for that cause in the can have produced a contrary effect; nei- | broom, and wild sorrel, which every calca- presence of carbonate of magnesia, which ther is it the silex nor allumine to which itreous mixture puts to flight, are met with these same three specimens contain resis attributable; it must therefore be charg- on this soil in all parts of the 200 arpents pectively in the very small proportions of ed to the magnesia alone, and to this cir- of it which are left untilled.

23, 47, and 41 thousandths—or less than cumsta-ice we may ascribe the unproduc V. The rest of the soil, under the plough, the half of 1 per cent. We do not believe tiveness of magnesian soils, in which ma- of which the property is composed, presents that his earth (in much larger proportions) nures, instead of benefitting the plants cul-la gentle slope, on which the owner's house is injurious to soils—but ipfer the reverse, tivated on the soil, pass into the state of in- is situated. This slope forms the passage from the great similarity of its chemical soluble humus.

from the plateau to the plain, going along qualities to those of carbonate of line-and The carbonate of magnesia has, besides, the valley; it offers 150 arpents of pretty from some of the richest soils in the world the property of retaining more water than good soil, suitable for all productions, for containing carbonate of magnesia Thus all the other earthy combinations. Accor-wheat, artificial grasses, trees, and espe- M. Puvis himself states that it is in the soil ding to the experiments of Schubler of cially for oaks; this soil is due to a mix- | of the rich valley of the Nile—and we have Hoffwyl, it receives and retains four and a ture of the soil of the plateau and of the found it in the celebrated alluvial soil of half times its weight. It may be possible plain, but the mixture is not uniform. the Red River. The authorities brought that it communicates to the soil in which it VI. Lastly, it remains for us to speak to sustain the position that the magnesian is found, the property of retaining a quan- of the little valley which separates the two ingredient is injurious to fertility, if examtity of water, which at first would be inju- parts of the property.

ired, are worth as liitle as the reasoning: rious to vegetation. This would explain Tl:is narrow valley receives the waters Tennant, it is true, attributes injurious efthe cause of the rot among sheep on this of the plain and the plateau ; it contains a fects to the magnesia contained in certain soil; but this water, after having injured great number of springs, which are doubt- limestones; but it is to magnesia brought vegetation, would not continue in the soil, less the filtered waters of the two plateaur to its caustic state, by the burning of the for it suffers much from drought in the which have no visible springs. It is very limestone, and so applied to the soil. This spring.

remarkable that the springs come almost may well be the case, and all the injurious In this state of affairs, and in a question all of them from the side of the calcareous effects of such manure, referred to by our so important, on which doubts are accumu-| plain, the silicio-argilaceous plateau with its j author, may be true, and yet the mild car. lated, and facts and opinions are arrayed in impermeable sub-soil, has scarcely admit-bonate of magnesia, as it exists naturally in opposition, it is a great and noble agricul-||ted any filtration, so its side furnishes few soil

, may be either harmless or beneficial. tiral problem, that the proprietor has pro-or no springs in the valley.

Still less does Davy's view sustain this posed for himself to subdue this rebellious A great part of the bottom of the basin is opinion of M. Puvis. That great agriculsoil and force it to yield good crops; we marshy, requires draining and seems to us tural chemist quotes Tennant's discovery shall see hereafter that this object has been, very susceptiblo of being drained ; one part|| and statement, but without seeming to conin a great measure, obtained.

is in pretty good pasture, anotherin tolera- || cur en irely in the asserted ill effects of IV. After this long discussion on the ble meadows, and the rest in marsh, which even caustic magnesia—and he certainly magnesian soil of the plain, we come to the is mown for litter.

contradicts the notion that a natural and soil of the plateau : this kind of soil com The calcareous rock shows itself from small proportion of the carbonate is injuriposes a great part of the arrondissement of time to time at the bottom of the valley.- ous, by referring to the valuable qualities of Montargis, especially in the south and The upper stratum of the soil, belongs ra- the Lizard Downs, which have that are south-east portion; it covers besides al-||ther to the magnesian soil of the plain ingredient. most the whole extent of the arrondisse-than to the silicious soil of the plateau.—

But putting aside M. Puvis' ded .ctions, ment of Gien on this side and beyond the It is firm in all the parts which the interior the facts as to the presence of magnesia,


riser )

Engin er's Office, Norwich City, Conn. 36–3t

and the prodigious annount of calcareous || by sad experience the fate that a waits them) || Spanish dollars. Rosewood comes from earth in this poor plain, are sufficiently making efforts en masse 10 fly over the Siam, and ebony froin several of the Malayo worth attention. We cannot, however, pre

backs of the others, to escape the chastise- an Islands, bui the best as well as the sume to reason with regerd to facts which nent inflicted upon the ultimate duck.” largesi quaniity of lale years has been sent

(Edinburgh Cabinet Litrary, Historical from ine Mauritius, while the in erior kind are so concisely and imperfectly presented, and Descriptive account of China, Vol. 3.] li, brought from Ceylon. The woods of or to explain away difficulties which oppose

burks for dyeing, co sisis cijefly of sa pang any general and uniform deduction. But

w rod from Siam, and ihe barks of several we will venture to hint our opinion, that

CHINESE ART of Computation. The species of Rhizophora, or mangrove, from these highly calcarcous plains of France, Chinese, 10 their arithnete, employ thejshe Malaya 1 Islands. Under this head may were at some far remote period immensely

decimal notation and they perforin iis mentioned ralians and con's, of which rich prairies like those of Alabama and Ari eration by means of an justrument called me importations, both by na ive and Eurokansas: and that the latter, it exposed to a into iwo comparimenis by a bar in the di and the Malayan Peninsula, are very large Swan-per. Ii cuisists of a fraine, divided

pean vessels, chiefly from Borneo, Sumatra, similar long course of exhausting tillage, rection of its length. It is next crossed by for such a coinmodity. We perceive tha, will hereafter be as poor, and as difficult to ten or slender rods, which pass of the former, the weights imporied by Brise be improved, as these calcareous plains of through the iniddle bar, and terminale in its ish ships, in 1830, was equal to 35,000 cwt. France, or the chalk downs of England.

longitudinal opposite sides. Each corss-rod valued at a boui £18,000.-[Edinburgh Cabhas on it seven moveable beads, which ad- inet Library, Historical and Descriptive

mit of sliding backwards and furiards ; Account of China, Vol. 3.) Tue CHINESE Duck.-On the lakes and five of these are on the part of the rod berivers there are of course many kinds of tween the sides of the wider comparimeni, wild ducks and other waterfowl, in their and two on the part which crosses ibe nar

IMPROVEMENTS AND EMBELLISHMENTS IN natural and unreclaimed conditions; and the rower. Beginning from one extremity of Paris:- The granite for the pedestal of the mapper in which these are ofien captured the frame, each of the five beads on the obelisk of Luxor has arrived, and only is ingenious, though well known.

The longest part of the first rod represenis a awaits the decrease of the waters of the sportsinen incase their heads in large unit, and each of the two on the shorter Seine to be landed. It consists of seven gourds of calabashes, with holes for sighi siand; for five. In like manner, cach bead blocks, one of which weighs 120,000 lbs.and respiration : they then walk or swim on the longest part of the next rud, 10-|| The Hotel Dieu, it is said, will shortly be deeply in the water, so that nöthing but the wards the lett band, stands for len, and taken down, to carry on the beautiful line fruit is seen above ihe surface ; and the un- each on the shorter pari for five lens or fifty, libe Seine. The sick will be removed to the

which extend along each bank of conscious ducks, accustomed to floating and and so on. innocuous culabashes, approach them with by detaching a proper number of beaus, Inval ds, which establishment will be broken our fear, and are respectively pulled under which represents units, and sens, and hun: up, and formed into several branches, in Water, for the purpose of having their n cks dreds,&c., by sliding them from the position various parts of the conntry, where articles wrung, and being lastened to a puulterer's in which ihey are represented in the figure,

of provision, &c. are cheap.—[Paris Adver. gridle. On the banks of the Yang-ise- towards the bar which crosses the rods, kiang, and along the shores of the Po-yang-any number whatever may be indicated ; hou, during the progres of Loril Amherst's a single bar on the shorter part of the rod ARTFORD AND NEW-HAVEN RAILROAD. embassy, wild ducks and geese occurred in answering to all the tive on the longer. In PROPOSALS will be received from the 22d to :he large flocks on both the lake and river, and this way ihe Chinese perform ibeir ariib- :he Hartford and New Haven Railroad, (corner of were so tame that they might be approach.merical operations, just as mea re koned East and Collis streets, New Haven,) for grading the ed within a few yards. Ti is known that by couniers ic this country in the manner Northern Division of the Railroad from Meriden to prodigious numbers of lame ducks are kept explained by the old writers on ariihmete, Hartford, being a distance of 18 miles. After the in the various provinces. The peasares parricularly by Robert Recorde, who lived and maps and profiles of the different sections will

be haich the eggs in ovens or in dung, and about the vme of Queen Elizabeth. The

ALEX'R. C. TWINING, Engineer. puiting the young ones into boais carry swan.pen seenis the more convenient mode New Haven, Sept. 9. them down to the sea shore at low water; of the iwo ; and by its assistance the era. and as these boats keep company, there are ders in Canton transacts their business with

NORWICH AND WORCESTER RAILROAD. consequently several focks of ducks, nota dexterity and expedition quite remarka

NOTICE TO CONTCACTORS. only near each other, but frequently inter.ble. It must, however, be adnited, that

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at the mingled, while searching for shell fish or although this machine be well ada pied for office of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad Comother marine productions. Yet no suoner explaining the principles of arithmetic, it por nocher como Norwich, from the 25th Sept. dues the guardian strike upon a basin, ilian would be a very inadequate subuitute for sonry on 17 miles of the Road, from Jewett City to the each flock flaps away to its own boat. 1o- our Arabic numerals, more especially in Village of Danielsonville, in Kill ngly. deed, among ihe more singular sights to be those laborious calculations which ihe pro-il the Engineers Office in Norwich; or the Office of the

Plans and Profiles of ihe work may be examined at seen in the neighborhood of Carlton, par.Igress of European science has rendered in. | Resident Engineer at Eaton's Hotel, in the twn of ticularly about Whampoa, are the duck dispensable.—[ Edinburgh Cabinet Library, Plainfield, alier the 25th of September next. boats, which not only contain the aquatic Historical and Descriptive Account of Chi Proposals will also be received for 600 feet of bibeds, but are used as the dwelling of their na, Vol. 3.]

Bridging on Col. Long's Patent; on the First Divi. owners. The ducks inhabit the bold, while

The Masonry of the Bridges will the keepers are accommodated in the upper

be completed in the month of November.

No Ardent Spirits w be used on the work. portion of the vessel. These boats are very CHINA DEFICIENT IN TIMBER.--China, Contractors are requested to present along wih abundant about the rice fields near the like every other country which is densely their proposals the usual certificates of character and river, just afier the harvest has been gath. inbabited, is deficient in the supply of tim.


JAMES LAURIE, Engineer. ered in, ibe birds at that period being ablaber and dyewood. The neighboring counto glen a pleotiful supply of food. Each tries, therefore, which are in a rude state,

September 3d, 1836. owner moves about froin place to place ac turnish is, in the same manner that Amer. cording to the favourable opportunities that ica and the north of Europe supply Eng:

TO CONTRACTORS. may offer for the feeding of his broad-billedland, France, and Holland; and if capital TWO hundred thousand yards of earth will be reflock.

“ On the arrival of the boal," says were abuudant, and freights low, they moved by contract on Staten Island Persons desiMr. Bennet, “at the appointed spot, or one would export a much larger amount.

rons of making contracts will make immediate appli-

The work will be divided in 1000 feet secconsidered proper for feeding the quacking supply of wood and other rude produce from tions, and let in part or main. tribe, a signal of a whistle causes the whole the surrounding coun'ries, is a branch of Apply at the office at Fort Tompkins, Staten to woddle in regular order froin their domni-trade into which we think it not improbable Island, where the profiles can be seen and the ground

W. JAY HASHITT, cile across the board placed for their accomhat the British merchant will sooner or

Chief Engineer. modation, and then rambling about under laver enter. The vimber furnished at pres. go the process of feeding. When it is conlent consists chiefly of fancy-woods; as

STEPHENSON, sidered by their keeper that they have sandal-wood, from Malabar, ihe Sandwich Builder of a superior style of Passenger gorged sufficiently, another signal is made and Feejee Islands; that of the first is

Cars for Railroads. for the return of the birds ; immediately nearly three times as valuable as those of

No. 264 Elizabeth street, near Bleecker street, thəy congregare and re-enter ihe boat. The the two last, being of greater size, and con

New-York. first duck is rewarded with some paddy, the raining more essential oil. The English

RAILROAD COMPANIES would do well to exa last is whipped for being dilatory; so tha and Americans, in 1834, imported of this suine these Cars; a specimen of which may be seen it is ludicrous to see the last birds (knowing commodity about 300 tons, 'worth 50,000 | now in operation.



jou of said Road

cati n.




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WETUMPKA, ALA., 29th July, 1826.

T'he subscriber would respectfully inform the pubTHE subscribers offer the following articles for sale.

THE Directors of the above Company are desirous | lic, and particularly Railroad and Bridge Curpura

ta ions that he will build Frame Bridges, or vend the Railway Iron, flat bars, wish countersunk holes and lof securing the services of a competent resident En. mitred juinis,

gincer, 10 survey and locate the sonte of the We-right to others to build, on Cul. Long's Pati ni, through.

lbs. tumpka aid Coosa Railroad, commencing at this out th. United States, with few exceptions. The folo 350 tons 21 by 4, 15 ft in lengt!), weighing 1

place. The route of the road will pass through a lowing sub-Agents have been engaged by the lunder. 280

country that is considered as heality as any in this siglied who will also altend to this business, viz. 1, “ 2

3 50
la jude. Persons desirons of embarking in such an

Horace Child,

Benniher, N. H. 70 11" ,

undertaking will please address the under-igned at

Alexander McArthur, Muni Morris, N. Y.
John Vahari,

do 80

this place.


Sec Wand C. R. R. Co.

Thomas 11. Cushing,

Dover, N. I. 90 1 " A,

Ira Blake.

Withefield, N. H. The Evening Star and Courier and Enquirer, Newwiih Spikes and Splicing Plates adapted thereto. To

Amos Whitmore, Fsq., líancock, N. H. be sold frre of duty w State governments or incor. York; the Commercial Herald, Philadelphia , Balti

Sainuel Herrick, Sprmgfield, Vermont. more Gazelle; National Intelligencer, Wishington, poraled companies.

Simeun Herrick,


do Orders for Pennsylvania Boiler Iron executed. Richmond Enquirer and Whig. Richmond, Va., and

Capt. Isaac Damon, Northampton, Mass. Rail Road Car and Locomotive Engine Tires, || Clarleston Mercurv, will please give the a'vove eight

Lyman Kingsly,


do wrought and turned or unturned, rrady to be fitted on weekly insertions, and send a cupy containing the

Elijah Halbert,

Waterloo, N. Y. the wheels, viz 30, 33, 36, 4:2, 44, 51, and 60 inches advertisement, together with their bills, to the lindersigned.

Dunkirk, N. Y. diameter.

Joseph lebard, (31-51) W. II. HOUGHTON.

Col. Sherman Peck, liudson, Ohio. E. V. Patent Chain Cable Bolts for Railway Car


Andrew E. Turnbull, Lower Sandusky, Ohio. axles, in lengths of 12 fi et 6 inches, 10 13 feet 26, 21

William J. Turnbull,


do 3, 31, 34, 35, and 37 inches diameter.

WILLIAM V. MANY manufactures to order

Sabried Dodge, Esq., (Civil Engineer,) Ohio. Chains for Inclined Planes, short and stay links,

Booz M. Atherton, Esq.

New-Philadelphia, Ohio. manufactured from the E. V. Cable Bolts, and proved IRON CASTINGS for Gearing Mills and Factories o

Stephen Daniels, every description.

Marietta, Ohio at the greatest strain.

John Rodgers,
ALSO—Sieam Engines and Railroad Castings o

Louisville, Kentucky. India Rubber Rope for Inclined Planes, made from

John TVilson,

St. Francisville, Lons'a. New Zealand fax. every description.

Capt. John Bottom,
The collection of Paiterns for Machinery, is no

Tonawanda, Penn Also Patent Hemp Cordage for Inclined Planes, equalled in the United States.

Nehemiah Osborn,

9-17 and Canal Tuning Lines.

Rochester, N. Y.

Bridges on the above plan are to be seen at the fulPalent Felt for placing beiween ile iron clair and


Jowing localities, viz. On the main road leading from sion block of Edge Railways

Baltimore to Washington, lwo miles from the fusiner Every description of Railway Iron, as wolas lo

(100 North Moor sireet, N. Y.)

place. Across the Melawainkeag river on the Mili.

New-York, February 121h, 1836, comotive Engines, imported at the shoru'st notice, by the agency of one of our pariners, who resides in THE undersigned begs leave to inform the proprie-ary mad, in Waine. On the National road in Illinois


at sundry points. On the Baltimore and SusquebanEngland for this purpose.

tors of Railroads that th y are prepared to furnishi ali Mr Soli mun 'w. Roberts, a highly respectable ikinds of Machinery for Railroads, Lascomotive Engines Patterson Railioad, in two places. On the Buston and

na Rrailroad it three points. On the Hudson and American Engineer, resides in England for the purell of any size, Car Wheels, such as are now in success

Worcester Railroad, at several points. On the Buspuse of ipecting all Locomotives, Machinery, Rail. | fol operation on the Camden and Ambuy Railroad,

ion and Providenc Railroad, at sundry points. Across none of which have fuld-Castings of all kinds, the Contorouk river at Hancock, N H. way Iron &c. ordered through us

Across the A. & G. RALSTON. Whols, Axles, and Buxes, furnishedar shortest notice.

Connecticut river at laverl.ill, N, H. Across ibe 28-tf

Philaclelpliia, No. 4, South front st.

Contoocooh river, at Henniker, N. H. Across the

Souhegan river, ai Milford, N. K Across the Keni Office PONTCHARTRAIN, RAILROAD Co.

TIUD ON AND DELAWARE RAILROAD. nebec river, at Waterville, in the state of Maine.-
New Orleans, 19th May, 1336. S

Scross the Genesse river, at Mount Morris, New. THE Board of Directors of this ('ompany, will pay

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received al

York, and several other bridges are now in progr--ss. The sum of five huudrid dollars to the inventor of The Office of the flucson and Delaware Railroad

The indersigned has removed to Rochester, Munprojector, of a machine or plan to preveni the escape (ompany, in the village of Newburgh, until the

roe county, New-York, where he will promptly al. or sparks from the Chimney of Loconutive Ergines: 10th day 's Ociobir next, al 2 o'clock, E. 'M., for the end 10 orders in this line of business to any practicaburning wood, and which shail be finally adopted for Gr ding, Masonry. Bridging, &c., of their road from bleextent in the United States, Maryland escepted use of the Company. No furiher charge to be made the west side of chamber's Creek to Washingtonville,

MOSES LONG. fur the right of the Company to lise the same. a di-tance vi'tan miles.

General Agent of Col. S. H Long.
By order fthe Board,
Plans, Proilles, Specifications, &c., will be in pre-

Rochester, May 22d, 1836.

19y-tf. JNO. B. LEEFE, Secretary.

paration, and exhibited ten days previous to the let28–3m.



to 10–35

SPADES, &c. COMPANY, incorporated by the State of Delaware

prepared to ex with a capital of 200,000 dollars, ar


300 dozens Ames' superior back-strap Shovels
150 do du do plain

ecute in the first style and on liberal tsms, at their PROPOSALS for excavating and embanking the 150 do do do
extensive Finishing Shops and foundries for Brass and Georgia Railroad from the upper end of the work, 150 do

cast steel Shovels & Spades Irom, silua'ed in the town of Newrastle, Delaware, all

do Gold-mining Shovels now under contract, to Greensboro', a distance of 34

100 do orders for LOCOMOTIVE and other Steam Engines, miles, will be received at the Engineer's Oflice, al

do plated Spades

50 do and for CASTINGS of (very description in Bruss or Crawiordville, on the 21st and 220 days of October Together with Pick Axes, Churn Drills, and Crow

do socket Shovels and Spades. Iron RAILROAD WORK of all kinds finished in

next. the best manner, and at he shortest notice.

Bars (steel pointed,) mannjactur. d frm Salisbury re. -ALSO

fined iron-for sale by the manufacturing agents, Orders to be addressed to

At the same time, forihe Branch to Warrenton, 4

WITHERELL, AMES & CO. miles. And if prepared in season, the Branch 10 feb 20-ytf

No. 2 Liberty street, New York.
Superintendent, Newcastle, Del

Athens, length 37 nilis.


No. 8 State street, Albany 33-1220

Civil Engineer. Office of ihe Sandy and Braver Canal Co.,

N. B - Also furnished to order, Shapes of every deJuly 251h, 1836.

scription, made from Salshury refined Iron. 4-ytf PATENT RAILROAD, SHIP AND Proposals will be received at the office of the Sandy

BOAT SPIKES. and Beaver canal company, in New Lisbon, Colum

JUST PUBLISHED, biana couniy, Ohio, uniil Monday the 10th day of Oc Kr The Troy Iron and Nail Factory keeps con

THE COMPLETE PRACTICAL FARMER, tober next, for the construction of about 50 cutstone stantly for sale a very extinsive assortment of Wrought lucks, 17 dams, (varying from 5 to 20 feet in height) | Spikes and Nails, from 3 to 10 inches, manufacıur, d BEING a plain and faniliar trealise on the Culture one aqueduct across the Tuscarawas River, several by the subscriber's Patent Machinery, which after of the Soil, the Orchard and the Garden; the rearing, bridges, and about 10 or 15 miles of canal.

five years successful operation, and now almost uni- breeding, and management of every description of Plans and specifications of the work may be ex-versal use in the United States, (as well as England, Live Sluck, the diseases to which they are subject, amined at the Engineers oflice, New Lisbon.

wh re the subscriber obtained a patent,) are found and the remedies ; directions for the management of Persons unkown to the Engineer must accompany | superior to any ever offered in market.

The Dairy; a description of the most userul imple. their proposals with good recommendations.

Railroad Companies may be supplied with Spikes | ments of Husbandry; and every information necesB. HANNA, President

having countersink heads suitable w the hules in iron sary to the practical agricultu ist. Also, an index, by E H. Gill, Chief Engineer.

30-to 10

rails, to any amount and on short notice. Almost all which any subji'ct can be instantly referred to. In

the Railroads now in progress in the United States are three parts; Part 3, un Live Swek, under the im. NEW ARRANGEMENT.

lastened with Spikes made at the above named fac. Il mediate supervision of R. H. Buld, Veterinary Sur.

tory-tor which purpose they are found invaluable, geon, New York. ROPES FOR INCLINED PLANES OF RAILROADS. 18 iheir adhesiun is more than double any commun.

Published by COLLINS, KEESE & CO., WE the subscribers having formed a co-partnership | spikes made by the hammer.


230 Pearl-street. under the style and firm of Durpe, Coleman & Co., All orders directed to the Agent, Troy, N. Y., for the manufacturing and selling of Ropes for inclin d | will be punctually attended to.

RAILROAD CAR WHEELS AND planes of reilroads, and for other uses, offer to supply

HENRY BURDEN, Agent. ropes for inclined planes, of any lengih required wiih Troy, N. Y., July, 1831.

BOXES, AND OTHER RAILROAD out splice, at shurt notice, the manuiacturing of cord Spikes are kopt for sale, at factory prices, by 1 age, heretofure carried on by S. S Durfee & Cc., will & J. Townsend, Albany, and the principal Iron Mer.

CASTINGS. be dune hy the new firm. All orders will be promp:-||chants in Albany and Troy ; J. I. Brower, 2:22 Wate, Also, AXLES furnished and fitted to wheels comly altındel to, and ropes will be shipped to any porillitreet, New York; A. M. Jones, Philadelphia; T lele at the Jefferson Cotton and Wool Machine Facin the United States.

lanviers, Baltimore; Degrand & Smith, Buston. ory and Foundry, Paterson, N. J. All orders ad. 8th month, 8.h, 1836. Hudson, Columbia County, P. S.- Railroad Companies would do well 10 for Tressed to the subscribers ai Paterson, or 60 Wall State of New-York.

ward their orders as early as practicable, as the sub street, New-York, will be promptly attended to. E S, TOWNSEND, GEORGE COLEMAN, scriber is of extending the manufacturing se Also, CAR SPRINGS ROBT. C. FOLGER, SYDNEY S. DURFEE as to keep pace with the daily increasing demand for Also, Flange Tires, turned complete 33-f.

his Spikes. (1J23am) H. BURDEN. 18 ROGERS, KETCHUM & GROSVENOR

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VOLUME V.-No. 39.


D. K MINOR, and




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for the unco:nmon severity of the winter.- trees sawed 6 x 6 inches and 8 fi'et long.Cominunication .. To the President of the Tioga Nav Co.

The 20th of March was the earliest day on The cross-ties will be placed 3 feet 9 inches
Charlotte Railroad Convention

603|| wliich the final location could be com- apart from centre 10 centre.
Valley Railroad-Power of Locomotive Engines álainenced, since which time the entire length All the vimber under contract is required
Re vort on th- Patent Law...
Applications of Chemistry to the Useful Arts... 6.2||of the road has been prepared to let, and to be delivered on the line of the road, piled

from the 28ih of April to the present time, at stations half a mile aparı, each station AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL.

anu at different periods 19,67 miles of the having a sufficient quantity at it, to construct

most expensive part of the road has been half a mile of the road, viz :-One fourib NEW-YORK, OCTOBER 1, 1336.

pul unde contract and the work commenced of a mile, each way from the station. The NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS. with considerable energy, considering the coníractor who lays the rails has in this HARTFORD AND NEW-HAVEN RAILROAD. difficulty of procuring laborers in this sec- way, only to transport his timber of a

For the purpose, alone, of a more widely extended | lion of country. The time gizeu for the mile, the giralest distance.
notice, the letting of the Northern, Division of the graduation to be completed, expires on the The method winich was recommended), and
will be deferred until the 15th of Ocuber next. I'p 1st of December nexi, with the exception now pursued in leting the graduation and
to that day, inclusive, proposals will be received at the of two or three henvy sections, on which masonry is strictly ibat which has been
Engineer's Office (corner of East and Collis sts. New-this time was extended.

a lopted by the Baltimore and Obio Railroad Haven,) for the excavation, embankmeni, masonry

There is so inurh uncertainty in procur. Coinpay, for soine years past, and as it is and carpentry, necessary to prepare the road for the reception of the superstructure.

ing laborers, at present, that it is impossible thai plan which has resulted from years exMaps, profiles, plans, and specifications, may be ex to say with any degree ot'assurance that the perience, I hope you will receive the full amined at the Engineer's office; and printed forms contracts will be coinplied with, by the benefit of it. Before the day of letting, die may te obtained by application at the same plac time specitied ; but as the work is let to re-scriptions were given of each seciion, and giving a general view of the nature and amount of sponsib.e men, we have good reason to b.- the probable quantity of excavation and emthe work of different kinds which is to be done.

lieve that they will use every exertion to , bankment each section contained, as ascer-

comply with their en agements.

tuined from the centre culling, and the form New-Haven, Sept. 20, 1836.


In December last, proposals were received of the contracts were exhibited and all such
Two hundred thousand yards of earth will be re.

and contracts made for the delivery of all other information as would assist bidders moved by contract on Staten Island. Persons desi- the timbers necessary, for the entire length in forming a correct idea of the work to be rous of making contracts will make immediate appli. of the road. These contracts bave been par

done, and the manner of its execution. cation. The work will be divided in '000 feet sec. tions, and let in part or main.

tially fulfilled, and the contractors are still From the preliminary survey, wbich was Island, where the profiles can be seen and the ground proceedmg to comply with their engage. wade on both sides of the Tiogar.ver below examined.

W. JAY HASKETT, ments which the severity of the winter pre- Berry's bridge, an approximate estimate 38–31*

Chief Engineer.

vented them from having in as forward a was made out by me, comparing the proba-
For the Railroad Jonrnal.
condition as they expected.

ble expense on either side. This estimale
August 15th, 2836. The rail timbers are to be of sawed white was submitted 10 Benjamin Wright, Esq.,
TO TRE PRESIDENT AND MANAGERS OF THE ||oak or Norway Pine, 6 x 7 inches clear of the consulting Engineer, on which he re-

TIOGA NAVIGATION COMPANY. sap, except 1 inch on the corners. Theported to you his views of the subject, a Gentlemen—The Engineer Department ground sills are required to be 6 x 12 inches, I copy of ibis report is here with annexed.of the Tioga Railroad was organized and hewed level on two opposite sides, and fur. As the subject has undergone your considsurveys commenced about the 1st of No-nished of wbite oak, pine, or hemlock at the eration, aud resulied in directing me to con

fiue the location of ibe road to the east side vomber, 1835. The examinations prepara-option of the furnishers. tory to the final location were completed The cross-ties are to be furnished of white of the river to the State line. It is unne. during the past winter, and a definite loca. ||oak and chestnut exclusively, 8 inches in di- cessary to say more than that your direction would have been made also, for a con-| ameter at the small end, and 8 feet long.- || ion has been complied with, siderable portion of the road, had il not beenThere will be nearly one half of the cross. I will now lay before you the enjimated

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