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which oath shall, without delay, be made by the post-master general before the president of the Congress of these United States; and by each of the said clerk or assistant, deputies and post-riders (except as is above provided with respect to special expresses and messengers) before the post-master general, or before any civil magistrate nominated by him for that purpose; all which persons are hereby respectively authorized to administer the said oath ; and shall respectively make and sign certificates thereof: the certificate to be signed by the president, to be lodged in the office of the secretary of the Congress of these United States, and the other certificates respectively to be returned into the office of the post-master general; there to be kept as evidence of the several qualifications therein respectively certified.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the post-master general of these United States for the time being, and his deputy and deputies, thereunto by him sufficiently authorized, and his and their agents, post-riders, expresses and messengers respectively, and no other person whatsoever, shall have the receiving, taking up, ordering, despatching, sending post or with speed, carrying and delivering of any letters, packets or other despatches from any place within these United States for hire, reward, or other profit or advantage for receiving, carrying or delivering such letters or packets respectively; and any other person or persons presuming so to do, shall forfeit and pay for every such offence, 20 dollars, to be sued for and recovered in an action of debt with costs of suit, by the post-master general or his deputy, in the state in which the offence shall be committed; and such sums as shall be thus recovered and received, shall be accounted for by the post-master general, and applied towards defraying the necessary expenses of the post-office. Provided nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to extend to any messenger purposely sent on any private affair, and carrying letters or packets relating to such affair only; or to persons sent officially on public service. And provided also, that nothing herein contained shall in any man. ner affect any private cross post-rider that may be employed by any of the citizens of these United States with the consent of the post-master general or his deputy, until a public rider can be established on such cross road.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that if any person, not being a post or express rider, in the service of the general post-office, shall carry any letters, packets, or other despatches, from one place to another, within these United States, on any of the postroads, to any place withiu these United States, for hire or reward, except in cases as is herein before excepted, or shall not, when bringing letters from beyond sea, for hire or reward, de. liver the same at the post-office, if any there be at the place of his or her arrival, he or she shall, in each of the before mentioned cases, forfeit and pay for every such offence 20 dollars, to be recovered by the post-master general or any of his deputies, in an action of debt, in the state wherein the offence shall have been committed, with costs of suit, and applied towards the expenses of the post-office, and be accounted for accordingly; and if such offence shall have been committed by any person holding a civil or military commission under these Unit. ed States, be shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit his commission. And for every letter, pack, et or other despatch froin beyond sea, which any person shall so deliver at the post-office, he shall receive of the post-master, at the post-office, for the delivery of the same, 1-90th of a dollar.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the post-master general shall cause the mail to be carried with all care and despatch, at least once in every week, to and from each of the stated post-offices, and his deputies shall keep aud transmit to bim regular, particular, just and quarterly accounts of the incomes and expenditures of their respective of fices; and from those and such other materials as shall be necessary for the purpose, the postinaster general shall form and keep regular and just accounts of the incomes and expenditures of the general post-office, which he shall annually deliver to the comptroller of accounts of these United States, attended with the quarterly accounts of each office, and vouchers for his examination and passing.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the post-master general's depu. tics respectively, shall regularly publish, at the expiration of each quarter, (if it can conveniently be done) in one of the most convenient public newspapers, for three successive weeks, a list of all letters at that time remaining in their offices; and at the expiration of the subsequent quarter, shall send such of the letters so published as then remain, as dead letters to the general post-office, where they shall be opened and inspected by the post-master gene. ral, who shall carefully preserve them, with the papers therein respectively contained, and shall insert in a book, to be kept for that purpose, the date of such letter, and the name and place of direction on the same, together with a particular account of the enclosures contained therein ; and at the expiration of each quarter the post-master general shall cause to be published, in one of the newspapers of the state in which the owners of such valuable papers are supposed to reside, (if a newspaper is printed in such state) else in the most convenient paper, an advertisement, informing that such papers are in his possession, and shall deliver such letter and enclosures to the person or persons to whom the same shall be directed, or his, her, or their order at the post-office, he, shc, or they first paying the postage for the same, at the rates, from time to time, established by these United States in Congress assembled, and the necessary expense of such publications as aforesaid ; and in case of neglect to take up such letters, the expense shall be charged to the United States.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the post-master general, and his deputies respectively shall, and they are hereby authorized, whenever the danger of robberies of the mail shall, in their respective judgments, render the same necessary, to hire occa. sional expresses for carrying the public despatches, and such private letters as, from time to time, shall be in the post-offices; who shall not be confined to fixed days, nor to travel the usual post roads, but shall, in those respects, be subject to the order and direction of the postmaster general and his deputies respectively. And to the end that the expense of several expresses destined to the same place, at the same time, may be avoided, be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that all extraordinary expresses in the public service shall, if a post office be established at the place from which they shall severally take their departure, be hired by the post-master general or his deputy, and set out from and return to such post-office, with the letters, packets and despatches to be carried by them respectively.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the postage of all letters, packets and despatches, to and from the different post offices within these United States, shall be at the following rates, in pennyweights and grains of silver, estimating each pennyweight as at present, at 5-90ths of a dollar, to wit: · For any distance not exceeding 60 miles, one pennyweight eight grains; upwards of 60, and not exceeding 100, two pennyweight; upwards of 100, and not exceeding 200, two pennyweight sixteen grains, and so on, 16 grains advance for every hundred miles; and for all single letters to or from Europe, by packet or despatch vessels, four pennyweight : the above rates to be doubled for double letters, trebled for treble letters, and a packet weighing an ounce, to be charged equal to four single letters, and in that proportion if of a greater weight: and to the foregoing rates shall be added a sum not exceeding 4-90ths of a dollar upon every letter, packet or despatch which shall come into the post office from beyond sea, by any other conveyance than packets or despatch vessels; and every letter, packet and despatch, except dead letters, may and shall be retained in the oifice where the same shall have arrived, which shall be nearest to the place of direction, until the postage thereon shall be paid.
And be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful for the postmaster general, or any of his deputies, to license every post-rider to carry any newspaper to and from any place or places within these United States, at such moderate rates as the postmaster general shall establish, he rendering the post-riders accountable to the post-master general, or the respective deputy post-masters by whom they shall severally be employed, for such proportion of the moneys arising therefrom as the post-master general shall think proper, to be by him credited to these United States in his general account.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that in case the income of the postoffice shall, in any year, exceed the expenses thereof, the post-master general shall pay to the treasurer of the United States the surplus, until the sums of money heretofore advanced, or which shall be hereafter advanced, by the United States for the support of the general postoffice, with interest thereon at six per cent. per annum, shall be repaid, after which such surplus shall be appropriated and applied to the establislıment of new post-offices and the support of packets, to render the post-office department as extensively useful as may be; and if the necessary expenses of that establishment shall exceed the profits arising from the postoffice, such excess, when properly ascertained, shall be paid on warrants of the superintendent of finance, by the treasurer of the United States, to the post-master general, in quarterly payments, to enable him effectually to support the post-office.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the salary of the post-master geDeral shall be 1500 dollars per annum, and that of his clerk or assistant 1000 dollars per annum.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that letters, packets, and despatches to and from the members and secretary of Congress, while actually attending Congress, to and frorn the commander in chief of the armies of these United States, or commander of a separate army, to and from the heads of the departments of finance, of war, and of foreign affars, of these United States, on public service, shall pass and be carried free of postage,
And be it further ordained, that single letters, directed to any officers of the line, in actual service, shall be free of postage.
And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, that all former and other acts, ordinances and resolutions of these United States in Congress assembled, heretofore made relating to the post-office, be, and the same, and each and every of them is and are hereby repealed and made void.
Done, &c. &c.
TUESDAY, October 22, 1782. On the report of a committee, consisting of Mr. Ramsay Mr. Osgood, and Mr. Gilman, to whom was referred a letter of the 9th, from the superintendent of finance, touching a proposal of his excellency the governor of Virginia, that sundry articles of clothing now in France, belonging to that state, should b taken for the use of the United States :
Resolved, That the superintendent of finance take order on the subject of hi letter of the 9th of October, 1782.
On a report from the secretary at war, to whom was referred a memorial major D. S. Franks :
Resolved, That major David S. Franks hold the rank and receive the pay a a major in the line of the army of the United States, until the new arrangemen shall take place the 1st day of January next; and that he then be considered a retiring froin service under the same emoluments as those who retired unde the resolution of the 31st day of December last.
The committee, consisting of Mr. Duane and Mr. Williamson, to whom wa referred a letter of the 18th of September, from Oliver Pollock, report,
That having examined sundry letters and papers, which they submit to the consideration of Congress, they are of opinion that Mr. Pollock's accounts with the United States, and those with the state of Virginia, are in sone cases complicated in such manner that the settlement of the former must nccessarily be deferred till that of the latter is perfected; wherefore, as well as from the want of some necessary information from governor Galvez, Mr. Pollock's accounts with the United States must for the present be left open ; that Mr. Pollock appears to have exerted himself with much zeal and industry as commercial agent of the United States at New Orleans ; that he also appears to have ad. vanced large suns out of his private fortune, and to have contracted large debts with the subjects of his Catholic majesty, partly for the service of the United States, and partly for the service of the state of Virginia ; that public faith, jus. tice and humanity require that the sundry accounts should be liquidated and the balances paid, or at least security given for payment of the same, wheneve the state of our public funds shall render it practicable ; that therefore it be re commended to the state of Virginia to cause the accounts of Mr. Pollock with that state to be adjusted with as much despatch as may be practicable, in orde that Mr. Pollock's accounts with the United States may also be adjusted Whereupon,
Resolved, That Congress agree to the said report. · A memorial of lieutenant-colonel Silas Talbot being read, setting forth tha he is embarrassed in the settlement of his accounts by his promotion as a cap tain of the navy of the United States, for which service he however never re ceived any commission ; Whereupon,
Resolved, That it be an instruction to the superintendent of finance, to cause the account of the said Silas Talbot to be adjusted and settled as a lieu tenant-colonel in the army of the United States, notwithstanding the resolu tion of Congress of the 17th of September, 1779, appointing him a captain in the navy.
WEDNESDAY, October 23, 1782. On the report of a committee, consisting of Mr. Osgood, Mr. Izard, Mr Bland, and Mr. Duane, appointed to consider and report the most just and prac ticable means of reducing the expenditures of the United States :
Resolved, 'That the establishment of the quarter-master's department, by the resolutions of Congress of the 15th July, 1780, be, from and after the first day of January next, repealed, and the following regulations then adopted in its stead :
Resolved, That there be one quarter-master general, the present quarter master general to be continued in office; and hereafter, as vacancies arise, to be appointed by Congress :
That the quarter-master general, with the approbation of the commander in chief, appoint the following officers for the armies of the United States, viz.
For the main army. One deputy quarter-master; one wagon-master; one com nissary of forage; one director, and one sub-director, of a company of artificers:
For the southern army. One deputy-quarter master; one deputy commis. sary of forage ; one deputy wagon-master; one director, and one sub-director, of a company of artificers : and as many assistants as the service may require in the main and southern army, to perform the duties of quarter-masters of brigades, store-keepers, clerks, and such other duties in the quarter-master's department as the service may require, and also as many wagou conductors :
That the pay per month of the officers in the quarter-master general's de. partment, including their pay in the line of the army, shall be as follows:
Quarter-master general, 166 60-90 dollars, deputy quarter-master with the Southern any, 125 dollars, deputy quarter-master with the main army, 75 dollars, wagon-master, 60 dollars, commissary of forage for the main army, 60 dol. lars, commissary of forage for the southern army, sixty dollars, deputy wagonmaster for the southern army, 50 dollars, assistants in the quarter-master's department, each, 30 dollars, wagon conductors, each, 20 dollars, directors of artificers, each, 40 dollars, sub-directors of ditto, each, 26 60-90 dollars.
That the following be the proportion of wagons and bat horses to the different ranks of oficers, unless otherwise directed, in special cases, by the commander in chief or conmanding officer of the southern army :
The commander in chief and commanding officer of the southern army, for their own accommodation and for their families, as many baggage wagons and bat horses as they may think necessary.
Major-general and family, one covered four-horse wagon, and one two-horse
Brigadier-general and family, one covered four-horse wagon.
Captains and subalterns of a regiment, for their baggage, one covered four borze wagon.
Surgeon, pay-master, adjutant and quarter-master, regimental staff, one covered four-horse wagon Brigade quarter-master, one bat horse.
For the tents of a regiment, for every 75 men, but this to be varied, accoreing to the weight of the tents, and state of the roads, one open four-horse
Quarter-master general, for his baggage, according to his rank; for his books, papers, &c. as many as he shall find necessary.
Deputy quarter-inaster with the main army or with a separate army, for his luggage, and for his books, papers, &c. one covered four-horse wagon.
Commissary of forage, with the main army, his clerks and assistants, one covered four-horse wagon.
Deputy commissary of forage, with a separate army, one two-horse wagon.
Inspector general, for his baggage, according to his rank; and for his papers u the cornmander in chief may direct.
Inspectors, one two-horse wagon.
Adjatant-general, two covered four-horse wagons. For the baggage of his assistant, clerks and official papers, one two horse wagon.
Judge-advocate, one two-horse wagon.
Field commissary of military stores, and his deputy with the main and southern army, each, one bat horse. · Deputy pay-master with the main and southern army, each, one two-horse wagon.
Field post-master, one bat horse.
Provided, That if the number of wagons stated above, should prove insuffi cient, the quarter-master general may occasionally furnish such additional carriages as the coinmander in chief, or commanding officer of a separate army, or the secretary at war, may direct.
That a ration of forage per day shall consist of 14 pounds of hay and 10 quarts of oats for each horse :
That there be issued to the commanderin chief, and to the commanding officer of a separate army, and to those of their suite, as many rations as the service may require.
That there shall be allowed for saddle horses :
rations, 2 Brigadier-general and family,
5 Commissary of prisoners, Colonel of infantry or artillery,
Deputy with a separate army, Lieutenant-colonel,
Deputy with a separate army, Chaplain,
Provost martial, Surgeon,
Field commissary of military stores, Adjutant,
Deputy with a separate army, Quarter-master,
Deputy pay-master, Brigade quarter-master,
Officers of cavalry to be allowed to draw Quarter-master gen. as the service may require forage for the following number of horses, Deputy quarter-master with the army,
provided they actually keep the same : Captain of engineers,
1 Colonel, Commissary of forage,
2 Lieutenant-colonel, Deputy with southern army,
2 Major, Wagon-master and clerks,
3 Captain, Deputy wagon-master, separate army, 2 Lieutenant, Inspector-general, agreeable to his rank, Cornet, Inpector, in addition to what he draws in
Pay-master, Exclusive of allowance as the line,
- officers in the line, each, Adjutant-general,
4 Adjutant, Deputy with a separate army,
3) Surgeon, · That any of the officers entitled to forage, who shall keep their horses at their own expense, shall be paid therefor by the quarter-master general, at the average price given by him for the forage of the army.
Resolved, That the quarter-master general, with the approbation of the secretary at war, shall appoint so many assistants to reside in the several states as the public service may require.
That all officers in the quarter-master general's department, of whatever denomination, shall take the oaths of allegiance and the oath of office prescribed by Congress, before they enter on business.
That the quarter-master general make a return of the names and station of each person to be appointed in his department.
That in settling the accounts of officers in the said department, no pay or allowance whatever be granted to any person employed therein, whose name and employment, together with a certificate of his having taken the aforesaid oaths, shall not have been returned within two inonths after his acceptance of such office.
THURSDAY, October 24, 1782. The committee, consisting of Mr. Duane, Mr. Boudinot and Mr. Carroll, to whom was referred a letter of the 22d from E. Hazard, post-master general, brought in the draught of a suplemental ordinance for regulating the post-office the United States of America; which was read a first time, and to-morrow assigned for a second reading.