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before the time of Dido, was nothing more than one of these Dashkras.
"Miratur molem Æneas, magalia quondam. ÆNEID. i. 425.”
Concerning the Eastern Habits.
This discourse likewise is taken from Dr Shaw's Travels, &c.]
"DR SHAW (Travels, p. 224.) having observed that the Barbary women are employed in making of hykes or blankets, as Andromache and Penelope were of old, and that they do not use the shuttle, but conduct every thread of the woof with their fingers, adds, that the usual size of the hyke is six yards long, and five or six feet broad, serving the Kabyle and Arab for a complete dress in the day; and as they sleep in their raiment, as the Israelites did of old, Deut. xxiv. 13. it serves likewise for his bed and covering in the night. It is a loose, but troublesome kind of garment, being frequently disconcerted and falling to the ground, so that the person who wears it is every moment obliged to tuck it up, and fold it anew around his body. This shews the great use there is for a girdle whenever they are concerned in any active employment, and in consequence thereof, the force of the scripture injunction alluding thereto, of having our loins girded, in order to set about it. The method of wearing these garments, with the use they are at other times put to in serving for cover lids to their beds, should induce us to take the finer sort of them at least, such as are worn by the ladies and persons of distinction, to be the peplus of the ancients. Ruth's veil, which held six measures of barley, Ruth iii. 15. might be of the like fashion, and have served extraordinarily for the same use; as were also the clothes (ra iuala, the upper garments) of the Israelites, Exod. xii. 13. wherein they folded up their kneading-troughs; as the Moors, Arabs, and Kabyles do to this day, things of the like burden and incumbrance in their hykes. Their burnooses also are often used upon these occasions. It is very probable likewise, that the loose folding garment, the toga of the Romans, was of this kind. For if the drapery of their statues is to instruct us, this is actually no other than the dress of the Arabs when they appear in their hykes. The plaid of the Highlanders in Scotland is the very same.
"Instead of the fibula that was used by the Romans, the Arabs join together with thread or a wooden bodkin the two up per corners of this garment; and after having placed them first over one of their shoulders, they then fold the rest of it about their bodies. The outer fold serves them frequently instead of an apron, wherein they carry herbs, loaves, corn, &c. and may
Hlustrate several allusions made thereto in scripture; as gathering the lap full of wild gourds, 2 Kings iv. 19. rendering seven-fold, giving good measure into the bosom, Psal. cxxix. 12. Luke vi. 38. shaking the lap, Neh. v. 13, &c. &c.
"The Burnoose, which answers to our cloak, is often for warmth worn over these hykes. It is wove in one piece, and shaped exactly like the garment of the little god Telesphorus, viz. strait about the neck, with a cape or Hippocrates' sleeve for a cover to the head, and wide below like a cloak. Some of them likewise are fringed round the bottom, like Parthenaspa's and Trajan's garment upon the basso-relievos of Constantine's arch. The Burnoose without the cape, seems to answer to the Roman Pallium; and with it, to the Bardocucullus. "If we except the cape of the Burnoose, which is only occasionally used during a shower of rain, or in very cold weather, several Arabs and Kabyles go bare-headed all the year long, as Massinissa did of old, binding their temples only with a narrow fillet, to prevent their locks from being troublesome. As the ancient Diadema might originally serve for this purpose, so it appears from busts and medals to have been of no other fash on. But the Moors and Turks, with some of the principal Arabs, wear upon the crown of the head a small hemispherical cap of scarlet cloth. The turbant, as they call a long narrow web of linen, silk or muslin, is folded round the bottom of these caps, and very properly distinguishes, by the number and fashion of the folds, the several orders and degrees of soldiers, and sometimes of citizens, one from another. We find the same dress and ornament of the head, the tiara, as it was called, upon a number of medals, statues, and basso-relievos of the ancients.
"Under the hyke, some wear a close-bodied frock or tunic, Jillebba they call it, either with, or without sleeves, which differs little from the Roman tunica or habit, in which the constellation Bootes is usually painted. The XT, or coat of our Saviour, which was woven without seam, from top throughout, John xix. 23. might be. of the like fashion. This too, no less than the hyke, is to be girded about their bodies, especially when they are engaged in any labour, exercise, or employment, at which time they usually throw off their burnooses and hykes, and remain only in these tunics; and of this kind probably was the habit wherewith our Saviour might still be clothed, when he is said to lay aside his garments (iaria, Pallium scilicet et peplum, or burnoose and hyke) and to take a towel and gird himself, John xiii. 4. As was likewise the fisher's coat which St Peter girded about him, when he is said to be naked, John xxi. 7. This also was what the same Peter, at the command of the angel, might have girded upon him, before he is enjoined to cast his (iuatio) garment about him. Now the hyke or burnoose, or both, being S
probably at that time (iario or Tia) the proper dress, clothing or habit of the Eastern nations, as they still continue to be of the Kabyles and Arabs; when they laid them aside, or appeared without the one or the other, they might very properly be said to be undressed or naked, according to the Eastern manner of expression. This same convenient and uniform shape of these garments, that are made to fit all persons, may well illustrate a variety of expressions and occurrences in scripture, which to ignorant per'sons, too much misled by our fashions, may seem difficult to account for. Thus, among many other instances, we read that the goodly raiment of Esau was put upon Jacob; that Jonathan stript himself of his garments; that the best robe was brought out and put upon the prodigal son; and that raiment and changes of raiment were often given, and immediately put on, (as they still continue to be in these Eastern nations), without such previous and occasional alterations, as would be required amongst us in the like distribution or exchange of garments.
"The girdles of these people are usually of worsted, very artfully woven into a variety of figures, such as the rich girdles of the virtuous virgins may be supposed to have been, Prov. xxxi. 24. They are made to fold several times about the body; one end of which being doubled back and sewn along the edges, serves them for a purse, agreeable to the acceptation of the won in the scriptures. The Turks make a farther use of these gir dles, by fixing therein their knives and poinards; whilst the hojias, i. e. the writers and secretaries, suspend in the same their ink-horns, a custom as old as the prophet Ezekiel, who mentions (ix. 2.) a person clothed in white linen, with an ink-horn upon his
"It is customary for the Turks and Moors to wear shirts of linen, or cotton, or gauze, underneath the tunics. But the Arabs wear nothing but woollen. There is a ceremony, indeed, in some Dou-wars, which obliges the bridegroom and the bride to wear each of them a shirt at the celebration of their nuptials; but then, out of a strange kind of superstition, they are not afterwards to wash them or put them off, whilst one piece hangs to another. The sleeves of these shirts are wide and open, without folds at the neck or wrists as ours have, thereby preventing the flea and the louse from being commodiously lodged; those particularly of the women, are oftentimes of the richest gauze, adorned with different coloured ribbands, interchangeably sewed to each other.
Neither are the Bedoweens accustomed to wear drawers; a habit, notwithstanding, which the citizens of both sexes constantly appear in, especially when they go abroad, or receive visits. The virgins are distinguished from the matrons, in having their drawers made of needle-work, striped silk or linen; just as Tamar's garment is described, 2 Sam. xiii. 18. But when the women are at
home and in private, then their hykes are laid aside, and sometimes their tunics; and instead of drawers, they bind only a towel about their loins. A Barbary matron, in her undress, appears exactly in the same manner that Silanus does in the Admiranda.
"When these ladies appear in public, they always fold themselves up so closely in their hykes, that, even without their veils, we could discover very little of their faces. But in the summer months, when they retire to their country-seats, they walk abroad with less caution, though even then, upon the approach of a stranger, they always drop their veils, as Rebekah did upon the sight of Isaac, Gen. xxiv. 65. They all affect to have their hair, the instrument of their pride, Isa. xxii. 12. hang down to the ground, which after they have collected into one lock, they bind and plait it with ribbands; a piece of finery disapproved of by the apostle, 1 Pet. iii. 3. Where nature hath been less liberal in this ornament, there the defect is supplied by art, and foreign hair is procured to be interwoven with the natural. Absalom's hair, which was sold for 200 shekels, 2 Sam. xiv. 26. might have been applied to this use. After the hair is thus plaited, they proceed to dress their heads, by tying above the lock I have described, a triangular piece of linen, adorned with various figures in needlework. This, among persons of better fashion, is covered with a sarmah, as they call it (of the like sound with ')nwn, Isa. iii. 18.) which is made in the same triangular shape, of thin flexible plates of gold or silver, artfully cut through and engraven in imitation of lace, and might therefore answer to the moon-like ornament mentioned above. A handkerchief of crape, gauze, silk, or painted linen, bound close over the sarmah, and falling afterwards carelessly upon the favourite lock, completes the headdress of the Moorish ladies.
"But none of these ladies think themselves completely dressed till they have tinged their eye-lids with al ka-hol, i. e. the powder of lead-ore. Now, as this is performed by first dipping into this powder a small wooden bodkin of the thickness of a quill,
This word is rendered by Golius and others, Stibium, Antimonii species, and sometimes collyrium; the Hebrew cabol hath the same interpretation; and the verb joined with 'y, Ezek. xxiii. 40. is rendered, Thou paintest thine eyes. is taken in the like signification, being rendered antimonium, stibium quo ad tingenda nigrore cilia, seu ad venustandos oculos, peculiariter utebantur; color subniger ex pulveribus stibři confectus. Schindl. Lex. St Jerome likewise upon these words
Isa. liv. 11. which we render, (I will lay) thy stones with fair colours, takes notice, Quod omnes præter, LXX. similiter transtulerunt, viz. (sternam) in stibio lapides tuos in similitudinem comptæ mulieris, quæ ocuios pingit stibio, ut pulchritudinem significet civitatis. 15 therefore and and al-kabol denoting the same mineral substance or collyrium, it may be presumed, that what is called to this day ka-bol, which is a rich lead ore pounded to an impalpable powder, was the mineral which they always made use of for painting the eyes.
and then drawing it afterwards through the eye-lids, over the ball of the eye, we have a lively image of what the prophet Jeremiah (iv. 30.) may be supposed to mean by renting the eyes (not as we render it, with painting, but) with D lead-ore. The sooty colour which in this manner is communicated to the eyes, is thought to add a wonderful gracefulness to persons of all complexions. The practice of it, no doubt, is of great antiquity. For besides the instances already taken notice of, we find that when Jezebel is said to have painted her face, 2 Kings ix. 30. the original words are, n'y a Dwn, i. e. she adjusted or set off her eyes with the powder of lead-ore. So likewise Ezek. xxiii. 40. is to be understood. Karan-happuc, i. e. the horn of pouk or lead-ore, the name of Job's youngest daughter, was relative to this custom and practice. The Latin appellation fucus, is a derivative also from the same. Neither was this custom used only by the other Eastern nations, but by the Greeks and Romans also, as appears from ancient authors. Thus Cyropæd. lib. i. § 11. Ορων δε (Cyrus) αυτον κεκοσμημενον και οφθαλμων ὑπογραφή, και χρωματ εντρίψει, και κόμαις προθέτοις, &c. Clem. Alex. Pwd. iib. iii. c. 2. μοι δοκεσιν αι χρυσοφόρεται γυναίκες, των πλοκαμων τες ενώλισμός ασκεσαι, χρίσματα τε παρειων και υπογραφας οφθαλμων, και βαθας μετιεσαι τρίχων. Among other curiosities likewise, that were taken out of the Catacombs at Sahara, relating to the Egyptian women, I saw a joint of the common reed or donax, which contained one of these bodkins, and an ounce or more of this powder, agreeable to the fashion and practice of these times."
Of the Soil of Palestine.
I. Mr Maundrell, in his Travels, gives the following account of Palestine.
Page 64. "From Kane Leban to Beer, and also as far as we could see round, the country discovered a quite different face from what it had before; presenting nothing to the view in most places, but naked rocks, mountains and precipices. At sight of which, pilgrims are apt to be much astonished and baulked in their expectations, finding that country in such an inhospitable condition, concerning whose pleasantness and plenty they had be fore formed in their minds such high ideas from the description given of it in the word of God; insomuch that it almost startles their faith, when they reflect how it could be possible for a land like this to supply food for so prodigious a number of inhabitants as are said to have been polled in the twelve tribes at one time; the sum given in by Joab, 2 Sam. xxiv. amounting to no less than thirteen hundred thousand fighting men, besides women and children. But it is certain, that any man who is not a little bias