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peace, in concert with his majesty's allies, any hope or prospect of a peace, com and to treat either on the basis of the uti patible with justice and with honor. His possidetis (heretofore the subject of so majesty deeply laments an issue, by which much controversy,) or on any other basis, the sufferings of Europe are aggravated consistent with justice, honor, and equality, and prolonged. But neither the honor of his majesty determined to meet this seem- his majesty, nor the generosity of the ing fairness and moderation, with fairness British nation, would admit his majesty's and inoderation, on his majesty's part, consenting to commence a negotiation, by real and sincere. The king professed his the abandonment of a brave and loyal readiness to enter into such negotiation people, who are contending for the prein concurrence with his allies ; and under- servation of all that is dear to man; and took forthwith to communicate to them whose exertions in a cause so unquesthe proposals which his majesty had re- tionably just, his majesty has solemnly ceived. But as his majesty was not con- pledged himself to sustain. nected with Spain by a formal treaty of alliance, his majesty thought it necessary As the defeat of Junot and the deliverto declare, that the engagements which ance of Portugal were only secondary he had contracted, in the face of the world, objects of the British army, it marched with that nation, were considered by his from Lisbon on the 27th of October, under majesty as no less sacred, and no less the command of sir John Moore, who had binding upon his majesty, than the most arrived at his destination while the consolemn treaties ; and to express his ma- vention of Cintra was pending. He was jesty's just confidence that the govern- instructed to march through Spain in the ment of Spain, acting in the name of his rout of Burgos, which was to be the genecatholic majesty Ferdinand VII. was un- ral rendezvous of the British troops, and derstood to be a party of the negotiation. was directed to combine his operations The reply returned by France to this pro- with those of the commander-in-chief of position of his majesty casts off at once the Spanish armies. It appears from the the thin disguise, which had been assumed most authentic documents, that this plan for a momentary purpose ; and displays, of sending a British army into the heart with less than ordinary reserve, the arro- of Spain to act in the plains of Leon and gance and injustice of that government. Castile, was formed by lord Castlereagh The universal Spanish nation is described and the marquis de Romana, not only by the degrading appellation of “ the without any communication with sir Hew Spanish insurgents :" and the demand for Dalrymple or sir John Moore, but without the admission of the government of Spain as any concert with the Spanish juntas. The a party to any negotiation, is rejected as in- enthusiastic ardor of the Spaniards was admissible and insulting - With astonish- supposed to be universal, and the tardiness ment as well as with grief his majesty has and inefficiency of our exertions were proreceived from the emperor of Russia a re- portioned to the extravagance of our ply, similar in effect, although less in hopes. The despondency of sir John decorous in tone and manner. The em- Moore, however, was not less reprehenperor of Russia also stigmatises as “insur- sible than the impolicy of ministers. rection,” the glorious efforts of the Spanish Finding that the promises of friendship people in behalf of their legitimate sove- and assistance which had been offered reign, and in defence of the independence with so much solemnity were only parof their country ; thus giving the sanc- tially fulfilled, observing that the juntas tion of his imperial majesty's authority were proud and indolent, the people to an usurpation which has no parallel in jealous, and the resources of the country the history of the world. The king would scattered and irregular, instead of attemptreadily have embraced an opportunity of ing to obviate these discouragements by negotiation, which might have afforded the decision of his movements and the

enthusiasm of his proclamations, he ap- by the British under sir John Moore and pears to have spoken and acted from the sir David Baird, whose united force would very commencement of his progress, as if amount to 28,000. men, The army of the attempt were absolutely hopeless. Blake was estimated at 25,000, making a Much delusion prevailed in the English collective force, including the British, of cabinet respecting the strength, spirit, and 113,000 men. resources, of the Spanish armies, but the T o prevent this junction, the French prepossessions of sir John Moore were in army began by attacking the main body. the opposite extreme. The confidence of of Blake's army, consisting of 17,000 men, a more determined general might have with a force of 25,000, on the last day of been excited by the increased activity of October. After an action which was ol)the English cabinet, who despatched a stinately and skilfully contested for eight considerable detachment under sir David hours, the Spaniards fell back in good Baird, with whom he was to form a junc- order to Valmaseda. · They were pursued tion on the borders of Leon and Gallicia. by Le Febvre, who entered Bilboa on the Sir John was charged at the same time, 3rd of November. On the 4th, a division, to act in concert with the British com- of the Gallicians came up with 7000 of: mander-in-chief, at Lisbon, and to receive the enemy, and totally defeated him. On requisitions or representations from the the 7th, Blake attacked the left wing of Spanish government, or the British minister, the French, but his centre was too weak with the utmost deference and attention, to advance, and the exhausted condition The British plenipotentiary to the central of his troops, combined with the in-. government of Spain, was Mr. John clemency of the night, induced him to Hookham Frêre, who had been lately ap- desist from the prosecution of the enterpointed to that office in the room of lord prise. The enemy at length succeeded in William Bentinck.

obtaining possession of a height commandThe forces of the French in Spain had in ing the road of the retreating army ; and the mean time accumulated to 200,000 men. the men, worn out with excessive fatigue, The head-quarters were at Vittoria, under and seeing no hope of immediate succour, the immediate command of Buonaparte, began to disperse. Previous to this unThe left wing under Moncey, duke of fortunate event, they had behaved with Cornegliano, was posted along the banks the most determined patriotism. Destiof the Arragon and the Ebro, having its tute of clothing, of cavalry, and almost of head-quarters at Rafalla. Ney was with food, they fought battle after battle, against his division at Guardia, and Bessieres at troops always superior in number, and Miranda, part of his troops garrisoning whose losses were always supplied by Pancorbo. General Merlin with one di- fresh reinforcements. In one of the last vision, oecupied the heights of Durango, actions general Riquelme was mortally and defended those of Mondragon from the wounded.. Routed as they were, his solthreatened attack of the Spaniards. Cas- diers would not leave him to die in the tanos, in order to concentrate his forces hands of the enemy. They carried him to and cover the province of Arragon, quitted St. Andero, and he expired as they were the line of the Ebro, and took post on the lifting him into a ship, left bank of the Arragon, forming a line Another part of the French army, the, from Sanguessa to Villa Franca, and cavalry under Bessieres and the infantry leaving 2500 men at Logrono. His right under Soult, duke of Dalmatia, were wing touched the left of Palafox's army, twice repulsed by the patriots, but ultibut their united force did not exceed mately entered Aranda and St. Andero ; 20,000 men. The armies of Estremadura the excellent bishop and several patriots, and Murcia, computed , at 30.000 men, obtained a welcome refuge on board the : were in the centre, opposed to the French English slips. on the Ebro. They expected to be joined. As the events and vicissitudes of the

VOL. II.

W

peninsular war, were in a great measure The 27th of June, 1794, the day of the dependent on the character of the able battle of Fleurus, the right wing of the individual to whom the chief direction of French army, commanded by Marceau, the French armies was ultimately com: was attacked by Beaulieu at three o'clock mitted, a cursory survey of the previons in the morning. By noon all the troops services by which he had merited the con- of Marceau were thrown into confusion; fidence of Napoleon, will be no improper and he himself, surrounded by the Ausaccompaniment to the sketch I have al- trian dragoons, owed his safety only to ready given of his noble and illustrious an- the bravery of some officers of his staff, tagonist.

who protected his retreat to Le Febvre's Soult is only forty-six years old, though division. “Give me,” said Marceau to he appears much older ; bis height is five this general, “ four battalions of your feet ten inches ; although slender he is troops, that I may drive the enemy away .very vigorous; his face is but ordinary, from my position ;" and observing that his complexion pallid, his look scrutinizing, Le Febvre hesitated, Marceau, in order and his pensive air expressive of a genius to determine him, added, in a tone of above the common cast. You may read despair, “ If you refuse me, I will blow in his physiognomy the harshness of his my brains out.” Le Febvre consulted soul, and the pride with which he is in- Soult, who said aloud, that this disposition spired by his military talents ; his figure would expose the safety of the division, is soldier-like, his manner simple, his ad- Marceau cast a threatening look at him, dress cold, speaking but seldom; he is and asked him who he was, that he should very rigid in maintaining discipline; his 'take upon himself to use so peremptory activity and his comprehensive view have a tone? “I ain calm," replied Soult often deservedly obtained him the enco- coldly, “and yon are not so." This obser.miums of Kleber and Buonaparte.

vation only tended to augment the indignaBorn of poor parents, Soult may be con- tion of Marceau, who provoked Soult to sidered as being himself the only founder fight a duel with him the next day. “ Wheof his military fortune ; as early as sixteen ther to-day or to-morrow," replied Soult, he enlisted as a common soldier. His “ you will always find me ready to tell good conduct occasioned his being dis- you the truth, and to pay the respect I owe tinguished by the chief officers of his com- you don't kill yourself, but fight in our pany, who successively appointed him ranks, and when we shall have secured our as corporal and serjeant ; endued with position, you shall have the battalions you much intelligence, he soon became versed wish for.” At that very moment the prince in the art of maneuvring; and even at that of Cobourg attacked Le Febvre with the period he evinced towards his subordinates choice of his troops ; seven successive and that firmness of character which has since unsuccessful onsets were made by the greatly contributed to his advancement. Hungarian grenadiers. Soult conveyed In 1792, his reputation as a good instructor, himself with rapidity wherever there was obtained him the situation of adjutant- the greatest danger; Marceau fought also major in a battalion of national guards. like a lion. Le Febvre remained with the In 1793, he was appointed an officer of reserve. The, battle raged with unexthe staff, and some little time after, ad- ampled fury : the brave royal Allemand jutant-general ; he was employed in the regiment several times charged the columns army of the Moselle under the command of Soult and Marceau, who were pursuing of Jourdan. At the time when 40,000 men the Austrians. About 300. of these inof that army marched upon the Sambre, trepid horsemen perished within pistolto relieve Charleroi, Soult was appointed shot of Le Febvre's' intrenchments. At chief of the staff for the division of general six in the evening the whole army of the Le Febvre, which formed the advanced- Moselle, with the exception of Le Febyre's gılard of that army.

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alarmed to see his two flanks defenceless, seen Le Febvre, and had heard him speak was just going to give orders to retro- on military affairs, was astonished that a grade, when Soult conjured him to wait, man so shallow should ever have acquired assuring him that, as far he could judge so great a reputation. His division was by the manæuvres of the second line, the 15,000 strong ; in case of attack it formed enemy was commencing his retreat ; this the van, and in a retreat, the rear-guard opinion of Soult was soon confirmed by of the army ; whether in the camp, on an order sent to attack from Jourdan, the march, or in the field of battle, this who, stationed in the balloon, was enabled division always preserved the greatest to perceive distinctly the movements of order, was never broke in upon, and was the Austrian army. Marceau and Soult almost always successful. The troops of marched together to take possession of Marceau, Championnet, Bernadotte, &c. Lambussart. This village was taken and were far from enjoying the same celebrity; retaken several times. After having been although their conimanders were much engaged for eighteen hours, Cobourg re- superior to Le Febvre. It was Soult who treated in good order.

was the author of his general's glory. · Marceau, who had witnessed the skill The cavalry deployed in front of the and coolness of Soult, said to Le Febvre, enemy with as much precision as on the The chief of your staff is a inan of parade, and the infantry manquvrer like merit, he will soon bring himself into Swiss soldiers. Soult superintended every notice.” “ Yes," replied Le Febvre, “be where ; he was seldom absent at the time is passable-I am satisfied with him. He of the distributions, taking care that the conducts the business of my staff pretty provisions were of good quality, which well.” Marceau held out his hand to obtained him the affection of the soldiers ; Soult, and in a friendly tone said to him, he reprimanded those officers who were “ General, I have to beg you will forget negligent, encouraged those who did their the past ; and although, from my rank, I duty well, and in every engagement he am destined to give you instructions, yet was sure to be found in the foremost I have received such a lesson from you ranks. . to-day, as I shall not forget while I live. Le Febvre, by his intrigue, succeeded It is you alone who have gained the battle with the government in availing himself of Fleurus." With these words they em- of so much zeal, but the soldiers were never braced, and from that time they enter duped by him. When any thing grievous tained the strongest friendship for each happened, there was but one cry heard Other until the death of Marceau, which throughout the division:-“ It is because event sensibly affected Soult.

Le Febvre has thrust bis nose into it; During the campaigns of 1794, 1795, why did he not leave it all to be done by 1796, and 1797, Soult continued to direct the chief of his staff.” Nothing was so Le Febyre's division. That general, when- amusing as to be present at ihe establish, ever any one praised the chief of his staff ment of general Le Febvre into any of in his presence, used to observe, that he his head-quarters : madame Le Febvre ought to be considered as better adapted always followed her husband; no sooner for the desk than the field ; not but that were they entered into their residence Le Febvre knew very well that he was than you might see them running, sabre equally qualified for either, but it was in hand, making a general slaughter of his policy to lessen the merit of Soult, the poultry in order to prepare a good apprehending that otherwise the general- fricassee for their good friend Soult, who. in-chief or the government might deprive so well conducted the affairs of the troops :: him of Soult, to place him in a situation it has even been asserted, that madame more suitable to his talents. This is the Le Febvre forced her favors on Soult, as true reason which retained Soult so long an acknowledginent for his great utility to. in a secondary rank.. Any one that had her husband..

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- "Soult was at last nominated general of banks of the Lianne ; he was suffered to brigade; but Le Febvre, unwilling to part talk on,' and was forgiven this silliness, with bim, caused him to be employed in from his having on the other hand the good bis division, giving him the command of sense to show himself one of the most the advanced-guard. Le Febyre having zealous advocates for the erection of Buobeen wounded, Jourdan intrusted this naparte's pillar, with this inscription, division to Soult, who commanded it in the land and sea army to Napoleon the chief on the day of the battle of Liebtingen, great! Soult would have done much the 26th of March, 1799. Made general better, had he advised his master to conof division, he was employed in Switzer- struct good barracks for the soldiers, a land under Massena, of whom he was wholesome hospital with a spacious garden, considered as the right hand; he followed and stone powder-magazines, instead of that general into Italy, and co-operated those of wood, which, like so many volwith him at the siege of Genoa, where canoes, threaten Boulogne with complete · Soult was wounded, a ball having shat- destruction ; the more to be dreaded, as tered his right leg. He was made prisoner this might result from the imprudence of with his brother, who was then aide-de- a single sentinel, or the evil designs of camp and chief of a squadron, and who some flagitious villain ; but, unfortunately, was afterwards a general, commanding splendour is preferred to real utility, and the caralry of the 4th corps, in the king that which might be advantageous to hudom of Grenada.

manity is left unconsidered. · The result of the battle of Marengo, Soult, during his stay at Boulogne,

occasioned Soult's return into his own evinced uncommon activity : almost concountry. As soon as he was recovered tinually on horseback, he severally visited of his wounds, he was intrusted with the the coast, the camps, and the cantonments; command of the army of observation in and it was there that he employed himself the kingdom of Naples. Some officers, in instructing his troops in those inawho then served under his orders have næuvres which were of so much service assured me that he had succeeded in being to him at the battle of Austerlitz. When beloved and feared by the troops and the the army of the Boulogne camp proceeded inhabitants, for his justice and strictness. to Germany, Soult passed the Rhine at It was also Le Febvre who represented Spire the 26th September, 1805, and diSoult as being equally skilful in manœuvres rected his march through Heilbron for as zealous for discipline : he was sent for Nordlingen. · The 6th October he seized to Paris, and appointed colonel-general on the tête de pont of Donawert, crossed of the foot chasseurs of the consular guard; the Danube, and marched straight to he constantly shewed himself worthy of Augsburg, of which he took possession Buonaparte's confidence, and it was without striking a blow: he also seized shortly perceived how greatly the influence on Memingen, experiencing scarcely any of Soult operated in improving whatever resistance. During the whole of this related to the service. Buonaparte, charm- campaign he was intrusted with the most ed with the progress his guard made in important posts. At the battle of Ansterorder, conduct, and instruction, the result litż he commanded the right wing ; Buoof Soult's exertions, conceived he could naparte sent him an order for an immediate not make a better choice, than appointing attack, and to possess himself of the heights that officer to the chief command of the of Pratzen. Soult said to the aide-decamp of Boulogne.

camp who brought this order, “that he More open-minded than the other would commence the attack as soon as he tourtiers, Soult declaimed very loudly could do it successfully ; but that it was not against the immense works which were yet the proper time. This reply, being constructing on the coast near Boulogne, reported to Buonaparte, filled him with and on the heights bordering upon the rage ; and he immediately sent another

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