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uniquesuonable zeal and firmness. As this of which he was the lawful ruler, as the declaration was unsatisfactory and in- Portuguese general himself. Another prodefinite, the board was called upon by the test came from the Monteiro Mor, governor duke of York to resume its consideration of Algarve, president of the junta of that of the armistice and convention, and pro- kingdom, and general of the army of the nounce decidedly whether they thought south; he requested that, on account of the them advisable. The armistice was con- robberies and atrocities of the French, the demned by lord Moira; the convention vessels employed to carry them home might was disapproved of by the same nobleman, be embargoed till the king of England and by the earl of Pembroke, and general the prince regent should resolve on what Nicolls. Six, therefore, of the seven was best for the honor and interest of the members, approved of the armistice, and two nations : he required also that a rigorfour approved of the convention. The dis- ous inventory should be made of their bagsentient members delivered in their reasons gage, by Portuguese and English commisfor the opinion which they gave. General sioners, that they might not carry with Nicolls and earl Pembroke confined them- them the booty which they had so infaselves to a military point of view. Lord mously obtained. Moira took a wider scope, and argued From all these difficulties in which the against the moral and political effects of British commanders had involved thenthis unhappy treaty. The proceedings selves and their country, an opportunity were concluded by a declaration from the was afforded them of escaping, if not with king, adopting the unanimous opinion of honor, at least with diminished ignominy, the board that no proceeding was neces- by the French themselves, who, in violation sary, but expressing his disapprobation of of the provisions of the treaty, demanded, those articles, in which stipulations were and actually received, money arising from made directly effecting the interests and the revenues of the country, after it had feelings of the Spanish and Portuguese been signed. No farther ground could nations. He reprehended the delay of have been wanting at once to have annulled sir Hew Dalrymple in transmitting the con- the convention, and declared Junot and vention, as the cause of much national in- his whole army prisoners of war ; this convenience, but abstained from any ob- palpable infraction having been thus comservations on its remaining conditions. mitted. But throughout the whole of these
The British commander-in-chief was not deplorable transactions, the utmost deliaware of the political faults which he had cacy was observed towards the French, committed till they were thus pointed out. as if they were the only persons whose The disregard to an independent ally, ma- feelings were to be consulted. Sir Arthur nifested both in the armistice and the con- Wellesley, during the negotiation, proposed vention, proceeded from pure want of that some mode should be devised to make thought and feeling in the English generals, the French generals " disgorge the churchnot from intentional disrespect ; and sir plate which they had stolen.” An article Hew Dalrymple no sooner discovered in was framed in consequence, specifying in what manner it was resented by the Portu- direct terms, that the property of churches, guese, than he assured general Friere, monasteries, galleries of paintings, &c. (adding also that he would use the neces. should not be carried away ; but this arsary means of giving publicity to the pledge,) ticle was withdrawn on the repeated reprethat he served in Portugal as the commander sentations of Kellerman, and at Juot's of a force acting in alliance with that coun- particular request, because he said it aptry, and that therefore he considered him- peared so reproachful to the French army self bound, by duty and honor, to pay as to have it introduced into a public docustrict a regard to the interest of the prince ment; and the British generals consented regent, the dignity and secarity of the to have it withdrawn, for the very reason government, and the welfare of the nation which should have made them insist upon
its publication,-contenting themselves excited, and that the rage of the people with Junot's word of honor, that nothing was little less directed against the English of the kind should be renewed. General than the French. Through the intervenKellerman, too, disclaimed all idea of tion, therefore, of general Beresford and military men conducting themselves with lord Proby, the commissaries for executing such a spirit of individual rapacity, as had the convention, the spoils of the museuin been attributed, in some instances, to the and royal library were reclaimed. But French officers ; and even expressed his the most valuable fruits of their rapine, the hope, that, if there were any guilty persons money which they had collected, they were in the army, they might reap no benefit suffered to carry off: They escaped from from their misconduct.
Portugal with three months' pay for the Sir Hew Dalrymple lent a willing car to whole army in the general military chest, these excuses. Encouraged by this, Junot and distributed large sums to the different demanded five Danish ships to remove his regiments, to be carried off in their regiown personal effects. This indeed was mental chests. Intimation was given that too much,—yet the frigate in which he 53 boxes of Indigo were embarked with sailed had not sufficient space for his bag- the private baggage of Junot, and the plun. gage, and he carried off no fewer than der was seized ; but this was a trifing twelve carriages. It seemed as if the French drawback upon the treasures which regeneral supposed .that whatever he asked mained, and presented a poor atonement inust necessarily be conceded, and imagined for all the subservience, imbecility, and inthat military men could not have been so difference of the English generals throughoutwitted in negotiation, unless they had out the whole of these transactions. Every been in some degree afraid, -not indeed precaution was taken to repress the indigof any army which they had beaten, but of nant resistance of the people, and the bagthe vengeance which the great Napoleon gage could not have been embarked but might afterwards exact. But the impu- under the continual protection of an English dence of this demand, and the robberies guard. General Kellerman was only prewhich he still continued to commit, at served from assassination on his return to length provoked the English, and in some the water side from, a visit to a British degree alarmed them for the consequences. officer, by the courage and humanity of the The Juiz de Povo of Lisbon, presented a English sailors. . forinal protest against the convention. The T he French troops from Almeida were terms had not been wade public ; nor marched to Porto, (commonly called .Would it have been safe to have published Oporto,) under a British escort, there to them. In fact, though the substance was be embarked. On the day of their arrival, but too plainly manifested, the treason it. they opened a traffic in the plunder and the self was not seen by the Portuguese nor property which they had been permitted the British army till it reached Lisbon in to retain. The natural indignation of the the English newspapers. The victory which people at this infamous traffic, was exasthe French obtained by negotiation more perated by a circumstance of all others the than counterbalanced the humiliation of most calculated to awaken the resentment defeat. They even denied that they had of the Portuguese. There were discovered been defeated; they affirmed that they in the baggage boxes of the French, opened had dictated the terms, and Junot con- in the presence of the governor and of sir tinued to occupy the royal box at the opera Robert Wilson, several rich vestments of till his departure.
the priests. Had not the French been proSir Hew Dalrymple at length perceived vided with 60 rounds each man, or had not that, owing to the shameful and open man sir Robert Wilson employed the most ner in which the French were preparing to strenuous exertions to repress the tumult, cairy off the public and private property, the commotion excited by this disclosure, the popular fermentation was violently must have terminated in the destruction of
the fugitives. They were disembarked, very different character was exhibited at however, at the instance of the people, their Lisbon, when their arms, horses, and arbaggage was examined on shore, and they tillery, were restored to the Spaniards who were required to abandon their arms. No had been imprisoned by Junot. Their sooner had they left their transports than number when they were seized, was 5800, the rabble boarded them, and began to but above 2000 had effected their escape, plunder in their turn. Having satiated and many of them had fought and fallen themselves with their booty, the more noisy in Alentejo. The ceremony was made as of the populace retired ; the better classes public and impressive as possible, and the were ashamed of the violence committed, alms which the Spanish commander disand adopted every necessary measure of tributed among the poor of Lisbon, occainmediate reparation.
sioned a general festival On the 22nd of September, a scene of a
HISTORY OF THE WAR.
Escape of the friends of Ferdinand-Siege of Gerona-Capture and Recapture of
Bilboa-Buonaparte's Conscription for 1810 called out— Meeting of Napoleon with Alexander at Erfurth— Proposals for Peace and subsequent correspondence- British declaration-Buonaparte's advance to Madrid-Defeat of Blake and CastanosTreachery of Morla-LIFE of SOULT— Proceedings of the British Army-Sim John Moore enters Spain-He resolves to retreat, but, altering his purpose, advances His Despondency- Retreat of the British-Battle of Corunna—Embarkation of the Troops, and termination of our first Campaign in Spain.
YHILE the intruder remained at shoes and uniforms, wholly ineffectual.
Y Madrid, the friends of Ferdinand, Under these peculiar disadvantages the who had been compelled to enter into his war was languidly conducted ; and the service, effected their escape, and declared only event of importance after the flight in favor of the patriots. The duke del of Joseph, was the siege of Gerona. GeneInfantado and the duke del Parque, pro- ral Duhesme, with a force of 7000 men; ceeded to animate the exertions of the .encamped before that town, which was Spanish armies ; and Cevallos prepared defended by the count de Caldagues, at and circulated an interesting narrative of the head of 6000 troops, of whom only the transactions at Bayonne. The avowed 300 were veterans. By a plan as skilfully partisans of the intruder accompanied him executed as it was prudently concerted, in his flight, and the council of Castile, he drove this superior and disciplined arwho had sanctioned all the measures of my from its encampment to the plain of the French, vainly endeavored to justify Sarvia, where their cavalry, in which the their conduct. The juntas were formed Spanish were deficient, protected them. into a .central body, remarkable only for The action continued during the whole of treachery and imbecility. Morla, who had the day : on the ensuing night the French long been subservient to the designs of retreated in two divisions, leaving behind France, was the chief directer of its proceed them great part of their artillery, ammaings; and, jealous of the patriotic generals, nition, and stores. The operations of the entrusted them with little authority, and French during the siege, were considerably disposed them at the head of separate and impeded by the English ships on the coast unconnected armies. They misled their of Catalonia. Captain Otway landed his allies, and deluded the people into a fatal marines to assist the patriots near Rosas, security by the circulation of the most and repelled the French when approachatrocious falsehoods respecting the strength ing to besiege it. Lord Cochrane cos and situation of the forces. They left the operating with the Spanish militia, stormed army unprovided with arms and clothing, the castle of Mongat, which commanded and rendered the generous subscriptions a pass in the road between Barcelona and of the English nation for their supply of Gerona, destroyed the castle, and broke up the road so as to render it im passable the governments of Russia and of France for artillery. The defence of Gerona and have not led to negotiation : and the inthe recapture of Bilboa by the marquis tercourse to which those overtures gave de Portazgo, were the only events of the rise being terminated, his majesty thinks summer deserving commemoration. - it right thus promptly and publicly to make
Alarmed and astonished by the pro- known its termination. The continued traction of the struggle, Buonaparte ob- appearance of a negotiation, when peace has tained from his obsequious and unprin- been found to be utterly unattainable, cipled senate, a decree for a new conscrip- could be advantageous only to the enemy. tion, by which one in seven of all unmarried It might enable France to sow distrust men between the ages of 21 and 23 were and jealousy in the councils of those who to be sent to the armies. One year's con- are combined to resist her oppressions : scription had already been anticipated, and if, among the nations which groan another year was to be levied in advance, under the tyranny of French alliance, or and 80,000 men, whose services were not among those which maintain against due till 1810, were now to be called forth. France a doubtful and precarious indeAl the roads to Spain were thronged with pendence, there should be any which even troops, marching from every part of France, now are balancing between the certain and its deperdencies towards the Py. ruin of a prolonged inactivity, and the renees. While they were on their march, contingent dangers of an effort to save Buonaparte set out for Germany to meet themselves from that ruin ; to nations so his confederates, the German princes and situated the delusive prospect of a peace the emperor Alexander, at Erfurth. Some between Great Britain and France could of the performers of the Theatre Francoise not fail to be peculiarly injurious. Their had orders to precede him, that these po- preparations might be relaxed by the vain tentates might be provided with amuse- hope of returning, tranquillity ; or their ment. An opportunity was taken of purpose shaken by the apprehension of giving his imperial ally a momentous hint being left to contend alone.—That such of the superiority of his new friend. Buo- was, in fact, the main object of France in naparte accompanied him to the field of the proposals transmitted to his majesty Jena, (or Averstadt,) a temple dedicated to from Erfurth, his majesty entertained a victory, had been erected on the spot where strong persuasion.—But at a moment when the emperor, Napoleon had passed the results so awful from their importance, and night previous to the battle : tents were so tremendous from their uncertainty, pitched around it ; and, after a sumptuous might be depending upon the decision of breakfast, the czar was led over every part peace or war, the king felt it due to himof the ground, and left to make his own self to ascertain, beyond the possibility of reflections on the fate of Prussia. The doubt, the views and intentions of his immediate consequence of the meeting was enemies. It was difficult for his majesty a proposal of peace to Great Britain, which to believe, that the emperor of Russia had was accompanied by a joint letter from devoted himself so blindly and fatally to the emperors of France and Russia to the the violence and ambition of the power king of England. The overtures were with which his imperial majesty had un. decidedly rejected for reasons fully ex. fortunately become allied, as to be preplained in the following declaration of his pared openly to abet the usurpation of the Britannic majesty, which, while any Spanish monarchy; and to acknowledge honor remains in the English people, and maintain the right assumed. by France, will always be read with pride and satis- to depose and imprison friendly sovereigns, faction.
and forcibly to transfer to herself the alle
giance of independent nations. When Westminster, December 15th, 1808. therefore it was proposed to his majesty The overtures made to his majesty by to enter into negotiation for a general