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Retreat of the Allies-The French ad-

vance to Mont St. Jean, and the British

State of France at the close of 1814 and be occupy positions near Brussels-A san-

ginning of 1815-Manners, conversation, guinary Conflict ensues-Glorions and

and views of Buonaparte in the Island unexampled Victory of WATERLOO-

of Elba-A regular correspondence is The English, Hanoverian, Prussian, and

formed between him and his partizans in French accounts --Flight of Napoleon-

France-He leaves the Island He He is compelled to vacate the Crown.

enters the Bay of Juan and marches to


Cannes- Proceeds' to Paris, protected

by the King's Marshals, and without op-


position—Treachery of Marshal Ney-

The Ex-Emperor approaches Paris, and The Allied Armies enter Paris for the second

the populace prepare to receive him with time-They declare in favor of the Bour-


Page 1073. bons-Buonaparte flies to Rochefort-

Attempts to escape, and surrenders to


the Captain of the Bellerophon—Sketches

of his manners, demeanour, and conver-

Contending sentiments of the parties in sation-He sails in the Northumberland

France-Renewed treachery of the Gene to St. Helena-Conduct of the Allies-
rals of the King-Napoleon arrives with France is Pillaged, and the Works of
out molestation at Paris - Declarations Art Plundered from other Nations are
of the Allied Powers-Plans adopted by sent back to their rightful Owners—The
Buonaparte for the restoration of his au Duke of Wellington's Letter on that sub-
thority-Celebration of the Champ de ject-Conventions between the Allies

Mars, (or May) The Emperor departs and Erance-SIGNATURE OF A

for the Frontiers

1097 GENERAL PEACE-Copies of the


Treaties—Concluding Reflections on the

affairs of France.


Buonaparte arrives at the Frontiers-De-

feats the Prussians- Battle of Ligny-



Insurrection in Madrid. and Military Murders afterwards Assembly of Notables convoked at Bayonne, and Joseph Buonaparte nominated by his Brother King of

Spain and of the Indies-General Insurrection of the Spaniards-Formation of the · Provincial Juntas- Their Measures and Proclamations-Deputies from the Asturias reach England - Mr. Sheridan's Speech- Proceedings at Cadiz-The Spaniards put the Governor to Death, and compel the French Squudron to Surrender Dupont enters Andalusia with a French Army, is Defeated by General Reding at Baglen, and Surrenders-The French Eagles deposited as Trophies, at SevilleMemorable Siege of SaragossaLe Febvre attempts to force the City, and is Repulsed Heroism of the Women-Countess Burila, and Augustina Saragossa-Conflagration of St. EngraciaThe French' enter the City, and obtain possession of half of it-Unexampled Heroism of the People-Expulsion of the Enemy.

ANHUS had Buonaparte succeeded his own family, by transferring his brother

in dispossessing the house of Bour- Joseph from the throne of Naples to that of bou of the throne of Spain. The whole Madrid, he had committed an act of usur. of that family, (with the exception of the pation, as impolitic as it was iniquitous. infante Don Pedro, nephew to Charles Spain had been the faithful ally of VI. who had fortunately been adopted by France,- let Trafalgar witness how fatally the Portuguese court, and accompanied for herself ! Her fleets were at the disposal them to Brasil,) were in his power as of Buonaparte ; her armies were occupied prisoners ; and, in the character of an in his service in Portugal, and upon the ally, he had secured for himself the passes Baltie; her treasures were at his demand, of the Pyrenees, seized the important city as completely as if Charles had been a of Barcelona, and the strongest places tributary king. France then could gain upon the frontier, marched his armies into nothing by this change of dynasty; and the very heart of the kingdom, and ob- the loss of all the advantages which she tained possession of the capital. The derived from Spanish America, was train of perfidy by which he had thus far hazarded by it, if Spain herself should accomplished his purpose, is unexampled, ever submit to the insolent intrusion of even in the worst ages of history. The Joseph, a base and low-born stranger, whole transaction was on his part a busi- who had renewed at Naples an exhibition siness of pure, unmingled wickedness; of those tortures which make the judge unprovoked, unextenuated, equally de- as much to be abhorred as the criminal, testable in its motive, its means, and its however great the crime ; a wretch eleend.

vated for the mere accident of consanThe Corsican had now displayed him- guinity, in an age when all the advenself in his true character. For the mere turers by whom he was surrounded, had selfish, vulgar ambition, of aggrandizing raised themselves by some species of


talent, either in the cabinet or the field; which neither he nor his master had exhis only merit was, that he was the brother pected, was eager to give the word for of Napoleon Buonaparte, and sufficiently slaughter. He seemed, as soon as he enunprincipled, mean, and cruel, to be his tered Madrid, resolved to make them feel tool and executioner.

that they were no longer a free and indeAs for the pretext that there existed pendent nation, but that they must learn an English party in Spain, it was notoriously obedience to a military yoke. A Frenchfalse. Those Spaniards who felt and la- man had been appointed governor of the mented the degradation of Spain, founded city, a French patrole had been established, their hopes of effecting its regeneration and (April 14th,) notice was given, that, upon Buonaparte. There was not any as the great-coats for the French troops possible way by which he could have so had not arrived, the heads of the police effectually attached the Spaniards to their were to call at every house to receive a alliance with France, secured their affec- contribution of these articles, every person tions, and strengthened his own immediate being expected to contribute as many as and individual interests, (if the most vul- he could. After the departure of Ferdigar ambition had not blinded him,) as by nand from Madrid, the anxiety and agitaconnecting his own family with the royal tion of the people hourly increased ;house of Spain, by the projected marriage they knew that he had expected to meet with Ferdinand, and suffering him and Buonaparte at Burgos; and the tidings bis ministers to make those reforins which that he had crossed the frontier and prowould soon have restored to health and ceeded to Bayonne, excited as much alarm strength a country that was still sound as wonder. An extraordinary courier at heart. Buonaparte has never had it arrived every evening from that city ; in his power to produce such great and the intelligence which he brought was extensive good as this opportunity invited, never published in the gazette, but cirwithout risk, effort, or any contingent culated as extracts from private corresinconvenience. He had only to say, Let pondence : the first of these accounts these things be, and the work of progres- consisted solely of details of the honors sive reformation would have begun in with which Ferdinand had been received Spain and in Spanish America, while he, by the emperor. Subsequent despatches like a presiding god, might have looked became each less satisfactory than the on and received the blessings of both last ; hints were given that all was not countries for his benignant influence. going on well; and Buonaparte's intenBut every good and rational principle was tions became more and more developed, absorbed in the current of his ambition. till it could no longer be doubted that

The artifices, by which he had thus Ferdinand was to be deprived of his far accomplished his purpose, were of the crown. basest kind. Never, perhaps, was any T he courier who was expected on Saturplot of perfidious ambition so coarsely day, the 30th of April, did not arrive: he planned. The term of policy cannot be was still expected on the following evening, applied to it; and cunning imports an and great multitudes assembled at the exertion of talent, which no part of this Puerto del Sol, and in the streets near infamous transaction displayed. Nothing the post-office, anxiously waiting for the more was required than to employ false- news. The French garrison were under hood and violence equally without re- arms all that night ; their commanders, morse; to repeat professions and protesta- cool spectators of these things, according tions so profusely as tò deceive the to their own relation, saw a crisis apprince, and to shed blood enough to in- proaching, and saw it with pleasure. timidate the people. The former object The following morning, (May 2nd,) had had been effected; and Murat, perceiving been fixed upon for the departure of the in the Spaniards a spirit of patriotism, queen of Etruria and her brother, the

infante Don Francisco de Paula, for Bay- and at the same time so hopeless. As onne. Many people collected before the fast as the aların spread, every man of palace. It was reported that the infante the lower ranks who could find any kind Don Antonio, the president of the pro- of weapon, armed himself, and hasteneu visional government, had been desired, to the nearest scene of action. Numbers or rather ordered, by Murat, to join his of the French fell, and their arms were brother and nephew at Bayonne ; the seized by the Spaniards. But the people French general intimating at the same of a small metropolis could effect but littime, that he expected to be appointed tle against 60,000 troops in the city and its regent during his absence; but the infante immediate vicinity, prepared for this insurrefused to obey. He had received his rection, and having only to contend with power, he said, from the king, his nephew, an unarmed and irregular multitude. The and to him only, in person, would he re- French poured into the city on all sides sign it ; and he would not abandon his with their tiying artillery ; their cavalry repost. In consequence of this act of firm- peatedly charged the populace, and thirty ness, Murat recalled some troops to Ma- discharges of grape-shot cleared the drid, which had been ordered to a different streets. The infantry fired volleys into station a few days before, and entered every cross street as they passed ; and the city with them that morning, intend- every window and halcony was aimed at ing, as was suspected, to seize the person in which any person could be seen. The of the infante, and secure to himself the people, when ouce dispersed, fled into office of regent. Impressed by this ap- their houses, whither they were followed prehension, the people were disposed to by the French, and bayonetted wherever resist force by force. A rumor arose that they were found. Parties of cavalry also one of the carriages, when it drove up to were stationed at the different outlets of the gate, was intended for Don Antonio, the city, where they cut down all who atand the populace determined that they tempted to escape. Such, however, was would not suffer the last of the royal the resistance of the people, that the greater family to be taken from them, cut the part of the French troops were killed traces of the carriage, and forced it back before their overpowering powers could into the palace-yard. Being assured, arrive from their camps. Two brave arhowever, that Don Antonio was not to tillery officers, Doaiz and Velarde, at the leave Madrid, they permitted it again to head of a handful of artillerymen, hastened be yoked and brought out. Murat sent to the arsenal, but, before they could deone of his aides-de-camp to inquire into liver out the arms, a detachment was sent this disturbance. The people were dis- to secure it. They repelled the first posed to treat him roughly, but some column, having brought a 24-pounder to Spanish officers interfered, and rescued bear upon the long narrow street by which him from their hands. The carriages with the enemy advanced. Two other columns the queen of Etruria and her brother were were despatched against them, who, from now suffered to proceed, and the latter, the windows and roofs of houses in the a boy of fourteen, was crying bitterly, neighbourhood, fired on them from both and evidently unwilling to go ; a circum- sides. Velarde was killed by a musketstance which both affected and enraged ball ; Doaiz, having his thigh broken, the people. At this moment the aid-de- continued to give his orders sitting, till camp returned with a party of French he received three other wounds, the last soldiers, and the scene of bloodshed began. of which put an end to his life. About * The Spanish troops were locked up in two the firing ceased in all parts, in consetheir barracks, and thus prevented from quence of the personal interference of the joining the people. The latter behaved council of Castile, who paraded the streets with great spirit, and there is scarcely on with many of the Spanish nobility, and a record an instance of an attempt so brave, mingled. escort of Spanish soldiers, and

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