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Pocahontas. Six months after Smith left, ern Continent. A seal for the colony was the settlement of 500 souls was reduced adopted by the company. It was made of to sixty. The three commissioners reached beeswax, covered with very thin paper, Jamestown in June, 1610, and Gates de- and stamped on both sides with approtermined to leave for Newfoundland with priate devices. On one side were the royal

arms of Great
Britain, and on
the other an
effigy of the
reigning mon-
arch, with the
sentence in Latin
“Seal of the
Province of Vir-
ginia." Kneeling
before the mon-
arch was an Ind-
ian presenting a
bundle of tobac-
co, the chief
product of the
country. In the
seal was a figure
representing

Queen Anne.
CULTIVATION OF TOBACCO IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA.

The original from

which the enthe famished settlers, and distribute them graving on preceding page was copied was among the settlers there. In four pinnaces somewhat defaced. It was sent to the colthey departed, and were met at Point Com- ony almost immediately after the beginfort by Lord Delaware, with provisions ning of Queen Anne's reign, with instrucand emigrants. Failing health compelled tions from the secretary of the privy him to return to England in March, 1611, council to break up the seal of her predand he was succeeded by a deputy, Sir ecessor, William III., and send the fragThomas Dale, who arrived with 300 set- ments to England. tlers and some cattle. Sir Thomas Gates The same year 1,200 colonists arrived, came with 350 more colonists in Septem- among whom were ninety "respectable ber following, and superseded Dale. These young women," to become the wives of were a far better class than any who had planters, who were purchased at a profit arrived, and there were then 1,000 Eng. to the company and were paid for in lishmen in Virginia New settlements tobacco, then become a profitable agriwere planted at Dutch Gap and at Ber- cultural product. Within two years 150 muda Hundred at the mouth of the Appo- respectable young women were sent to mattox. In 1616 Deputy-Governor Gates Virginia for the same purpose. Homes and was succeeded by Samuel Argall, but his families appeared, and so the foundation course was so bad that Lord Delaware of the commonwealth of Virginia was laid. sailed from England to resume the gov- Already the Indians had been made ernment of Virginia, but died on the pas- friendly by the marriage of Pocahontas sage, at the mouth of the bay that bears to an Englishman. The tribe of goldhis name.

seekers had disappeared, and the future of George Yeardley was appointed governor Virginia appeared bright. The King inin 1617, and he summoned two delegates jured the colony by sending over 100 confrom each of seven corporations or bor- victs from English prisons, in 1619, to be oughs to assemble at Jamestown, July 30. sold as servants to the planters, and this These delegates formed a representative system was pursued for 100 years, in deassembly, the first ever held on the West- fiance of the protests of the settlers. The same year the colonists bought twenty of burial “ sequestered and paled in.” negro slaves of a Dutch trader, and so Absence from public worship“ without slavery was introduced (see SLAVERY). On allowable excuse” incurred the forfeiture July 24, 1621, the London Company of a pound of tobacco, or 50 lbs. if the granted the colonists a written constitu- absence were persisted in for a month. tion for their government, which provided Divine public service was to be in confor the appointment of a governor and formity to the canons of the Church of council by the company, and a representa- England. In addition to the Church festive assembly, to consist of two burgesses tivals, March 22 (0. S.) was to be annuor representatives from each borough, to ally observed in commemoration of the be chosen by the people and clothed with escape of the colony from destruction by full legislative power in connection with the Indians. No minister was allowed to the council. This body formed the Gen- be absent from his parish more than two eral Assembly. Sir Francis Wyatt was months in a year, under pain of forfeiting appointed governor, and brought the con- cne-half of his salary, or the whole of it, stitution with him.

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and his spiritual charge, if absent four The first laws of the commonwealth months. He who disparaged a minister were thirty-five in number, concisely ex- without proof was to be fined 500 lbs. pressed, repealed all former laws, and of tobacco, and to beg the minister's parclearly showed the condition of the col- don publicly before the congregation. The ony. The first acts related to the Church. minister's salary was to be paid out of the They provided that in every plantation first-gathered and best tobacco and corn; there should be a room or house “ for the and no man was to dispose of his tobacco worship of God, sequestered and set apart before paying his church-dues, under pain for that purpose, and not to be for any of forfeiting double. Drunkenness and temporal use whatsoever ”; also a place swearing were made punishable offences.

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VIRGINIA MOUNTAINEERS IN COLONIAL TIMES.

The levy and expenditure were to be go to work in the fields without being made by the Assembly only; the governor armed, nor to leave his house exposed to might not draw the inhabitants from their attack; no powder was to be spent unprivate employments to do his work; the necessarily, and each plantation was to whole council had to consent to the levy be furnished with arms. Persons of of men for the public service; older set- “ quality" who were delinquent might not tlers, who came before Sir Thomas Gates undergo corporal punishment like “com(1611), "and their posterity” were to be mon” people, but might be imprisoned exempt from personal military service; the and fined. Any person wounded in the burgesses were not to be molested in going military service was to be cured at the to, coming from, or during the sessions of public charge, and if permanently lamed the Assembly; every private planter's was to have a maintenance according to lands were to be surveyed and their bounds his “ quality"; and 10 lbs. of tobacco recorded ; monthly courts were to be held were to be levied on each male coloby special commissioners at Elizabeth nist to pay the expenses of the war. This City, at the mouth of the James, and at war was that with the Indians after the Charles City, for the accommodation of massacre in 1622, and much of the legismore distant plantations; the price of lation had reference to it, such as an

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corn was to be unrestricted; in every par- order for the inhabitants, at the beginning ish was to be a public granary, to which of July, 1624, to fall upon the adjoining each planter was to bring yearly a bushel savages “as they did last year." of corn to be disposed of for public use by In 1624, of the 9,000 persons who had a vote of the freemen, and if not disposed been sent to Virginia, only a little more of to be returned to the owner; every set- than 2,000 remained. The same year the

tler was to be compelled to cultivate corn London Company was dissolved by a writ · enough for his family; all trade in corn of quo warranto, and Virginia became a with the Indians was prohibited; every royal province. George Yeardly was apfreeman was to fence in a garden of a pointed governor, with twelve councillors. quarter of an acre for the planting of He died in 1627, and was succeeded by Sir grape-vines, roots, herbs, and mulberry- John Harvey, a haughty and unpopular trees; inspectors, or “ censors," of to- ruler. Harvey was deposed by the Vir.bacco were to be appointed; ships were ginians in 1635, but was reinstated by to break bulk only at James City; weights Charles I., and ruled until 1639. Sir Will. and measures were to be sealed; every iam Berkeley became governor in 1641, at house was to be palisaded for defence the beginning of the civil war in Eng. against the Indians, and no man was to land, and being a thorough loyalist, soon

came in contact with the republican Par- ginia. That was Washington's first apliament. The colonists, also, remained pearance in public service. He performed loyal, and invited the son of the behead- the duty with so much skill and prudence ed King to come and reign over them. that he was placed at the head of a miliCromwell sent commissioners and a fleet tary force the next year, and fought the to Virginia. A compromise with the French at and near Fort Necessity. Dur. loyalists was effected. Berkeley gave way ing the French and Indian War that ento Richard Bennett, one of the commis- sued, Virginia bore her share; and when sioners, who became governor. But when England began to press her taxation Charles II. was restored, Berkeley, who schemes in relation to the colonies, the had not left Virginia, was reinstated; the Virginia House of Burgesses took a patrilaws of the colony were revived; restric-otic stand in opposition, under the leadertive revenue laws were enforced; the ship of PATRICK HENRY (q. v.). From Church of England-disestablished in Vir- that time until the breaking out of the ginia—was re-established, and severe legis- Revolutionary War the Virginians were lative acts against Non-conformists were conspicuous in maintaining the rights of passed. Berkeley proclaimed Charles II. the colonies. “ King of England, Scotland, Ireland, and On March 20, 1775, a convention of delVirginia," and ruled with vigor. Under gates from the several counties and Berkeley, the colonists had become dis. corporations of Virginia met for the first contented, and in 1676 they broke out into time. They assembled in St. John's Church open rebellion, led by a wealthy and enter- in Richmond. Among the conspicuous prising young lawyer named NATHANIEL members of the convention were WashingBACON (q. v.).

ton and Patrick Henry. Peyton Randolph Charles II. had given a patent for Vir- was chosen president and John Tazewell ginia (1673) to two of his rapacious cour- clerk. A large portion of the members tiers (Arlington and Culpeper), and in yearned for reconciliation with Great Brit1677 the latter superseded Berkeley as ain, while others saw no ground for hope governor. He arrived in Virginia in 1680, that the mother-country would be just. and his rapacity and profligacy soon so Among the latter was Patrick Henry. His disgusted the people that they were on judgment was too sound to be misled by the verge of rebellion, when the King, of- mere appearances of justice, in which fended at him, revoked his grant and his others trusted. The convention expressed commission. He was succeeded by an its unqualified approbation of the proceedequally unpopular governor, Lord Howard ings of the Continental Congress, and of Effingham, and the people were again warmly thanked their delegates for the stirred to revolt; but the death of the part they had taken in it. They thanked King and other events in England made the Assembly of the island of Jamaica them wait for hoped-for relief. The Stu- for a sympathizing document, and then arts were driven from the throne forever proceeded to consider resolutions that the in 1688, and there was a change for the colony should be instantly put in a state better in the colonies. In 1699 Williams- of defence by an immediate organization burg was founded and made the capital of the militia. of Virginia, where the General Assembly This meant resistance, and the resolumet in 1700. The code was revised for tions alarmed the more timid, who opthe fifth time in 1705, when by it slaves posed the measure as rash and almost were declared real estate, and this law impious. Deceived by a show of justice continued until 1776. Hostilities with the on the part of Great Britain, they urged French broke out in 1754, they having delay, for it was evident that the numerbuilt a line of military posts along the ous friends of the colonists in England, western slope of the Alleghany Moun- together with the manufacturing interest, tains, in the rear of Virginia, and at the would soon bring about an accommodahead-waters of the Ohio. To one of these tion. This show of timidity and temporposts young George Washington was sent izing roused the fire of patriotism in the on a diplomatic mission towards the close bosom of Henry, and he made an impasof 1753, by Dinwiddie, governor of Vir- sioned speech, which electrified all hear

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ers and has become in our history an ad- tainder, with those of Randolph, Jefferson, mired specimen of oratory. The resolu- the two Adamses, and Hancock. tions to prepare for defence were passed, Governor Dunmore soon called a meet

ing of the Virginia Assembly to consider a conciliatory proposition made by Lord North. They rejected it, and in his anger he fulminated proclamations against Henry and the committees of vigilance which were formed in every county in Virginia. He declared that, should one of his officers be molested in the performance of his duty, he would raise the royal standard, proclaim freedom to the slaves, and arm them against their masters. He

sent his family ST. JOHN'S CHURCH.

(May 4) on board

the British man-ofand Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, war Fowcy, in the York River, fortified Robert C. Nicholas, Benjamin Harrison, his “ palace," and secretly placed powder Lemuel Riddick, George Washington, Adam under the magazine at Williamsburg, Stephen, Andrew Lewis, William Chris- with the evident intention of blowing it tian, Edmund Pendleton, Thomas Jeffer- up should occasion seem to require it. son, and Isaac Lane were appointed a The discovery of this “gunpowder plot” commitee to prepare a plan accordingly. greatly irritated the people. A rumor Their plan for embodying the militia was came(June 7) that armed marines adopted, and Virginia prepared herself were on their way from the Fouey to for the conflict. Provision was made for assist Dunmore to enforce the laws. the enrolment of a company of volunteers The people flew to arms, and the govin each county. The convention reappoint- ernor, alarmed, took refuge on the maned the Virginia delegates to seats in the of-war. He was the first of the royal second Continental Congress, adding governors who abdicated government at Thomas Jefferson, “in case of the non- the beginning of the Revolution. From the attendance of Peyton Randolph.” Henry l'ouey Dunmore sent messages, addresses, had said, prophetically, in his speech, and letters to the burgesses in session at “ The next gale that comes from the North Williamsburg, and received communicawill bring to our ears the clash of arms!” tions from them in return. When all bills This prophecy was speedily fulfilled by passed were ready for the governor's sig. the clash of arms at Lexington. His bold nature, he was invited to his capitol to proceedings and utterances in this conven- sign them. He declined, and demanded tion caused his name to be presented to that they should present the papers at his the British government in a bill of at- residence on shipboard. Instead of this,

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