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gents were patriotic citizens. He took in the construction of railroads, and in prompt measures to suppress the insur- 1842 became chief engineer of the St. rection. Governor Mifflin refused to call Petersburg and Moscow (Russia) Railout the militia of Pennsylvania, and road, which he was engaged in constructWashington resolved to act with vigor. ing and equipping as sole superintendent. He issued a proclamation requiring the He was also employed in constructing exinsurgents to desist; and under his au- tensive dock-yards at St. Petersburg, thority as President of the United States where he died, April 7, 1849. he called upon the governors of Pennsyl. Whistler, JAMES ABBOT MCNEIL, vanja, New Jersey, Maryland, and Vir- artist; born in Lowell, Mass., in 1834; ginia for a body of 13,000 men, afterwards educated at the United States Military raised to 15,000. The insurgent counties Academy; went to Europe in 1857; and could bring 16,000 fighting men into the studied in Paris, where he afterwards field.

made his home. He published Ten The troops were placed under the com- O'Clock; The Gentle Art of Making Enemand of Gen. Henry Lee, of Virginia, and mies, etc., and painted portraits of Cartheir movement was fixed for Sept. 1. lyle, Sarasate, his mother, etc. Meanwhile three commissioners were sent Whitaker, EPHER, clergyman; born in to the insurgent counties with discretion- Fairfield, N. J., March 27, 1820; gradary authority to arrange for a submission uated at Delaware College in 1847; held to the laws. Two other commissioners pastorates in 1851-92; was moderator of were appointed by the State of Pennsyl. the synod of New York and New Jersey in vania. The two boards crossed the moun- 1860, and of Long Island in 1871; memtains and found the leading insurgents in ber of the general assembly of the Presby. convention at Parkinson's Ferry. Near terian Church in 1853, 1857, 1860, 1864, by stood a liberty-pole, with the legend 1869, 1875, and 1888, and of several his“ Liberty, and no Excise! No asylum torical and other societies. He wrote for cowards and traitors!” A committee History of Southold, 16.40, 1940, 1881, etc. of sixty was appointed, and a committee Whitaker, NATHANIEL clergyman, of fifteen met the commissioners at Pitts- born on Long Island, N. Y., Feb. 22, 1732; burg. Among them were the leaders- graduated at Princeton College in 1752; Bradford, Marshall, Cook, Gallatin, and ordained in the Congregational Church, Brackenridge, a lawyer of Pittsburg. and preached till 1761, when he visited Terms of submission were agreed to, to be England to procure funds for the educaratified, however, by the votes of the tion of American Indians. The mission people. There was still opposition, but met with unexpected favor, about £12,the alacrity with which the President's 000 being contributed to the cause. The call for militia was responded to settled funds were applied to what was known the matter. The troops were moving, and as “ Moor's Indian Charity School," which complete submission was the result. A had been established in Lebanon, Conn. final convention at Parkinson's Ferry This school was removed to Hanover, (Oct. 24, 1794) passed resolutions of sub- N. H., in 1770, and received the name of mission to authority, that excise officers Dartmouth College, in honor of Lord might safely proceed to their business, and Dartmouth, who had contributed generthat all excise duties would be paid. Gal- ously towards the promotion of the object. latin, in the Assembly of Pennsylvania, Dr. Whitaker formed a Presbyterian in an able speech (December, 1794), ad- Church in Salem, Mass., of which he was mitted his “political sin ” in the course pastor for a number of years; removed to he had taken in the insurrectionary move- Maine and later to Virginia. He died in ments. The government was strengthened Woodbridge. Va., Jan. 21, 1795. See DARTby it. The cost of the insurrection to the MOUTH COLLEGE; WHEELOCK, ELEAZAR. national government was fully $1,500,000. Whitaker, WALTER C., military officer;

Whistler, GEORGE WASHINGTON, civil born in Shelby county, Ky., in August, engineer; born in Fort Wayne, Ind., May 1823; joined the army as a lieutenant of 19, 1800; graduated at West Point in Kentucky volunteers at the beginning of 1819, and resigned in 1833. He engaged the Mexican War, in which he served

with gallantry; admitted to the bar and White, ANDREW DICKSON, diplomatist; began practice in Shelbyville, Ky.; was a born in Homer, N. Y., Nov. 7, 1832; gradmember of the State Senate in 1861, and uated at Yale College in 1853, and then when his State was invaded by the Con- studied abroad; Professor of History at federates during that year offered the the University of Michigan in 1857-64 ; resolution “that the governor be re- member of the New York Senate in quested to call out the military force of 1864-67, and during his last term in that the State to expel and drive out the body introduced a bill incorporating Corinvaders.” The unanimous adoption of nell University; became first president of this resolution put an end to the sham that institution in 1867, and filled the neutrality of the State. Shortly after post till 1885, when he resigned owing Whitaker entered the National army as to ill-health. He was a special United colonel of the 6th Kentucky Infantry; States commissioner to the republic of was promoted brigadier-general in June, Santo Domingo in 1871, and commissioner 1863; won distinction in the battles of to the Paris exposition in 1878; was Shiloh, Stone River, and Lookout Moun- United States minister to Germany in tain, and in other engagements; and was 1879-81, and to Russia in 1892–94. He brevetted major-general of volunteers in was a member of the Venezuela boundary recognition of his services. He died in Lyndon, Ky., July 9, 1887.

Whitcomb, JAMES, governor; born near Windsor, Vt., Dec. 1, 1795; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1822; began practice in Bloomington, Ind., in 1824; was governor of Indiana in 1843–49, and during his last term recruited five infantry regiments for the Mexican War. He was elected United States Senator in 1849. He died in New York City, Oct. 4, 1852. He was the author of Facts for the People, a pamphlet in favor of freetrade.

White, ANDREW, clergyman; born in London, England, presumably in 1579; was ordained a priest in 1605; became a Jesuit in 1609; accompanied Lord Baltimore to America in 1633; labored among the Piscataway and Patuxent Indians, and translated into the Indian language a catechism, grammar, and vocabulary. His commission in 1896–97; was appointed publications include Extracts from the ambassador to Germany in 1897; and was Letters of Missionaries; Narrative of chairman of the American delegation to Travels in Maryland ; Declaration to the the peace conference at The Hague in Colonies by Lord Baltimore. He died in 1899. He is an officer of the Legion of London, England, Dec. 27, 1656.

Honor of France. His publications in

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ANDREW DICKSON WHITE.

clude A History of the Warfare of Science have decided that battle, for in the crisis with Theology; Lectures on Mediæral and of the action he shot and mortally woundModern History; Studies in History, etc. ed King Fisher, the leading chief, where

White, ANTHONY Walton, military upon the Indians fled in all directions. officer; born in New Brunswick, N. J., White then studied law in Philadelphia, July 7, 1750; was appointed lieutenant- Pa., and began practice in Knoxville, colonel of the 3d New Jersey Regiment Tenn.; was a judge of the Tennessee Suin February, 1776, and was in command preme Court in 1811-17; and was elected of cavalry in South Carolina in 1780. He United States Senator in 1825 and in and most of his command were captured 1831. In the convention at Baltimore, at Lanneau's Ferry in May of that year. Md., May 20, 1836, when Martin Van Colonel White was greatly esteemed by Buren was unanimously nominated for Washington, who in 1798 chose him as President, Tennessee was not represented, one of the brigadier-generals of the pro- that State having nominated Judge White visional army. He died in New Bruns- for President in October of the previous wick, N. J., Feb. 10, 1803.

year. He carried his State by nearly White, DANIEL APPLETON, jurist; born 10,000 majority and also received the in Methuen (now Lawrence), Mass., June electoral vote of Georgia. In 1840 he was 7, 1776; graduated at Harvard College in placed upon the Whig ticket under the 1797; admitted to the bar in 1804; mem- leadership of General Harrison, but owing ber of the legislature of Massachusetts to ill-health was not able to make the in 1810-15; and was judge of probate canvass. He died in Knoxville, Tenn., of Essex county, Mass., for thirty-eight April 10, 1840. years. He was the author of Eulogy on White, JAMES, pioneer ; born in Iredell George Washington; View of the Court county, N. C., in 1737; served in the Conof Probate in Massachusetts; New Eng. tinental army during the Revolutionary land Congregationalism in Its Origin and War; received his pay in a grant of land Purity, etc. He died in Salem, Mass., from North Carolina which he located in March 30, 1861.

1787 on the Holston River, near the White, HENRY, clergyman; born in mouth of the French Broad. He here beWilbraham, Mass., Aug. 3, 1790; gradu- gan a settlement which soon after was ated at Bangor Theological Seminary in made the capital of the Southwest Terri1823; ordained in the Congregational tory. Cnder the name of Knoxville it beChurch and held various pastorates in came a thriving town and White acMaine and New Hampshire. He was the quired a fortune in selling land. In 1796, author of Early History of New England, when Tennessee became a State, he was illustrated with Numerous Early Inci- elected to its Senate and shortly after was dents. He died in Garland, Me., Dec. made speaker of that body. He died in 8, 1858.

Knoxville, Tenn., in 1815. White, HENRY ALEXANDER, historian; White, Joun, clergyman; born in Stanborn in Greenbrier county, Va. (now ton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1575; eduWest Virginia), April 15, 1868; gradu- cated at Oxford; was rector of Trinity ated at Washington and Lee University Church, Dorchester, in 1606; and drew in 1885, and studied at the Union Theo- up the first charter of the Massachusetts logical Seminary; was ordained in the colony. He died in Dorchester, England, Presbyterian Church in 1889; accepted July 21, 1648. the chair of History in Washington and White, John, clergyman; born in Lee University. His publications include Watertown, Mass., in 1677; graduated at Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confed. Harvard in 1698; held a pastorate in eracy; Historical Addresses, etc.

Gloucester, Mass., in 1703-60. He was White, Hugh Lawson, jurist ; born in the author of New England's LamentaIredell county, N. C., Oct. 30, 1773; en- tion for the Decay of Godliness, and a listed as a private under General Sevier Funeral Sermon on John Wise. He died in 1800, and was with him when the power in Gloucester, Mass., Jan. 17, 1760. of the Cherokee Indians was crushed at White, John, jurist; born in Kentucky the battle of Etowah. White is said to in 1805; received an academic education; admitted to the bar and began practice in utor to the Galaxy and the Atlantic Richmond, Ky.; member of Congress in Monthly; and wrote National Hymns, a 1835–45 and was speaker in 1841-43; and Lyrical and National Study for the Times; was appointed judge of the 19th District The American View of the Copyright of Kentucky in March, 1845. He died in Question; Poetry of the Civil War, etc. Richmond, Ky., Sept. 22, 1845.

He died in New York City, Aug. 8, 1885. White, John, military officer; born in White, STANFORD, architect; born in England; was a surgeon in the British New York, Nov. 9, 1853; educated at the army; settled in Philadelphia, and after University of the City of New York; studthe outbreak of the Revolutionary War ied architecture; was chief assistant of joined the Continental army as captain; the late Henry H. Richardson in the conand became colonel of the 4th Georgia struction of Trinity Church, Boston; and Battalion. It is reported that at the since 1881 has been a member of the firm siege of Savannah he captured by strategy of McKim, Mead & White, in New York Captain French and 111 regulars about City. He designed Madison Square Garden, 25 miles from Savannah on the Ogeechee the new University of the City of New River, and also forty sailors, and 130 York, the Washington Centennial Arch in stands of arms. He was wounded during New York City, the University of Virthe attack on Spring Hill, Oct. 9, 1779. ginia ; and the pedestals of St. Gaudens's It is supposed he died in Virginia in 1780. principal statues.

White, Joun BLAKE, artist; born near White, TRUMBULL, journalist; born in Eutaw Springs, S. C., Sept. 2, 1781; Winterset, Ia., Aug. 12, 1868; received studied art abroad in 1800-4; returned a collegiate education; was engaged in to the United States and began work in journalism, principally on Chicago daily Roston, but not attaining anticipated papers, in 1889-94; travelled in Europe success went to Charleston, S. C., where and Mexico in 1894-96; accompanied the he was admitted to the bar. He achieved Cuban and Porto Rico expeditions in success in the law and was many times a charge of the Chicago Record's news sermember of the South Carolina legislature. vice; visited Hawaii, Samoa, New ZeaHis paintings include Battle of Eutaw land, and Australia in 1897-98 for the Springs; Battle of Fort Joultrie; Bat- same paper; and later was its correspondtle of New Orleans; Marion Inviting the ent in Russia. He is the author of WizBritish Officer to Dinner; and Mrs. Motte ard of Wall Street; Free Silver in VexPresenting the Arrous. He was elected ico (with William E. Curtis); Our War a member of the National Academy of with Spain; Our New Possessions ; Design in 1847. His publications include Through Darkest America, etc. Triumph of Liberty, or Louisiana Pre- White, WILLIAM, clergyman; born in served, and several dramas. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., April 4, 1748; graduCharleston, S. C., Aug. 24, 1859.

ated at Philadelphia College in 1765 ; White, PEREGRINE, pioneer; the first studied theology, and was admitted to child of English parents born in New priest's orders in England in April, 1772. England; born on the Jayflower while Returning to Philadelphia, he became asshe lay in Cape Cod Bay, Nov. 20, 1620; sistant minister of Christ Church and son of William and Susanna White. He St. Peter's, and in April, 1779, was occupied numerous civil and military chosen rector of those churches. He was offices in the colony, and died in Marsh- elected chaplain to Congress at York, Pa.. field, Mass., July 22, 1704.

in 1778. Dr. White presided at the first White, RICHARD GRANT, journalist; convention of the Protestant Episcopal born in New York City, May 22, 1822; Church in America in 1785, and the congraduated at the University of the City stitution of that Church was written by of New York in 1839; studied both law him. The diocese of Pennsylvania elected and medicine, and was admitted to the him bishop in 1786, and he was consebar in 1845. He soon afterwards de- crated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, voted himself entirely to newspaper and Feb. 4, 1787, returning to Philadelphia literary work, and especially to the study on Easter Dav. Bishop White was very of languages. He was a frequent contrib- active in the Church and in society. He was president of the Philadelphia Bible from which rises the staircase that is Society, of the Dispensary, of the Prison climbed by all the people who go to see the Society, and of the societies for the bene. President on business. From this supple. fit of the deaf and dumb and the blind. mentary hall opens the great East Room

that occupies one end of the building.
This room is 80 feet long by 40 feet
wide with a ceiling 22 feet high. Life-
sized portraits of the Father of his coun-
try and Martha Washington adorn the
walls, which are decorated in white and
gold. There are two mirrors in panels
and over the mantels. Two doors open to
the west, the one into the red corridor,
which runs at right angles to the East
Room, and the other into the Green Room
—the first of the suite of parlors known
as the Green, Blue, and Red rooms-on
the south side of the house. Each room
measures about 30 X 20 feet. The red
corridor is lighted from the glass screen

seen on entering; it communicates with the WILLIAM WHITE.

drawing-rooms, and also with the state

and private dining-rooms, and with the He published Memoirs of the Protestant conservatory on the west. There is a Episcopal Church in the United States. private stairway and an elevator in this He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 17, end of the house. It is in these rooms 1836.

that the President and his wife, assisted White Camelia, KNIGHTS OF THE, one by the ladies of the cabinet, hold the New of the names of the KU - KLUX KLAN Year's receptions. (q. v.).

White House, THE. Before the battle White Caps, the name of a number of at Williamsburg (May 5, 1862). General organizations in the United States com- Franklin was ordered, with a force from posed of persons who commit illegal acts Yorktown, to flank the Confederates, but while pretending to protect the com- it was detained so long that it failed to munity in which they live. See KU-kluX effect its purpose. On the day of the KLAN.

battle it moved, and arrived at the head White House, The, in Washington, of the York River that night, and the D. C., the residence of the President of next day some Nationals encountered the United States. The building is archi. Johnston's rear-guard in the woods. Af. tecturally attractive, being a model of the ter a conflict of three or four hours the palace of the Duke of Leinster in Ireland. Confederates were defeated. In this afIt is constructed of sandstone; is two fair the Nationals lost 194 men, mostly stories high, 170 X 86 feet, with a colon- New-Yorkers; the loss of the Confederates nade of eight Ionic columns in front and was small. Near the White House—the a semicircular portico in the rear; and estate that belonged to Mrs. Washington, derives its name from the fact that the on the Pamunkey, one of the streams that exterior is painted white. The corner- form the York River—Franklin was enstone was laid in 1792; the building was abled to establish a permanent and imfirst occupied by President Adams in portant base of supplies for McClellan's 1800, who held the first New Year's re- army. The main army, meanwhile, moved ception in it on Jan. 1, 1801; was burn- up the Peninsula, and the general-in-chief ed by the British in 1814; and was re- and the advance of the main army arstored in 1818. The front door is on rived at the White House, about 18 miles the north side of the building, and opens from Richmond, on May 16. The wife from a pillared private portion of the of Gen. Robert E. Lee was a granddaughhouse. On the left-hand side is a hall ter of Mrs. Washington and owner of the

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