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HARPERS' ENCYCLOPÆDIA

OF

UNITED STATES HISTORY

Vail, ALFRED, inventor; born in Mor- party in 1901. He wrote Modern Social. ristown, N. J., Sept. 25, 1807; graduated ism; Socialism: What It Is and What It at the University of the City of New Is Vot; The Trust Question, etc. York in 1836; became interested in the Vail, STEPHEN, manufacturer; born experiments of PROF. SAMUEL F. B. MORSE near Morristown, N. J., June 28, 1780; (q. v.), whom he greatly aided in the per- received a common school education; befection of the telegraph. In 1837 he con- came owner of the Speedwell iron works structed a miniature telegraph line on near Morristown, N. J., in 1804, where the plan of Morse's invention, which was the engine of the Savannah, the first examined and pronounced practicable by steamship that crossed the Atlantic, was a committee of Congress. Subsequently built. He contributed money to aid Prohe built the first Morse machine, and be- fessor Morse in the construction of the came the assistant superintendent of the electric telegraph, and the first practical telegraph line constructed between Balti- exhibition of the new invention was made more and Washington. On May 24, 1844, at his works. He died in Morristown, he received from Washington the first N. J., June 12, 1864. message sent over telegraph wires. His Vail, STEPHEN MONTFORD, clergyman; inventions include the lever and grooved born in Union Dale, Westchester co., N. Y., roller; the alphabetical application of the Jan. 10, 1818; graduated at Bowdoin Morse dot-and-dash system; the first com- College in 1838, and at the Union Theobination of the horizontal lever to move logical Seminary in 1842; began to preach a pencil, pen, or style; a telegraphic alpha- in the Methodist Episcopal Church and bet of dots, spaces, and dashes; and the founded the first church of that denomifinger-key. He published The American nation in Brunswick, Me.; was Professor Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. He died in of Languages in Amenia Seminary in Morristown, N. J., Jan. 18, 1859.

1843; held pastorates in Fishkill, N. Y., Vail, CHARLES H., clergyman; born in Sharon, Conn., and Pine Plains, N. Y.; Tully, N. Y., April 28, 1866; received a Professor of Oriental Languages in the common school education; studied music General Biblical Institute of the Methoin New York and taught; graduated dist Episcopal Church, Concord, N. H., at St. Lawrence University, Canton, in in 1849; and became United States con1892; and later studied theology. He sul for Rhenish Bavaria in 1869. He was pastor of All Saints' Church, Albany, wrote for the Methodist press; and pubN. Y., in 1893-94; and of the First Uni- lished essays on slavery and church versalist Church, Jersey City, N. J., in polity. He died in Jersey City, N. J., 1894-1901; was nominated for governor Nov. 26, 1880. of New Jersey by the Social Democratic Vale, GILBERT, author; born in London,

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England, in 1788; received a classical edu- politician, he was sent to Congress in cation; came to the United States in 1829; 1857, in which body he was active until engaged in literary work in New York and 1863, opposing all war measures of the Brooklyn; editor of the Citizen and of the government, and openly showing symIl'orld for several years, and later of the pathy with the Confederates. His utterBeacon, a scientific and literary journal; ances proclaiming him to be an enemy of invented a combined celestial sphere and his country, he was arrested at his own terrestrial globe as a model for instruc- house, near Dayton, May 4, 1863, under a tion in astronomy. His publications in- military order, on a charge of "treasonclude Fanaticism, Its Source and Influ- able conduct.” He was tried by a courtence; and the Life of Thomas Paine. He martial at Cincinnati, convicted, and sendied in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1866. tenced to close confinement in a fortress

Vale-Blake, EUPHEMIA, author; born for the remainder of the war. This sen. in Rye, Sussex, England, May 7, 1824; tence was modified by President Lincoln, came to the United States early in life; who directed him to be sent within the received a private education; and mar- Confederate lines, and, in the event of his ried Daniel S. Blake in 1863. She wrote returning without leave, to suffer the History of Neuburyport, Mass.; Arctio Experiences, etc.

Valentine, DAVID THOMAS, historian; born in East Chester, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1801; received an academic education; removed to New York City in 1817; appointed clerk to the marine court in 1823; was deputy clerk to the common council in 1831-37; published an annual Manual of the Corporation and Common Council of New York in 1842-67, which is highly prized for its historical collections. He also wrote a History of Veno York (2 volumes). He died in New York City, Feb. 25, 1869.

Valentine, EDWARD VIRGINIUS, sculptor; born in Richmond, Va., Nov. 12, 1838; received a private education; studied drawing and modelling in Richmond and went to Paris for further study

CLEMENT L. VALLANDIGHAM. in 1859. On his return to the United States he opened a studio in Richmond penalty prescribed by the court. On his and exhibited a statuette of Robert E. release he went to Canada, and while there Lee. Among his works are portrait was the Democratic candidate for governor busts of General Beauregard, Gen. James of Ohio in 1863, but was defeated by John E. B. Stuart, “ Stonewall ” Jackson, Brough by 100,000 majority. He was Edwin Booth, and a marble figure of Gen. permitted to return to his home, and was Robert E. Lee, in the mausoleum of the a member of the national Democratic conMemorial Chapel in Washington and ventions in Chicago in 1864 and in New Lee University.

York in 1868. While engaged in a suit in Vallandigham, CLEMENT LAIRD, legis court in Lebanon, O., he was mortally lator; born in New Lisbon, O., July 29, wounded by a pistol which he was handling 1820; was of Huguenot descent; studied in explaining an alleged fact to the jury, at Jefferson College, Ohio; was principal and died there, June 17, 1871. of an academy at Snow Hill, Md.; and Valley Forge. Washington's army enwas admitted to the bar in 1842. In 1845- camped at Whitemarsh, in a beautiful 46 he was a member of the State legislat- valley about 14 miles from Philadelphia, ure, and for ten years afterwards edited where he remained until Dec. 11, 1777, the Dayton Empire. An earnest Democratic and proceeded with his half-clad, half-ba re

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footed soldiers to Valley Forge, about 20 winding Schuylkill, they were encamped, miles northward from Philadelphia. These with no shelter but rude log huts which numbered about 11,000 men, of whom not they built themselves. The winter that enmore than 7,000 were fit for field duty. sued was severe. The soldiers shivered with

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The place was chosen because it was cold and starved with hunger, and there farther from the danger of sudden attacks their genuine patriotism was fully tested. from the foe, and where he might more The British under Howe had full poseasily afford protection for the Congress session of Philadelphia and of the Delasitting at York. Blood-stains, made by ware below, and Pennsylvania was divided the lacerated feet of his barefooted sol- among its people and in its legislature diers, marked the line of their march to by political factions. General uneasiness Valley Forge. There, upon the slopes of prevailed; and when Washington sought a narrow valley on the borders of the refuge at Valley Forge, the Pennsylvania legislature adopted a remonstrance against ships and exposures, have decreased nearly that measure. To this cruel missive 2,000 men. Numbers are still obliged to Washington replied, after censuring the sit all night by fires. Gentlemen reproquartermaster-general (Mifflin), a Penn- bate going into winter-quarters as much sylvanian, for neglect of duty: “ For the as if they thought the soldiers were made want of a two-days supply of provisions, of sticks or stones. I can assure those an opportunity scarcely ever offered of gentlemen that it is a much easier and taking an advantage of the enemy that less distressing thing to draw remonhas not been either totally obstructed or strances in a comfortable room by a good greatly impeded. Men are confined in fireside than to occupy a cold, bleak hill, hospitals or in farmers' houses for want and sleep under frost and snow without of shoes. We have this day [Dec. 23] no clothes or blankets. However, although less than 2,873 men in camp unfit for duty they seem to have little feeling for the because they are barefooted and other- naked and distressed soldiers, I feel superwise naked. Our whole strength in Con- abundantly for them; and from my soul tinental troops amounts to no more than I pity those miseries which it is neither 8,200 in camp fit for duty. Since the 4th in my power to relieve nor prevent.” inst., our numbers fit for duty, from hard- At the same time the British army was

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shout, “ The American States." Washington and his wife, and other officers and their wives, attended the religious services of the New Jersey brigade. Then the commauder-in-chief dined in public with all the officers. Patriotic toasts were given, and loud huzzas greeted Washington when he left the table. As the season advanced comforts abounded at Valley Forge, the army increased, and on June 18 the encampment broke up and the army began a chase of the British across New Jersey when the latter had evacuated Philadelphia.

A patriotic movement has been started to have the site of the Valley Forge encampment preserved as a public reservation, and on Oct. 19, 1901, the Daughters of the Revolution dedicated there a monument to the memory of the revolutionary soldiers who died during the encampment. The monument is a handsome obelisk of granite, 50 feet high, and at its base appear two bronze panels, one containing the seal of the society and the other representing a scene of camp-life at Valley Forge. Above these the original colonial

flag with thirteen stars has been carved OLD BRIDGE AT VALLEY FORGE.

in the shaft. The inscription reads: "To

the Soldiers of Washington's Army who made as weak by indulgence in the city Sleep in Valley Forge, 1777-78.” as were the American soldiers by physical Valverde, BATTLE AT. General Canby, privations, and Franklin was justified in commander of the Department of New saying, “Howe did not take Philadelphia ; Mexico, was at Fort Craig, on the Rio Philadelphia took Howe.” At Valley Grande, early in 1862. At that time Col. Forge Baron Steuben entered upon his H. H. Sibley, a Louisianian, had invaded duties as inspector-general of the Conti- New Mexico with 2,300 Texas Rangers, nental army. There the joyful news many of them veterans who had fought reached the American army of a treaty the Indians. Sibley issued a proclamaof alliance with France. It was promul- tion demanding from the inhabitants aid gated by Washington in general orders on for and allegiance to his troops. Feeling May 6, 1778. He set apart the next day confident of success, he moved towards as one of rejoicing and grateful acknowl- Fort Craig to attack Canby. His light edgment of the divine goodness in raising field-pieces could not injure the fort, so up a powerful friend “in one of the he crossed the Rio Grande below and princes of the earth.” It was celebrated out of reach of the guns of the fort for with tokens of delight. The several the purpose of drawing Canby out. In brigades were drawn up to hear discourses this he was successful. Canby threw a by their respective chaplains. The men force across the river to occupy an emiwere placed in specified positions to fire nence commanding the fort, which it was a feu de joie with muskets and cannon- thought Sibley might attempt to gain. three times three discharges of thirteen There a skirmish ensued, and the Nationcannon. At the first the army huzzaed, als retired to the fort. On the following “ Long live the King of France”; at the day (Feb. 21) a considerable force of second, “Long live the friendly European cavalry, artillery, and infantry, under powers"; and at the third there was a Lieutenant-Colonei Roberts, crossed the

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