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(er" For the convenience of schools, in which only a small por tion of a class-book is read by each scholar in succession, the paragraphs in this biography, when long, have been divided into sections of about ten lines, by a dash (—); a mode considered preferable to the usual ungrammatical practice of making several distinct paragraphs out of one.

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Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by Joseph Jewett, Joseph Cuihino, Joseph Cushino, jun., and Johx Ccihing, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District «f* Maryland.


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George Washington's birth, family, and education. His mission to the

French commandant on the Ohio, in 1753. His military operations

as an officer of Virginia, from 1754 to 1758, and his subsequent

employments, to the commencement of the American revolu-

tion, - ..... Page 7


Retrospect of the origin of the American revolutionary war. Of George

Washington as member of Congress, in 1774 and 1775. As com-

mander-in-chief of the armies of the United Colonies in 1775 and

1776, and his operations near Boston, in these years, - Page 24


Campaign of 1776.—Of the operations of General Washington in New .

York and New Jersey. The battle on Long Island. The retreat

from York Island, and through New Jersey. The battles of Trenton

and Princeton, .... Page 34


Campaign of 1777.—Of the operations of General Washington in New

Jersey and Pennsylvania, in the campaign of 1777. The battles of

Brandywine and Germantown. Washington is advised by the Rev.

Jacob Dacha to give up the contest. The distresses of the American

army. Its winter-quarters at Valley Forge. General Washington is

assailed by the clamours of discontented individuals and public bodies,

end by the designs of a faction to supersede him in his office as com-

mander-in-chief, - - - - Page 55


Campaign of 1778.—General Washington prepares for the campaign

of 1778. Surprises the British, and defeats them at Monmouth. Ar-

rests general Lee. Calms the irritation excited by the departure of

the French fleet from Rhode Island to Boston. Dissuades from an

invasion of Canada, .... Page 71

Campaign of 1779.—The distresses of the American army. General

Washington calms the uneasiness in the Jersey line. Finds great

difficulty in supporting his troops, and concentrating their force.

Makes a disposition of them with a view to the security of West

Point. Directs an expedition against the Six Nations of Indians, and

for the reduction of Stony Point. Paules Hook taken. A French

fleet expected to the northward; arrives on the coast of Georgia,

Washington unequal to offensive operations, retires into winter

quarters, - - .... Page 83


Campaign of 1780.—General Washington directs an expedition against

Staten Island. Gives an opinion against risking an army for the de-

fence of Charleston, S. C. Finds great difficulty in supporting his

army. Kniphausen invades Jersey, but is prevented from injuring

the American stores. Marquis de La Fayette arrives, and gives as-

surances that a French fleet and army might soon be expected on the

American coast. Energetic measures of co-operation resolved upon,

but so languidly executed, that Washington predicts the necessity of

a more efficient system of national government. A French fleet and

army arrive, and a combined operation against New York is resolved

upon, but the arrival of a superior British fleet deranges the whole

plan, - - - - - - Page 33


Campaign of 1781.—The Pennsylvania line mutinies. The Jersey

troops follow their example, but are quelled by decisive measures.

General Washington commences a military journal, detailing the

wants and distresses of his army. Is invited to the defence of his

native state, Virginia, but declines. Reprimands the manager of his

private estate for furnishing the enemy with supplies, to prevent the

destruction of his property. Extinguishes the incipient flames of a

civil war, respecting the independence of Vermont. Plans a com-

bined operation against the British, and deputes lieutenant-colonel

John Laurens to solicit the co-operation of the French. The com-

bined forces of both nations rendezvous in the Chesapeake, and take

lord Cornwallis and his army prisoners of war, Washington returns

to the vicinity of New York, and urges the necessity of preparing for

a new campaign, ... . Page 103


1782 and 1783.—Prospects of peace. Languour of the States. Dis-

contents of the army. General Washington prevents the adoption of

rash measures. Some new levies in Pennsylvania, mutiny, and are

quelled. Washington recommends measures for the preservation of

independence, peace, liberty, and happiness. Dismisses his army

Enters New York. Takes leave of his officers. Settles his accounts.

Repairs to Annapolis. Resigns his commission. Retires to Mount

Vernon, and resumes his agricultural pursuits, - Page 120


General Washington, on retiring from public life, devotes himself by

agricultural pursuits. Favours inland navigation. Declines offered

emoluments from it. Urges an alteration of the fundamental rules of

the society of the Cincinnati. Regrets the defects of the Federal

system, and recommends a revisal of it. Is appointed a member of

the continental convention for that purpose, which, after hesitation,

he accepts. Is chosen president thereof. Is solicited to accept the

presidency of the United States. Writes sundry letters, expressive ot

the conflict in his mind, between duty and inclination. Answers ap-

plications for offices. His reluctance to enter on public life, Page 153


Washington elected president. On his way to the seat of government

at New York, receives the most flattering marks of respect. Addresses

Congress. The situation of the United States, in their foreign and

domestic relations, at the inauguration of Washington. Fills up

public offices solely with a view to the public good. Proposes a

treaty to the Creek Indians, which is at first rejected. Colonel Wile

let induces the heads of the nation to come to New York, to treat

there. The North Western Indians refuse a treaty: but, after defeat-

ing generals Harmar and St.Clair, they are defeated by general Wayne.

They then submit, and agree to treat. A new system is introduced

for meliorating their condition, - . - Page 169


General Washington attends to the foreign relations of the United

States. Negotiates with Spain. Difficulties in the way. The free

navigation of the Mississippi is granted, by a treaty made with major

Pinckney. Negotiation with Britain. Difficulties in the way. War

probable. Mr. Jay's mission. His treaty with Great Britain. Oppo-

sition thereto. Is ratified. Washington refuses papers to the House

of Representatives. British posts in the United States evacuated.

Negotiations with France. Genet's arrival. Assumes illegal powers,

in violation of the neutrality of the United States. Is flattered by the

people, but opposed by the executive. Is recalled. General Pinckney

sent as public minister, to adjust disputes with France. Is not re-

ceived. Washington declines a re-election, and addresses the people.

His last address to the national legislature. Recommends a navy, a

military academy, and other public institutions, - Page 198

A 2

Washington rejoices at the prospect of retiring. Writes to the secretary
of state, denying the authenticity of letters said to be from him to J
P. Custis and Lund Washington, in 1776. Pays respect to his suc-
cessor, Mr. John Adams. Review of Washington's administration.
He retires to Mount Vernon. Resumes agricultural pursuits. Hears
with regret the aggressions of the French republic. Corresponds on
the subject of his taking the command of an army to oppose the
French. Is appointed Lieutenant-Genera!. His commission is sent
to him by the secretary of war. His letter to president Adams on th«
receipt thereof. Directs the organization of the proposed army
Three envoys extraordinary sent to France, who adjust all disputes
with Bonaparte, after the overthrow of the Directory. General Wash-
ington dies. Is honoured by Congress, and by the citizens. His
character, - - . - - - Page 230

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