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be expected. All that seems necessary is to inform the reader of the changes and additions contained in the edition before us. These are well set forth in the following extract from the preface.

“ The present blended republication embraces the whole of the Imponderables and Inorganic Chemistry of Dr. Turner's well known Elements, together with the Organic Chemistry of Professor Gregory's Outlines, and the separate treatises on Mineral and Organic Analysis by Mr. Parnell and Professor Liebig. In the first plan of the work it was proposed simply to re-edit the seventh edition of Turner's Elements, making such additions and emendations as the progress of the science required, and at the same time re-moulding the part devoted to Organic Chemistry in an abridged and systematic shape. The opportune appearance of Professor Gregory's Outlines greatly aided the accomplishment of this plan by furnishing ready prepared, just such a condensed and methodistical treatise on Organic Chemistry as was originally proposed, and the publishers availing themselves of so valuable an aid, at once determined upon substituting the second parts of the outlines in place of the intended abridgement of the Organic Chemistry of 'Dr. Turner's work. Of the propriety and utility of this change, the editors believe no doubt will be entertained, when it is remembered that the outlines are from the same per that drew up a large part of the Organic Chemistry in the seventh edition of Turner; that they are in reality compiled of the same materials, with the addition of some more recent results, all very skilfully recast, and that they conform in notation and general method with the inorganic portion of Dr. Turner's work.

In the department of Analytical Chemistry, the closing division of the work, the editors conceive that the present publication will be admitted to present a very important improvement. This portion of the elements though enriched in the seventh edition by an able sketch of Inorganic Analysis, written expressly for it by Mr. Parnell, contains no account of the methods of Organic Analysis, a subject of peculiar and perhaps leading interest in its connection with inodern chemical research. To remedy this defect the editors have gladly introduced Liebig's outline of the processes for analysing organic bodies, a treatise of the highest authority with all who are engaged in this department of science, and one happily adapted to the wants of the practical student."

The union of these several treatises constitutes the most com. prehensive work, as to facts and principles, and the processes and applications of the science of Chemistry, to be found in the

English language. The task of the editors, it appears to us, has been well and ably performed, and we can most conscientiously recommend the present addition of Turner's Chemistry as the best adapted for the thorough study of the science of any with which we are acquainted.

Braithwaile's Retrospect of Practical Medicine and Surgery.

No. XV., January to July, 1847. We have received both the English and American editions of this useful publication. The “Uniform American Edition," which is a reprint of the English, is published by Daniel Adee, of New York, and the number before us contains 371 pages, octavo, of well selected matter. We very much wish that the American publisher would emulate the English in the mechanical execution of the work. The great efforts to sell American reprints at a very small price, which causes them to be driven through the press without being supervised by a qualified proof reader, and sent forth imperfectly printed and badly got up in all other respects, detracts very materially from their value. The constant misprints, especially in statistical tables, destroys all confidence, and, in fact, renders them quite valueless. This cheap publishing may do for novels and other light reading, when slight alterations or omissions can be discovered by the context, but in works of science it is really a serious inatter. Besides, books which are to go into a physician's library for future reading and reference, should be constituted of permanent materials, and we have no doubt that publishers would find it to their ad. vantage to bring out their medical publications in a style more befitting their contents.

THE MEDICAL EXAMINER.

PHILADELPHIA, SEPTEMBER, 1847,

NATIONAL MEDICAL CONVENTION. The Report of the Committee on preliminary education will be found on another page, to which we invite attention. The Committee justly observe that, "entirely destitute of the means of legal compulsion, and depending for success, as the Convention must, solely upon the force of professional and public opinion, nothing could be hoped from a standard above the circumstances of the country and the times," &c.

This is undoubtedly a correct view of the case; at the same time, when about to erect a standard, one a little more elevated might as well perhaps have been indicated, as where an object is distinctly placed before the eye as a sufficient qualification, few will transcend, while many will fall short of the mark. Nevertheless, it is greatly to be hoped that private preceptors, on whom "the chief responsibility rests," as observed by the Committee, will look to the recommendation. While they encourage young men to enter their offices who are unprepared for the proper prosecution of the study of medicine, with what reason can it be expected that the medical col. leges will spurn them? To take a young man's fee and keep him two or three years in his preceptor's office, and then, when he applies to enter college, say to him, "go back to your primer, sir, you are not prepared for the study of medicine," would be rank injustice. It is the duty of every preceptor to inquire into the quali. fications of a student, natural and acquired, before receiving him into his office, and honestly inform him of what is requisite. Let this be done, and the friends of reform will find that little more will remain to contend for. One who is possessed of a good education has greater means and higher motives to spur him on in his pursuits, and will be likely to select the best schools and emulate the highest examples.

THE CONCOURS IN FRANCE.

Among other reforms recently advocated, the French practice of concouring for professorships has of late been highly commended by

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some of our brother journalists. In fact, we at one time advocated it ourselves, but afterward came to learn that its practical operation was not quite equal to its promises in theory. We understood from different sources, that instead of affording a true test, positive and relative, of the fitness of a candidate, it was liable to great abuses, and often led to deception : it was discovered, indeed, that many things were necessary fully to qualify a man to occupy a professor's chair beside those elicited by the concour. Our brethren of the Buffalo Medical Journal and of the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, with many others, will be surprised to read the following, which we extract from the London Medical Gazette of the 16th of July.

Abolition of the Concours in France.—The Chamber of Peers has come to a vote by which the system of election by Concours in France is abolished. Some of the noisy advocates of this electioneering practice are about to present a protest to the Chamber of Deputies against this vote, and to require a restoration of their favorite panacea for bringing out professional talent! But the feeling of the most eminent and experienced men in the profession is decidedly against the re-establishment of this system.”

The introduction of this system into France some years since was hailed as the greatest improvement—as closing the door for ever upon favouriteism, and opening the portals wide to genius and learning ! And now it is discovered that common sense and business qualifications are quite as necessary as genius and great learning, and that these are not always combined in the same individual. Change, in fact, has not turned out to be improvement. Not only the professors of the colleges, but likewise the physicians and surgeons of the hospitals, in France, were chosen by concour, and consequently the strife was going on all the time. “Thus," says the Gazette, “ last year there were two vacancies for the situation of surgeons to the hospitals of Paris; there were thirty-two candidates, and the concours lasted five months!" Nothing could demonstrate the impracticability of such a system better than this fact.

YELLOW FEVER. Yellow Fever is prevailing in New Orleans more extensively than for a number of years past. On the 19th of last month, the interments of those who died of this disease amounted to seventy-seven, which, considering that a very large number of the inhabitants are always absent during the summer months, and many more fly on the first announcement of the fever, must be regarded as a very large proportion to the number of inhabitants.

At Vera Cruz, also, the vomito, or yellow fever, continues to prevail, but aliended with less mortality, we should infer from what we see in the newspapers, than at New Orleans.

SHIP FEVER.

Typhus, or Ship Fever, continues to prevail to some extent among the emigrants to our principal ports, more especially those from Ireland. The greater abundance of food, however, will soon effect a change-in fact, has already materially lessened the number of cases arriving in this country as well as in Europe. Whenever the disease has appeared among others than emigrants in this country, it has been only such as were particularly exposed to it, as the inmates of the houses of the sick, and their attendants, including nurses and physicians. Several valuable lives among the latter have been lost, especially in New York and Canada.

RECORD OF MEDICAL SCIENCE.

Report of the Committee on Preliminary Education, appointed under the 5th Resolution adopted by the National Medical Convention of May, 1846.—The duty entrusted to the Committee was "To report on the standard of acquirements which should be exacted of young men, before being received as students of medicine."

Before attempting to perform this duty, the Committee thought it desirable to ascertain, by inquiries addressed to the medical schools and distinguished practitioners of medicine throughout the Union, the sentiments and practice of the profession on this interesting sub ject. They, accordingly, prepared a circular, the object of which was to ascertain the views of the various Medical Schools in regard to the standard of preliminary education which it is proposed to exact of young men about to commence the study of medicine ; and also lo invite any suggestions they might think proper to make. Copies of this circular were sent to the (then) thirty-six Medical Schools of the United States, and official replies have been received from six of this number; namely, the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of New York, the Medical Institution of Yale College, Ohio Medical College, Albany Medical College, and the Medical Faculty of Darimouth College. These institutions are desirous of having a standard

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