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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, la the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New York.
The work now offered to the public had its origin in a desire to promote the cause of Classical study. It has long been the opinion of the author, in common with numerous classical teachers, that the subject of Latin Grammar, often regarded as dry and difficult, may be presented to the learner in a form at once simple, attractive, and philosophical. It is the aim of this manual to aid the instructor in the attainment of this most desirable end.
That the present is a favorable time for the production of a Latin Grammar scarcely admits of a doubt. Never before were there such facilities for the work. The last quarter of a century has formed an epoch in the study of language and in the methods of instruction. During this period some of the most gifted minds of Germany have been gathering the choicest treasures in the field of philology, while others have been equally successful in devising improved methods of instruction. In our own country too, the more enterprising teachers have caught the spirit of improvement, and are calling loudly for a better method than has hitherto prevailed in classical study.
The present work has been prepared in view of these facts. To explain its general plan, the author begs leave to specify the following points.
1. This volume is designed to present a systematic arrangement of the great facts and laws of the Latin language; to exhibit not only grammatical forms and constructions, but also those vital principles which underlie, control, and explain them.
2. Designed at once as a text-book for the class-room, and a book of reference in study, it aims to introduce the beginner easily and pleasantly to the first principles of the language, and yet to make adequate provision for the wants of the more advanced student. Accordingly it presents in large type a general survey of the whole subject in a brief and concise statement of facts and laws, while parallel with this, in smaller type, it furnishes a fuller discussion of irregularities and exceptions for later study and for reference.
3. By brevity and conciseness in the choice of phraseology and compactness in the arrangement of forms and topics, the author has endeavored to compress within the limits of a convenient manual an amount of carefully selected grammatical facts, which would otherwise fill a much larger volume.
4. He has, moreover, endeavored to present the whole subject in the light of modern scholarship. Without encumbering his pages with any unnecessary discussions, he has aimed to enrich them with the practical results of the recent labors in the field of philology.
5. In the regular paradigms, both of declension and of conjugation, the stems and endings have been distinguished by a difference of type, thus keeping constantly before the pupil the significance of the two essential elements which enter into the composition of inflected forms.
6. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An attempt has been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beautiful system of laws which the genius of the language—that highest of all grammatical authority-has created for itself. The leading principles of construction have been put in the form of definite rules, and illustrated by carefully selected examples. To secure convenience of reference and to give completeness and vividness to the general outline, these rules, after being separately discussed, are presented in a body at the close of the Syntax.
7. The subdivisions in each discussion are developed, as far as practicable, from the leading idea which underlies the whole subject. Thus in the treatment of cases, moods, and tenses, various uses, comparatively distinct in themselves, are found to centre around some leading idea or thought, thus imparting to the subject both unity and simplicity.
8. Topics which require extended illustration are first presented in their completeness in general outline, before the separate points are discussed in detail. Thus a single page often foreshadows all the leading features of an extended discussion, imparting a completeness and vividness to the impression of the learner, impossible under any other treatment.
9. Special care has been taken to explain and illustrate with the requisite fulness all difficult and intricate subjects. The Subjunctive Mood—that severest trial of the teacher's patience-has been presented, it is hoped, in a form at once simple and comprehensive. The different uses have not only been carefully classified, but also distinguished by characteristic and appropriate terms, convenient for the class-room.
For the benefit of those who prefer to begin with a more elementary manual in the study of Latin, it is in contemplation to publish a smaller Grammar on precisely the same plan as the present work, and with the same mode of treatment. This will be especially adapted to the wants of those who do not contemplate a collegiate course of study.
A Latin Reader, prepared with special reference to this work and intended as a companion to it, will be published at an early day.
In conclusion the author cheerfully acknowledges his indebtedness to other scholars, who have labored in the same field. The classification of verbs is founded in part on that of Grotefend and Krüger, a mode of treatment generally adopted in the recent German works on the subject, and well exhibited by Allen in his Analysis of Latin Verbs.
In Prosody much aid has been derived from the excellent works of Ramsay and Habenicht.
On the general subjects of Etymology and Syntax, his indebtedness is less direct, though perhaps no less real. His views of philology have been formed in a great measure under the moulding influence of the great German masters; and perhaps few Latin Grammars of any repute have appeared within the last half century, either in this country, England, or Germany, from which he has not received valuable suggestions. In the actual work of preparation, however, he has carried out his own plan, and presented his own modes of treatment, but he has aimed to avoid all untried novelties and to admit only that which is sustained by the highest authority, and confirmed by the actual experience of the class-room.
The author is happy to express his grateful acknowledgments to the numerous Instructors who have favored him with valuable suggestions; especially to his esteemed friend and colleague, Professor J. L. Lincoln, of this University.
PROVIDENCE, R. I., May 10th, 1864.
TO THE REVISED EDITION.
The present edition is the result of a thorough and complete revision. The author has subjected every part of the work to a careful examination; he has availed himself of the suggestions of the most eminent classical instructors, and, finally, as the surest of all tests, he has used the work in connection with all the principal Latin authors usually read in school and college. The materials thus collected have been incorporated in this edition without either changing the plan or increasing the size of the work. By a studied attention to clearness and brevity, space has been secured for many valuable refinements of the language.
In this new form the work is now committed to classical teachers in the hope that in their hands it may promote the cause of classical education in our land.
Brown UNIVERSITY, September, 1867,