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read, except their Mullahs and deserve a few remarks. Many of Sheiks; the usual education (when these reside in Cairo. Numbers are also any is given) being confined to the scattered through some of the prinrepetition of verses from the Koran. cipal towns and villages of the upper This forms another obstacle to the country, or are found in small hamprivate circulation of divine truth lets on the eastern branch of the amongst them. The eastern habits Nile; but they are far from being so of the better classes, and the filthy numerous as many seem to imagine. degradation of the lower, prove bar- Their own statements on this point riers in the way of friendly commu- can never be depended upon, as they nication, which are not easy to be always exaggerate very greatly in surmounted. The example of the giving such information. The Copts Christians (so called) around them, are the scribes and stewards of the whose manners are as far removed principal inhabitants and Governors, from the sobriety and morality of the ihe Government clerks, and the Koran as from the religion of the composers of all commercial docuBible, adds to the strength of Ma- ments. They are also the most inhometan prejudice, and seems dustrious tradesmen of Upper Egypt. assure the Mussulman of the supe. Their education and condition are riority of his own creed. It is true therefore rather superior to those of that the Governor of Egypt has late- the Moslems. But their moral condi. ly established some schools in his tion is very degraded. They have all the dominions; but these are intended for vices of the Mahometans, with greater military purposes. Schoolmasters meanness, and lower cunning. The have also been furnished to his ships Copts may be said to live in aconstant of war; but the fleet and army, as well state of concubinage, as their maras the military schools, are complete riages are mere compacts, which conhot-beds of vice and infidelity; 80 tinue during the convenience of the that little moral or religious good parties, according to the old Jewish can be anticipated from the educa- maxim, “ If a man put away his tion there afforded.
wife, let bim give her a writing of The Pasha's service swarms with divorcement.” Hence any foreigner Europeans of different nations and may cheaply procure a Coptic concreeds. These are mostly the “re. cubine, pro tempore ; and this pracfuse of all countries," and tend little tice deservedly stamps the whole to exalt the character of our quarter race with infamy. If the Mahomeof the globe. Excepting two or three tan wishes to increase his domestic respectable Englishmen, who are circle, and he has not the means or comparatively in independent situa- the inclination to keep an additional tions, being subject to the authority wife, or if he already possesses the of the Pasha alone, there are but few legal number of four, he purchases British employed in the service of a female slave, according to his abiEgypt; and few of these deserve the lity, whom he usually treats well, name of Britons. It is certainly and regards her children as his own. for the honour of our country. These slaves perform none of the that all the respectable English drudgery of the house, but are emsoon find their way home again. ployed in more honourable domestic They spurn to play the part of sy
The Coptic confusion is cophants, and soon become dis- despised by the Mussulmen. The contented with the manner in which Copts hold the Monophysite creed, they are treated; whilst the independ- and worship pictures and angels. ent freedom with which they point The latter seem to be regarded in out abuses, and remonstrate against the light of demi-gods, and are highly injustice, proves very irksome to the venerated. They have churches and intriguing court of the Pasha, which convents in the wild recesses of the is little loath to receive their resig- mountains, or on the tops of rocks, nations.
wbither they repair, on stated occaThe Copts, who form the nomi- sions, “to seek for God;" for these nally Christian population of Egypt, elevated sanetuaries are nearer to Vol. XIV. Third Series. November, 1835.
heaven than those in the plains be. endangered ;” and the constant low." These “high places” are dread of some government or sinisalso situated in the silence of soli- ter design (for they seem incapable tude ; “ so that God and angels can of comprehending the existence of better attend to the prayers of philanthropic motives) shuts up the the supplicants.” The Copts at- door of reception to the Christian tribute great sanctity to fastings, Missionary. The writer had occasion and regard them as sure passports to notice the operation of this suspici. to heaven. Their religious services vus fear on several marked occasions. are frequently performed in the It is evident that neither Mahoold Coptic language, which neither metans nor Christians live up to the Priests nor people understand. They light which they already possess ; much reverence the Patriarch, who and not only do evil themselves, but resides in Cairo, (just as the Papists “have pleasure in those” that comregard the Pope,) and kiss his signa- mit it. . And it is to be feared, that, ture before presuming to read his “ since they do not like to retain letters. Great efficacy is also attached God in their knowledge," God has, to the blessing of their Bishops ; but for the present, given “ them over the Priests are superstitiously feared to a reprobate mind,” (Romans i.,) for their office sake only, whilst de and delivered them up to the natural spised for their private character. consequences of their own wickedThis office is so mean in its pecu- ness. And yet the same word of niary resources, that men are taken prophecy which has depicted the by force for the priesthood. There present miseries of the Egyplians is a rank intermediate between shows a brighter spot in the distant that of Priest and Bishop,-the Ka. horizon, whilst it declares, that mûs, who acts as a substitute, where “ they shall cry unto the Lord there is no higher episcopal autho- because of the oppressors, and he rity. The Mallooms, or school-mas. shall send them a Saviour, and a ters, are generally blind, and form great one, and he shall deliver them;" the lowest clerical grade, if, indeed, and “they shall return to the Lord, it deserves such a name; but where and he shall be entreated of them, thereis no Priest, the Malloom seems and shall heal them;" " whom the to perform a part of his duties. Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, There is scarcely ever inore than Blessed be Egypt my people, and one Coptic church in a town, and Assyria the work of my hands, and that is usually a very mean building; Israel mine inheritance.” (Isaiah whilst many considerable villages xix. 18, to the end.) cannot boast of a single place of Chris
R. MAXWELL MACBRAIR. tian worship; nor does it appear London, Sept. 14th, 1835. that the priesthood pays any atten. tion to the spiritual wants of the Since writing the above statement, people. Several Missionaries have my attention has been directed to paid visits to Upper Egypt, for the “ Notices of Egypt” in your Magapurpose of benefiting the Coptic zine for July. You will perceive that population; but have failed to gain the American gentleman, from whose the confidence of the people. The account the article has been taken, writer of this statement made two fully agrees with me in his descrip. laborious journeys for this purpose; tion of the despotism of Mehemet and entered all the chief towns, vi. Ali, and the miseries which it insiting the schools and Priests, dis. flicts upon his subjects; and with tributing tracts, and selling a few the great waste of human life, and copies of the holy Scriptures, and the consequent decrease of populaother useful books. But it is still tion, caused by his reckless ambitrue, “ that every one that doeth tion. It is, however, a pity that traevil hateth the light, neither cometh vellers in Egypt look more to the he to the light," lest he should be projects of the Pasha, than to their reproved. The Priests, of course, termination. He is a great Sovetake the alarm when their “crast is reign," compared with his predeces
sors; yet we do not generally apply tains of merchants' vessels, who such an epithet to the magnitude of have examined the Egyptian ships, a Monarch's schemes, but to the that they are not sea-worthy. They wisdom, koowledge, and energy are constructed upon the oldest which bring them to a happy and principle of ship-building, which, in useful issue.
vessels of such a size, acts most unThe Barage, mentioned in these happily. I have also been informed “Notices," has proved a complete by Captains and other officers, who failure. Indeed few intelligent per- have served in these ships, that they sons, who have carefully considered require a thorough repair after every the work, think that its accomplish- voyage; and that the lives of the ment is practicable; or, at least, that crews are often endangered by the it would be so only in a country like leaky state of the vessels, even in good England. But to employ a self-taught weather. It is well known that a engineer in such a work is the height large ship of one hundred and twenof folly, though agreeable to the views ty guns was built at Alexandria ; of the east. With the Turk, a good bot. but it draws so much water that it tle-blower, or a barber, will make an cannot be got out of the harbour ! excellent superintending physician; Nor is this any great loss; for it is a man of good birth must necessarily so top-heavy, that it was almost upbe well qualified for an admiral, set in the port; and, though dignified though he may never have been at with the name of guard ship, it is sea; and a good midshipman will probable that the firing of a broadconstitute a first-rate engineer! But side would more effectually silence after a million of money has been its own guns than even the cannon expended in collecting materials, of an enemy. &c., the practicability of finding a Should coals be found in the foundation had not been thought of, mountains of Syria, it is said that it and the works failed in the first piece will not be worth while to work the of actual execution.
pits, and bring the produce to Egypt, Any despot may order a canal to except by some such cruel measures be dug by men in chains; but the as were adopted in digging the canal loss of thirty thousand lives in such of Alexandria. an undertaking shows little wisdom, I happened to be in Syria when the especially in Egypt, where there are insurrection of 1834 took place; and not hands enough to till the land. it is certain, that it was of a much This canal is now blocked up by more serious nature than is imagined sand-banks at its junction with the in Europe. The Pasha has published Nile; and the plan for clearing it, the most bare-faced falsehoods conand preventing such a misfortune in cerning it. Ibrahim there lost sevefuture, as suggested by a really re- ral thousands of his best troops, if spectable British engineer, was re- those who were in actual combat, jected by the intrigues of the Court. and who escaped by flight, are to be
The Pasha's manufactories for believed. The city of Jerusalem was arms and cannon are carried on at a taken and sacked, and Ibrahim afvast expense, and much of the mo- terwards only escaped by making an ney goes to foreigners; but whether ignominious treaty, which Mehemet the arms might not have been bought as disgracefully broke; and then atcheaper elsewhere, is another ques- tacked the mountaineers, when untion. As to the cotton-works, they prepared for a defence, and when are failures in this respect, that goods they had dissolved their bands, and can be sent from England at a lower quietly retired to their homes. price than the Pasha can manufac- I think it right to make these obture them.
servations, if perchance they may Mehemet’s navy presents a formi- have any effect in disabusing the dable appearance; but I have been minds of Europeans, and showing informed by several most respecta- Egypt in its present actual condition. ble Captains of the British navy,
R. Maxwell MACBRAIR. by ship-carpenters, and by Cap
THE PASTORAL OFFICE.
(Continued from page 758.) În proceeding with the proposed in the first instance a renewal of examination of the Methodist sys- heart, and afterwards secure for him tein, in regard of the provision acceptance and peace with God. It made by it for the due maintenance was not until he became acquainted and exercise of the pastoral office, with Böhler that he discovered the it will be proper to commence with capital defect in this plan, by purthe power to teach, which that office saing which he himself had been includes. It has already appear- kept so long in a state of bondage ed that, in commissioning his Minis. and fear. To say nothing of the ters to preach the Gospel, Cbrist Presbyterians, among whom heterohas given to them the right of inter- doxy 'respecting our Lord's person preting it for themselves, and de. was at that time already gaining termining what are the doctrines ground, such were the diverse views that it contains, and which they are of those who concurred at least in in conscience bound to preach to holding the cardinal doctrine of the their fellow-creatures; and this right, divinity of Jesus Christ. as it respects the standard doctrines Mr. Wesley, having been taught of the body collectively considered, among the Moravians God's method has ever been exercised in the Me- of justifying a sinner, began zealousthodist Connexion exclusively by ly to proclaim the truth of which those who have been set apart io the he had experienced the power and work of the Christian ministry. The comfort in his own soul. His lacircumstances in which the interpret- bours, and those of bis associates, ation of the New Testament that were crowned with such success, obtains among the Methodists was that many societies were formed first adopted are worthy of notice. in different parts of the country, of When Mr. Wesley commenced his persons whom they had been instru: course of Christian philanthropy, the mental in bringing into the
of light of Gospel truth shone but salvation. In this state of things it dimly among any of the Christian became necessary to arrange some denominations of this country. In plan of general management; and the national Church, the doctrines in the year 1744 Mr. Wesley inpreached generally inclined to Pela. vited three other Clergymen of the gianism; while, among the professed Church of England, and one itinerant followers of the Genevan Reformer, Preacher wholly devoted to the work whether in the Establishment or of the ministry, to meet himself and without its pale, Antinomianism had his brotherin London, for the purpose made serious advances. The import- of mutual consultation respecting ant doctrine of justification by faith the steps which they should pursue was, however, found, almost invaria. Having assembled, and the prelimin. bly, in connexion with the peculiari- aries being seitled, the design of the ties of the Calvinian creed. Mr. meeting was considered; and it was Wesley bimself, when at Oxford and agreed that the first point to be dein Georgia, may be selected from termined was, what they should teach. that class of Divines in the estab. The Minutes of this Conference aflished Church who held the doctrine ford conclusive evidence that Mr. of general redemption, as approach. Wesley had, at this eaily period, dising nearest in his views to the evan- covered that the New Testament docgelical method of justifying sinners; trines of grace were not necessarily but it is evident, from his own ac. connected with the peculiar tenets count, that he had then much to of Calvin. The important doctrine learn upon that vital question. At of justification by simple faith in the that time he regarded faith generally atonement of Christ is explained and as a principle of belief in the Gospel; defended, while the confession is rewhich, hy stimulating the seeker tó corded, that they had previously," unself-mortification and entire obe awares, leaned too much towards Caldience, would, as he supposed, effect vinism.” On the same authority, it is
manifest that Mr. Wesleywas then alive Spirit; it is also to be remarked, to the danger of the great doctrine that the corresponding right of the which he preached with such efficacy people is amply secured. The Mebeing turned into licentiousness: the ihodist doctrines are contained in fear is expressed that they had "also Mr. Wesley's Notes on the New Tesleaned towards Antinomianism ;” tament, and his four volumes of and the guard is provided against Sermons. These are within the this fascinating error, by agreeing in reach of all; and every person who future to teach, more assiduously, enters the Methodist society has that believers are under obligacion thus the means of fully acquainting to observe the moral law as their himself with the doctrines as well rule of conduct; and that it is their as with the general discipline of the privilege, as well as duty, to be body before he makes bis choice. conformed to the will of God in Having become a member, he has heart and life. In several succes. the most ample security that his sive Conferences, at which none spiritual life will continue to be were present except Clergymen and fed with those doctrines which have Travelling Preachers, lengthened been the means of the iliumination conversations on doctrines took of his mind, and the conversion of place ; until at length that heauti- his soul to God. The Methodist ful system of theology was wrought form of chapel-deed recognises the out, which, freeing evangelical truth works already referred to, as confrom the peculiarities of Calvinism, taining the doctrines which are ever gives, notwithstanding, all the glory to be preached in the chapels settled of our salvation to God, at the same according to its provisions; and the time that it leaves every sinner ut- Plan of Pacification secures to the terly without excuse should he live people the right of judging whether and die in sin.
The Preachers do really adhere to the This is not the place for taking up doctrinal standard of 'the body. If, the disputed question respecting the on any occasional failure of the other fitness or impropriety of religious Ministers and Pastors to execuie, bodies having Articles of Faith, or with fidelity, that ecclesiastical duty doctrinal tests. The history of the which is primarily obligatory on Methodists sufficiently proves that the them, a more popular interference arguments in favour of a standard be deemed necessary, and a majoriof doctrine have, from the begin- ty of the Trustees of any chapel, ning, prevailed with them. The or a majority of the Stewards and object of the present inquiry is to Leaders of the society worshipping show that this standard was not, in therein, are of opinion that a Preacher the first instance, set up by the so- is erroneous in doctrine, they have cieties themselves; but by Mr. Wes- a discretionary authority to summon ley, in consultation with the few all the Trustees, Stewards, and LeadClergymen of the established Church ers of the Circuit in which the chapel who attached themselves to him, stands, to meet the Preachers and and a number of his Preachers, who Chairman of the District; and if although not episcopally ordained, the majority of such meeting do yet were wholly set apart to the judge that the accused Preacher has work of the ministry. But while it departed from the rule of doctrine is thus su apparent as not to admit contained in Mr. Wesley's Notes and of controversy, that the Pastors of Sermons, his removal from the Cirthe Methodist flock collectively cuit follows, and the District-Comhave exercised that right which the mittee of Preachers are under obligreat Head of the church commits gation to appoint another Preacher to all the Ministers of the Gos. in his place with the least possible pel, and have unitedly a lopted delay. The exact harmony between that interpretation of the New the exercise of the people's right to Testament which they in their judge of what they hear, with the own consciences regard as most in practical assertion of the right of accordance with the mind of the the Preachers to preach such doc.