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acting action allowed amount apparatus appearance arrangement bear boiler bottom carbon carriage carried cast cause centre closed coal connected consequence considerable considered construction containing cylinder diameter direction effect employed engine equal exhibited expansion experiments explosion fact feet fire fitted flue foot force French front fuel furnace gear give given greater heat important inch increased iron length less lever lower machine manufacture matter means mechanical Messrs metal motion moving nearly notice obtained opposite ordinary Paris passed pipe piston placed plates portion position pounds practical present pressure produced quantity resistance rivets safety-valve seen shell shown side space square inch stand steam steel stroke supply surface taken temperature thick tion tubes turned valve vertical weight wheels
Seite 208 - Ibs. of water one. degree in temperature. The air has here been heated under a constant pressure, and we have learned, that the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a gas under constant pressure a certain number of degrees, is to that required to raise the gas to the same temperature, when its volume is kept constant, in the proportion of 1-42 : 1 ; hence we have the statement — . . - ib».
Seite 60 - ... warped or made crooked by the heat. — They must properly convey away all the generated steam, and be regularly supplied with water.- — They must be connected with the main part of the boiler in such a manner that in case of a rupture of one of them, the whole content of water and steam cannot suddenly and dangerously discharge itself. — They must lie so deep under the general...
Seite 149 - Second, the escape of free steam from the steam-chamber, and the consequent removal of a considerable part of the pressure upon the water, before its contained heat can overcome its inertia and permit the disengagement of additional steam.
Seite 149 - Third, the projection of steam, combined, as it necessarily must be, with the water, with great velocity, and through a greater or less space, upon the upper sides of the shell of the boiler, which is thus forced completely open, and perhaps broken to pieces.
Seite 257 - ... 15 per cent., independent from that realized in the vaporization of its surplus moisture, and which is as much more. Saturated steam cannot part with any of its heat without becoming condensed ; and this loss, by premature condensation, is often a very large percentage of the total amount of steam used. In every unit of the steam thus condensed, there are lost 1,000 units of heat, which have been supplied by the fuel, but have not been utilized. Superheated steam, under the same circumstances,...
Seite 148 - ... are not capable of containing sufficient heat to change a very large quantity of water into steam. The total quantity of heat which would raise the temperature of...
Seite 258 - ... subject the superheaters to an undue degree of heat, which would naturally tend to their destruction. These particulars faithfully complied with, it will be found that no tangible objections can be opposed to the employment of moderately superheated steam ; and, when such economical results obtain from its use, it seems unaccountable that it is not more generally appreciated, and that the manufacturing public still adhere to the old saturated article, wasting by it both their time and money....
Seite 207 - The heat, produced by the combustion of the additional 4% grains, in the latter case, is entirely consumed in lifting the weight. Using the accurate numbers, the quantity of heat applied when the volume is constant, is to the quantity applied when the pressure is constant, in the proportion of 1 to 1-421. This extremely important fact constitutes the basis from which the mechanical equivalent of heat was first calculated.
Seite 25 - ... hundred pounds per square inch. A second one, tested in the same manner, burst at six hundred and twenty-five pounds. They were shown a section in which one unit had burst at nine hundred pounds per square inch, the damage having been repaired by the insertion of a new unit. The section then stood eleven hundred pounds per square inch before bursting in a new place. The available strength of the section in all cases being the strength of the weakest unit in it, the inventor holds that the boiler...
Seite 256 - Bulkley of New York makes the following communication in the " Journal of the Franklin Institute" for October, 1866. " Superheated" steam, or steam which has received an increase of temperature without increase of weight, by the direct application of heat, has enemies who stoutly maintain that no benefit can be derived from the superheating, as the steam has its maximum efficiency as soon as generated. The fallacy of such statements is evident on reflection, and plainly shows that those advancing...