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temporary splendour, ultimately side of the Rhine, into which they wrought their ruin, and introduced had, with much difficulty, found a new order of affairs into the dif- means to penetrate, and from which traded and flucluating common- they had been, after much fruitless wealth.

toil and unsuccessful efforts, comThe close of the year 1795 was pelled to retire with very confidernot so favourable to the French as able lofies. that of the preceding; they had The failure of the French in their projected at its commencement to expedition into Germany; their exfollow up their succeses in Holland, pulsion from every post they had ocby carrying their victorionis arms in- cupied on the eastern banks of the to the heart of Germany ; but a va- Rhine; their retreat across that riety of obstructions had either pre- river; the pursuit of their discomfitvented or frustrated their designs. ed army into the borders of France; At home the violence of the many and the several defeats they expefadions, open or concealed, stood rienced, were circumstances so little perpetually in the way of govern. hoped for at the commencement of ment, and impaired its proposed this year's military operations in energies. Abroad the remaining thole parts that they proportionably parts of the coalition against France, revived the spirit of their enemies, though foiled in their repeated at- and infused a degree of confidence tempts, still preserved their fpirit, into them, to which they had been and determination to persist at all strangers, since the dilasters of the hazards in carrying on the war. preceding campaign.

The principal (cenc of action had But, notwithstanding their ill been on the banks of the Rhine. fuccess on the Rhine, the French Here it had been generally ex- maintained a decided superiority in peded, that after the fubjugation of every other quarter. Europe seemed the seven United Provinces, the to stand at bay, and to wait with French would have met with no anxiety the terinination of a quarrel confiderable opposition ; but though that had produced so many stupenddispirited, as well as weakened, by ous events. The diffolution of the the severing of fo material a limb confederacy, by the feceflion of from the great body of the confe- Prullia and Spain, was far from being deracy, it still found fufficient re- confidered as complete: the princilources to inake head against the pal members, Great Britain and Fredeh, in a country where the ge- Austria were held fully competent, berality of the inhabitants, though though not to the purpose of subdilatisfied at their rulers, were not duing, vet fill to that of represling lo imprudent as to prefer a foreign the French; and this was now 1o a domestic yoke, and would not viewed as the only object, at fail to co-operate in opposing a which they ought, in prudence, in French invasion. To this difpofition the prelent situation of their affairs, of an incomparable majority of the to aim. inhabitants of Germany was, in a During the course of the cangTeat measure, due the little pro- paign, the government in France grels of the French in those pro- häd entertained fome ideas tending Wices of the empire on the rights to a general pacification ; but the

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lofti. Ieftiness of their pretensions, dic- to further their designs, and boldly tated by the price of their nation, was encountered every risk of being defo apparent, that Europe was not tected in their prosecution. furprised that they were only men- Enraged at these domestic enetioned tranfiently in their occasional mies, the predominant party was discourles on that fubject. The in- perpetually occupied in holding out veteracy of the raling party to Eng- every species of menace and terror land subsisted almost as violently to repress and discourage them ; as ever. The French beheld, with but neither threats nor invitations that rancour which attends an uns availed. Aduated by hatred and Snecessful rivallhip, the improba- resentment the royalists considered bility of their ever attaining to an themselves as equally justihed, by equality with the English at sea. conscience and interest, in their deli greatly.mortifich their pride, that termination to seize every occasion all the Europcan nations Mould una- of refifting the established powers, nimously alcribe a decided fupe: holding them as usurpers, with whom riority in naval tacties to the English, no measures ought to be kept, and and represent those as no less invin- whom they were bound to oppose, cible on the ocean, than the French whenever there appeared the least had hitherto been at land; with likelihood of doing it to any effect. this difference, however, to the dif- Such was the situation of France advantage of the latter, that it would at this period, deeply convulsed at prove a much cafier task to over- home, and though in pofleffion of come them at land than the others many extensive countries, yet, fearat sea.

ful that having acquired, and retain· Other causes of disatisfaction mi- ing them only by the right of the litated against the ruling party in sword, they might lose them through France. The royalists, however de- the same means: an event, whichi, prefled, were not dilpirited: their considering the vicissitudes of war, numbers, though inferior to those was not more improbable than the of the republicans, were immense; aftoniling succesies that had atthey maintained a close correspond tended their arms a rainst all likeli. ence with each other, and cemented hood and expectation. their reciprocal conneclions with While the people in France were all those acts of friendship and kind- distracted with these internal diviness that bind men so strongly toge- fions, those of England were agitated ther, when suffering from the same little less with incellant differences causes, and acting from the same and disputes on the propriety of conmotives.

tinuing a war, which had occasioned The vigilance of the republican such loties of men and expence of government found constant employ- treasure, without producing those ment in obviating the dangers that effects which had so repeatedly been threatened it from the indefatigable represented as infallible. Nothing activity of those irreconcilable an- had been omitted to procure sucPagonists, who, though surrounded cess: every ministerial demand had with continual observers of all their been granted, every measure acmotions, neglected no opportunity ceeded to; but the object propoled

remained

remained unaccomplished, and as don led the way, and, in a commonfar out of the reach of all reason- hall, the votes, for a petition, were able expectation, as at the first mo- four thousand, and only one hundred ment of its being attempted All against it. parties seemed, at this period, to The terms in which it was conunte in the like strain of reasoning, ceived were extremely pointed. Numbers of those wbo had warmly - None of the ends proposed by eipouled the cause of the minifter, the war, (to use the words of the thought that a sufficient trial had petition) had either been, or apbeen made of the various schemes peared likely to be, obtainel, al. he had brought forward, in order thoug! it had been carried on at au to compel the French to revert to unprecedented expenceto this coun)their former situation; and that, hav. try, ard had already produced an ing failed, prudence enjoined him alarming increale of ihe national to desisi, and to leave the re-estab- debt, augmented by fubfidies, paid lishment of the French monarchy to to allies, who had notoriously vioa future period, and more auspicious lated their folemn engagements, and opportunities.

rendered no adequate service for That party, which had opposed large fums actually received by the war from its very commence- them, and wrung from the credument, were loud in their reproba- lily of the generous and industrious tion of its continuance, and re- inl.abitants of this island.” It conproached ministers with a total want cluded by expresing a firm and de. of forefight, in not seeining to have cided conviction, that the principle apprehended the difficulties they on which the war appeared to be would have to contend with, and, carried on), neither was, nor could with equal inability, to encounter be, essential to the liberty, the glory, ther. As the events of the war or the prosperity, of the British emcountenanced there reproaches, the pire. public joined in them, and the go- Other addresses, in a similar style, vernment was thoughe very repre- were resolved on in several of the bertible in perlifiing againti reite principal cities in the kingilom. rated experience, in a contest that The adherents to ministry Endeathreatened to waste the trength of voured, on the other hand, to pro-' the nation inefectually, and the aim cure counter petitions: but there of which, were it attained, would were faint and languidi in coin parinot prove an indemnification for its fou to the former; ihole who trained coft.

them, did not renture to fjerk in Ideas of this nature were now juftification of the war; they went generally predominant, and berane, no farther than to leave tu minitat last, lo prevalent, not only among fers the choice of their own time for ibe multitude, which had long been pacific negociations. Iwaved by them, but among the A circumítance that had granoly mora reputable cases, that a variety indisposed the mercantile and trail0 aliociations were formed, and ing classes against minifiry, was, the mectings beld, for the avowed pur- refulal to permit the Dutch people pole of petitioning the legislature in of property, to depolit teir money tavour of peace. The city of Lon- and effects in England, without prvo ing the customary duties. Had this ous accession of real property that permission been granted, upwards must have been the necessary conof twenty millions of fpecie, and fequence of the emigrations of rich other treasure, would, it was said, individuals froin the United Prohave been brought into this coul- vinces. try. The reason alleged, for deny- , Another oversight, no less real, ing the request of the Dutch mer- though less noticed, was an archants, was, that if they were al- ticle in a treaty which had been lowed to transport their effects into agreed on with the American England, it would operate as a dif- States, by which their trade to the couragement to their countrymen, British islands in the West Indies and prevent them from acting with was restricted to vessels of an intevigour against the French, who, rior size. This, instead of diminishhaving fubdued the Austrian Ne- ing their commerce thither, tended therlands, were then preparing to rather to encrease it, by adding to carry their victorious arms into the their number of seamen: whether United Provinces: but the reply to in large, or in small vesiels, this this allegation was, that the French commerce was so profitable to them, party was so powerful in Holland, that whatever obstacles were thrown that it was easy to forelee that all in their way, would quickly be overrelistance would be vain. It would come by their industry and activity: have been goud policy, therefore, the profits of trade would be more to have encouraged the monicd. divided, but the number of hands men, in that country, to have lodged employed in it would produce the their property in Englandi; as most double consequence, both of graduof them were inanifefily inclined to ally extending it, and of augmenting do, in order to preserve it from the the number of American seamen. rapacity of the French, whole wants Thele various considerations Conwere such as wud infallibly induce tributed materially to displease the them to supercede all contiderations, generality of people. The burthens in order to provide for them as of the war were so heavy, and such foon as they ihould find themelres multitudes felt their weight, that in poflellion of a country, the wealth discontents and murmurs abounded of which was competent to fupply every where. The different mothem with what they needed. tives afligned, at different epochis

This refulal, on the part of the of the war, for its continuance, British administration, was generally were also highly prejudicial to midsemed a very unfeasonable over- nisters, as they led many to think light. It throw into the hands of that the real motive was purposedly the French an immense quantity of kept out of light, and was of too money and wealth of every denomi- invidious a nature to be frankly acnation, which might evidently have knowledged. centered in England, together with Ideas of this nature were now its owners. This woud, in a very universally current among the disconfiderable measure, have compen- approvers of the war, and were alsated for the loís of Holland to the serted and circulated by them with confederacy, and amply indemni- confiderable effect. But thal cirfied Great Britain, by the prodigio cumstance which was the most un.

fortunate fortunate and alarming, in the midst against its liberty, and an abettor of this general diflatisfaction, was, of arbitrary power. that it had arisen, in many, to such In this unfortunate disposition of a degree of rancour at the authors mind the nation continued during and abettors of the war, that the the whole year 1795. The summer, attachment, which men naturally in particular, was marked by a va. feel for their country, and its con- riety of tumults and riots. These cerns, had given way to sentiments were occafioned by the methods of the most violent hatred and hof- practised in the enlisting of men for tility to government. It was no the army: what with th“ general longer a fimple disapprobation of averseness of the common people to the war; it was a fervent defire the war; what with the iniquity of that it might terminate to the dif- the practice itself, those who were advantage of this country, and that concerned in it became such objects the French might prevail against of execration to the multitude, that the English. So extraordinary and their persons and dwellings were unnatural an antipathy arole, how- equally exposed to its resentment ever, from other causes besides the and fury. Several houses, either war with France: the persuasion tenanted, or made use of, by those that no reforms would take place who are vulgarly known by the apin the government, while it was pellation of crimps, were demoable to inaintain its ground against lihed, or stripped of their furniture, France, prompted the determined and the owners put in danger of advocates of these reforms, to ex- their lives. So great was the rage of press, with marked anxiety, their the populace, that it was not withwithes for the success of this inve- out some difficulty those riots were terate enerny to England. They suppressed by the soldiery. Several feemed unconscious, or heedless, óf of those who had been a live in the consequences that must necef- these disturbances were executed; farily follow, were the French to but the public highly disapproved fucceed in their defigns against this the condemnation, to death, of incountry, to that extent winch they dividuals, guilty of no other offence had projected, and which the genes than giving way to a sudden imsality of their well-wishers in Eng- pulse of indignation at the violence land appeared to desire with no less offered to their fellow subjects. fervour than themselves.

Such was the temper of the comBut the animofities, produced by monalty, previous to the meeting internal divisions, had, in truth, taken of parliament, about the close of fach unhappy pofleflion of most men, October, 1795. A fermentation of that thole who fought to reconcile the most alarming kind seemed to them to moderation, became equally pervade the whole mals of the peo

cious to both parties: no medium ple. The various associations of was allowed; whoever deplored the individuals, united for the purpose war, as pregnant with calainities of obtaining a parliamentary reform, that might have been avoided, was were, at this period, peculiarly noTepated a foe to his country; who. ticed for their boldness and actiever pronounced it juft, and necef- vity: That which was known by lary, was deemed a conspirator the name of the corresponding fo.

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