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tains the Works of Strutt, the Gallery of Fat Mr. Oakwood's prints are not less extrashion, the beautiful publications of Miller, ordiary than his books. He has the Works the Cent Estampes of Ferriol, the Costume of Hogarth and Strange; but, in general, he Physique et Moral de la fin du Dixhuitrime does not purchase the whole works of any Siecle; volumes of Ancient and Modern master; he only selects the best pieces. Of Prints, published at Paris ; Ancient and Mo-', these he bas thousands, French and English; dern Swiss Costumes, published at Basle; ' single prints, companions, and sets; all the Gentoo and Moorish Figures, drawn and finest impressions, bound up in portfolios of highly finished in ludia; and Chinese, in Russian leather, as large as a card table. China.

These volumes have cost him from four-score But the number of my brother's books is to a hundred pounds a piece. nothing, compared with their quality and! Here, then, is an employment for a snowy dress. In that they are exceeded by many day, and for a part of every day; and I share noblemen's and gentleman's libraries ; in it as I please. Pictures, my brother has none, these, I believe, they are scarcely to be paral-, except family portraits. As he says himself, leled. They exhibit every thing ibat is most he keeps oue hobby horse in so expensive a rare and costly in paper, printing, engraving, manner, he cannot afford a pair. and binding. When I tell you he has subscrip Neither are all our tongues tongues of trees. tion copies of Boydell's Shakespeare, Mack- My brother has gradually declined the society Jin's and Bowyer's Bibles, Bowyer's Hume, ll of the neighbouring families ; our vicar has and Views in Egypt and Palastine, Tompkin's || a better living, and does not reside here; his Thomson's Seasons, and Rees's New Encyclo-1 curate, a young man of good family and good pædia ; when I tell you tbat he has the finest expectations, has indulged himself in laughimpressions of Grose's Antiquities of Eng. ing at some of my brother's peculiarities, and land and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland; ofis not admitted into the house. But it is not Lavater, of Ibbetson and Church's Quadru good for man to be alone. Every evening peds, of Orine's Indian and English Sports ; li after supper, John Freeman, a sturdy yeo. and that his Rapin is accompanied by Hou-l man, who lives opposite the park-gates, comes braken's Heads ; you will imagine that polj to talk over history and politics with Mr. bouk in his fibrary has a superior out of it. l Oakwood, and share bis bowl of negus. It is Indeed, should that bappen, by an after publi- | lucky that, though their politics differ, ibey cation of the same work, it is immediately are not directly opposite; for my brother is added.

irritable and warm, and John is stedfast as a To look at my brother's books, giants, where rock. giants could be found, arrayed in red, green, 1 In his youth John Freeman cultivated a and yellow morocco, halt covered with gold, small paternal estate ; but preferring a life of arranged in the nicest order, and viewed ease, he now lets it for a hundred pounds a. through plate-glass, you would suppose that year, and, with his wife and an only daughter, they were to be seen, not read. Just the re- ' lives on the income. They keep no servant, Perse. He reads them all through, except | but the wife's sister, Mrs. Anderson, lives books of reference, and never lets any body with them, and, paying a trifle for her board, else see them, if he can help it. One of the assists in the different employments of the singularities of his library is, that almost all family. The whole of Johu's education may be read with pleasure, and nothing is ad- ll consisted in learaing to read and write; but Initted to make up a shew, without some in- | he had such an uncommon foodness for the trinsic merit of its own.

first of these occupations, that at a very early From our father my brother has iuberited period, almost in infancy, he had read the a taste for reading; from our mother a taste for Bible and Rapin's History of Eugland. His rich and splendid furniture; these, combined, memory was so extensive, that he not only bave produced bis library. His bookcases are knew all the events, but all the characters of as remakable as their contents. The parts the Jewish and English histories; and of the that can never be seen are mahogany, by his latter all the chronology. This knowledge particular order; and the fronts are carved, ll was prodigious; but bere he stopped. Durand inlaid with various kinds of costly wood, ing his farming life he continued to read in figures and different devices. His neat. | the History of Eulgand on a winter's evening, ness he derives from both our parents; and it and the Bible on Sunday ; but he added nois such, that I may venture to say, there is not || thing to his stock of information. He would a spot upon a leaf, or scratch upon a binding, not look into any other history than that of in his whole library.

" Rapin, if it fell in bis way. Believing that to

AGORA

be best and most faithful, he thought it || school; a steady admirer of the ancient rewould be waste of time to read a worse, aud | publics of Greece and Rome, and of liberty in endangering bis firm conviction of right and opposition to absolute monarchy. He is a wrong to read a different one. This last fear republican by descent, and inherits his prinwas groundless. No man was ever less likely to ciples with his house and land. His father, be shaken in any opinion he had once been Oliver Freemail, whom I well knew, and who convinced was right.

dated his age with the last century, rememWhen John Freeman let his farm, he foundbered both his grandfathers, who were officers so much leisure on his bands, that he per in the army of Oliver Cromwell; and one ceived the necessity of extending his studies. of them named him after his former master. The whole world of fiction, including poetry, |! What an air-drawn bubble is this freedom! be utterly despised. He believed literally in how beautiful! how evanescent! Jike Sliake. the celebrated maxim of Boileau,

speare's lightning, goue, before we can say,

“ 'tis there.” The moment after it was at“ Rien n'est beau que le vrai :"

lained, was not Oliver Cromwell absolute “ Nothing is beautiful that is not true.” monarch, under the name of Protector, and He read the histories of Greece and Rome. | Napoleon Bonaparte, under that of First Con. Ideas do not make the same indelible impres- ! sul; though the people were still ainused with siou at fifty as at seven years of age ; but he (the sound, and knew not the bubble had is nearly as well acquainted with Sparta and burst? The one knowing his people's attachAtbens, as with Jerusalem and London ; with ment to liberty, contented binself with the Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great, power of a king, without daring to assume as with David and Henry tbe Fifth ; with Sulon the name; and they thought they were free. and Lycurgus, as with Solomon and Alfred. || The otber, knowing his people's fondness for Here his knowledge rests for ever; and he grandeur and shew, rose superior to kings in would shat bis eyes manfully against any thing title, as in power; and they believed they rose tbat should tend to increase it.

with him. Jobin Freeman is a republican of the old

(To be continued.)

HERADRY, ILLUSTRATIVE OF ANCESTRY AND GENTILITY..

HAVING analysed in our last lecture,, mortal! for he said, that as this metal was the symbolical significations of the various ar- incorruptible from its simplicity and purity, morial colours, we come now to those which so it was to be regarded not only as the are more specifically called metals; but of which symbol, but as the essence of immortality. there are only two kinds that are used in Silver, this wiseacre considered as bearing the blazon. Of these two, the most noble is gold, same reference to gold, that the moon dues called Or, in heraldic language ; and the other to the sun; and therefore as those two bodies is silver, or argent, so called from the old bear the first rank in the system, with regard French, from which all our armorial terms to us, so the same comparative pre-eminence are taken. It is totally unnecesary for us must take place amongst the metals ; and he bere to enter deeply into the reveries of the then tells us, with great gravity, that the only ancient philosophers respecting these metals; i difference between the two metals is in the but as their excellence in armory was consi degree of coction ; for, if nature, in the pro. dered as in some measure depending upon duction of silver, had used as great a degree of abstract qualities, accordiug to the philosophy || heat as for gold, she would have produced the of those times, we shall merely tell, that in latter metal; and, therefore, says this accurate their chemical reveries, they considered gold as | reasoner, the difference between them must a mixture of four qualities; they tell us that be attributed to the less perfect digestion and as gold has the power of resisting solution by coction of sulphur and mercury! Another of the force of any patural agent, for aqua regia these sages, giving up alchymical argument, was then unknown, so it deservedly received dives deeper into metaphysics, and assures us its oame of “Child of the Suu;" and so far was, that there is a most certain and accurate affi. this absurd idea carried, lhat Raymond Lally, nity between the sun, the heart of man, and goid, & famous alchymist, asserted, that if God had for, as the sun is in nature ihe principle of heat made man of gold he would bare been im- and motion,so is the heart in man; and it may be

DES

observed, says this subtle metaphysicain, who, | Pisces and Cancer, amongst the Signs; water, we may presume, knew nothing of paper curs in the elements; the pblegmatic complexion ; rency, “ that gold, when converted into an ! Monday, in the days of the week; January elixir, preserves, fortifies, and rejoices the and February, in the months; the pearl, diahuman heart!” In the same mauner they | mond, and chrystal, amongst precious stones ; tell is, there is an intimate connection be- | the palm, amongst trees; the lily amongst tween silver, the brain, and the moon ; because flowers; the spotless ermine, amongst avi. the moon influences the brain, whilst silver mals; and old age, in man. Those who bore fortifies that part of the human economy; for i argent in their arms were considered as which reason, silver must be symbolical of great obliged to succour virgins and orphans, in the qualities of the soul! We will quit these same manner as those who bore the field silly dreams, however, to investigate those Or, were obliged to assist their princes. Arsymbolical meanings which ancient heralds gent was also the symbol of chastity in wives, are supposed to lave affixed to these metals. and of virginity in the younger part of the Gold, then, in heraldry, was the emblem sex ; of justice, in a judge; and of bu mility, in of many of the Christian virtues, particularly a political minister! of faith; but in those monkish times, it seems l! In addition to colours and metals, there are as if the church found faith more productive two species of furs, often occupying the body of gold, than gold was of faith. As faith was of the shield, which must be described here. purified by adversity, so was gold by fire; ( The first is ermine, consisting of argent and it was also the emblem of justice; of charity, sable; or white, with small black spots ; be. on account of the ardent and shiving colour; cause the animal known by that pame has a of gentleness, of clemency, and of humility, white skin, with a tail of jet black, and derives because that although guid is the purest and its name from the skins having been first Inost noble of metals, still it is the softest, brought from Armenia into Europe. This and most flexible of all others. Gold was also is the symbol of purity. Of this there is considered as representing opulence, splen- || also a variety, called counter ermine, and ermie dour, constancy, joy, prosperity, long life, nois, which is sable with white spots; some purity of intention, and rectitude of heart; nations have enninois of various colours, but and as gold in some cases formed the basis of we believe there is no instance of it in Eng. all the colours on the shield, so rectitude of lish heraldry. The second species of furs, is heart and elevation of sentiment ought to Irair, or rairy, supposed to be formed of skins form the basis of all the nobility, Or, or yold, of two colours, sewed together, and in their was also considered as analogous to the car outline resembling bells, erect, and inverted buncle and tle topaz in heraldic significa alternately. l'air, strictly speaking, always tion, because as darkucss could not diminish Il consists of five rows on the face of the shield, the brilliancy of these precious stones, so 1 and is of argent and azure; but rairy is used neither could any temporary shade totally when the pieces are of various colours, and it obscure or couccal the brilliant actions of is biazoned, " Or and gules," or of such other nobility. Amougst the planets, gold was tinctures as it may be. With respect to the - reckoned analogous to the sun, because as metals and colours, as used in this country, the sun is seen by all the world, and enlightens they are evidently of German origin), though the whole solar system, so heroic actions, ac the names are French; at least, we have reacompanied by rectitude of heart, and pure in son to believe that the scientific armorial use tentions, were soon publicly known to all. of them has been adopted from Germany, Amongst the twelve signs, gold represents I though perhaps altered and improved by Bria the sam, because when the sun entered that tish heralds; but the use of the furs is evi. sigu, he rejoiced all nature. Of the four ele. dently from France, and the French heraldic nients, gold represented fire; in complexions, writers tell us, the ermine was first introduced the sauguine; Sunday, in the days in the into armory at the period when the Saracens week ; July and August, in the mouths; the were in that country. They assert that cyprus and laurel, anionsgt trees; the heli. | Charles Martel, father of Charlemagne, hay. otrope, or sunflower ; the cock, amongst birds ; ing defeated these infidels at the battle of Jion, amongst quadrupeds; and the dolphin, Tours, his knights seized upon the shields of amongst fishes.

the vanquished, which were covered with Silver, or argent, was the characteristic skins, and added them to their own armorialsymbol of humility, purity, innocence, and bearings, as testimonies of their gallant vic. truth; and also of beauty and elegance. tory. They also relate an anecdote'respectAmongst the planets, it was the moon; 1 ing the first adoption of vair, which is said to

ter

have been first borne by the Baron of Couci, ll with argent, was most fair; sable with or, mast who, in one of the early Crusades, finding his rich ; and or with vert, most glorious. troops in disorder, and his standard broken, il Before we close this part of the subject repulled off his mantle of scarlet cloth, with specting the colours and metals, it is proper fur faciugs, cut it in slips, and having tied it to notice the mode of representing them withto the end of bis lance, was enabled to rally

out being actually painted. Formerly those his troops, and to lead them or to victory; in

who sketched coats of arms, without actual memory of which event, he assumed vairy

colours, were obliged to use the first letters of gules and vair, in lieu of his ancient coat,

each tincture, either inserted on the specific gules, a bend cotized or.

parts of each heraldic sketch, or placed in the At present, ermine is but little used in Bri- || margin with dotted lines of direction to each tish beraldry, nor is vair very frequent; but

bearing; that was, however, very inconvenient the latter is of considerable antiquity, having

and uncertain, but numberless specimens may been borne on a bend by a branch of the

be seen of it in the MSS. in the British family of Sackville, as early as the Norman

Museum. The modern mode is full as simple, conquest.

and much more, certain; for argent is exWe bave already noticed the armorial signi- i pressed by leaving the bearing unshaded; or, fication of eacb colour, considered singly; but is known by a number of small do:ts ; gules, some heralds have affixed other meanings to | by perpendicular lives of shading; azure, by them, when used along with others. This horizontal lines ; sable, by lines horizontal serves in some measure to account for the and perpendicular crossing each other; wert, early adoption of blue lions, green dragons, by diagonal lines from the dexter corner in and goldeu bears aud boars, so frequent in chief to the sinister base; purpure, is reprearmory ; so much so, indeed, that it is seldom sented by diagonal lives, from the sinister base we meet with those animals emblazoned pro- to the dexter base; ermine is known by arper, that is, of their natural colour. We shall gent with sable spots ; aud rair by an outtherefore slightly notice those syinbols of line resembling rows of bells inverted, with combination. Sable, if borne in the field with hatchings, as this mode of sketching is called, argent, signified constancy; if with or, it re- agreeable to the tincture. presented honour. Argent combined with We shall now close this lecture with a brief gules, represeuted bold in all bonesty; with

sketch of the shield, and its various forms; azare, it pointed out the bearers to be courteous | leaving the various ordinaries of the fesse, and discreet; with sable, they were wholly band, &c. for a subsequent lecture. Tlie forms devoted to contemplation of divine things; of the sbield, as borne by men, are various ; with cert, the bearers were presumed to be these forms indeed depend in a great measure virtuous in youth, and to continue so; with upon the fancy of the bearer; and they may purple, it represented judicature, and ma- be painted round, oval, or oblong, without afgistracy exercised with popularity.

fecting the nature of the bearing. It is not so, Gules, accompanied by or, signified a desire however, with arms when borne by females ;to conquer; with argent, it pointed out an if married, indeed, their arms occupy half arenger of the innocent, and a scourge of the their husband's shield on the sinister side, envious.

unless they are heiresses, when their coat is Azure with or, was joyful in riches, and borne in the centre of the husband's armis, on pleasant in conversation.

a shield of the same shape; but whilst they Or, if accompanied by gules, pointed out a li continue unmarried, or when they become hero, determined to shed bis blood for the ser- | widows, they must bear them in a lozenge, revice of his country; if with azure, it marked sembling the ace of diamonds, It must be one worthy of matters of trust and treasure,

observed also that no lady can bear a crest, both to keep it for himself econonically, and or motto, as these are specifically warlike and faithfully for others; with sable, it was given masculine. to bim who was wealthy, and constant in

If we suppose a shield divided in two paris every thing; if with vert, it pointed out joy. by a perpendicular line, then the half opful with the riches of the world, and glittering posite to the spectator's left hand, will be the and splendid is youth.

dexter side, and the other of course the sinis. Vert, accompanied by or, signified both juy ter; for thus it must be when borne on the and pleasure; and with argent, was symboli.

|| arm. If we suppose the sbield divided cal of inuoccut love.

into five equal parts, by horizontal lines, the With respect to the symbolical rank of the co- l upper division will be the chief, which, diLeurs and metals, it was considerad that, sable vided perpendicularly into three parts will give the dexler chief the precise middle chief, and I glory. If ju the nombril point, they indi. the winister chief, then the part of the next cate that the bearer ought to sacrifice every division, immediately under the precise iniddle thing to the honour of God, the glory of his chief, is the honour point; the next onder prince, and the safety of his country. If in that, ihe vombril point; whilst the lowest the dexter Aank, or fianche, which is the division is divided into the dexter base, exact right extreme of the shield, representing the middle base, and sinister base.

side which man always opposes first to dau. It has been said that additions to arms ger, they mark that the bearer has saved the borne in chief, relate to spirit, memory, and life of his prince. The sinister flank is never judgment, and are due to those who have used but as a repetition of bearing the dexter signalized themselves in embassies, in politics, ll side; and additions in base, analogous to the or in important services, remarkable for their feet, are the synabols of constancy and persewisdom and integriiy; this part refers to the verance in the various chances and changes human head. If in tbe honour point, represent. ll in life, and point out a man truly noble, and ing the neck, they are marked as the bighest who bears every change of fortune, whether honoors which princes can bestow. If in prosperous or adverse, with equanimity. the fesse point, analogous to the heart, they

(To be continued.) are theu as stimulants to further deeds of ||

THE MIRROR OF FASHION. IN A SERIES OR LETTERS FROM A GENTLEMAN OF RANK AND TASTE, TO A LADY

OF QUALITY.

LETTER 1.

li the fig-trees. (By the bye, if your good. I AM very proud to obey your Ladyship's nature will admit of a parenthesis in 60 commands; aud when they would make me momentous a passage, pray permit me to high priest at the shrine, where you have so bint how false is the old saying, that the deril long reigned goddess ; when they would call || would have been a tailor had he not lost his first upon me to expound the mysteries of fashion, li stitch! Now it is proved beyond contradico from the first pelisse worn by our beauteous tion, that he gained the first stitch; for it mother Eve, to the last ermined garment was directed towards the unblushing charms which graced the shoulders of your lovely self; l of the beautous bride of Adam, the devil's when this is my command how can I shrink needle gave her a prick in the seat of all from my duty, how dare I venture to disobey? | ladies' longings, the spleen; and the gentle Start not, with a frown, which for a moment ll dame finding herself naked, permitted the turns my Uranian Venus into a cloud-browed || arch-enemy of her husband to dress ber as he Juno; thy Paris, fair queen of the smiles and pleased. Surely this proves his Tartarian Ma. joys, would ratber choke himself with the jesty to be the very emperor of tailors; and cure of the golden fruit he laid at your feet, most despotically bas he exercised his peedle than not fulfil thy mandate, were it to drink and sheers ever since ; stitching together what up Isel, or eat a crocodile !

heaven never intended should be united, and You commaud me to search into the store. cutting asunder what the same gracious Power houses of my brain, to remember all I have designs should hold lasting union! But to get read in colleges, all I have heard from travel out of my parenthesis, and return to the prolers, all I have myself seen in journeying over per text of my reply.) this habitable globe, and inform you of all the Neither had I any thing to do with the ma. fashions in raiments, which have ever been as- \nufacture of the famous shuttle of Isis, with sumed from Anno Mundi i, to Anno Domini | which she wove the garments of Egypt; nor 1810.

did I assist the fair daughters of Israel to Why, my dear. Countesss, what is it that brocade fiseir fine twined linen ; nor stood I your divine Ladysbip takes me for? Surely master-dyer over the Tyrian dye-tubs; nor did not tailor-general to the generations of man I fashion the loom of Athenæ, in the plains of and womaukind! Positively I am no example Greece ; nor attend with my scissars when the of the metem psichosis. I was not the ser- i togas of Rome were snipped into form for the pent, whose wily arts sewed up the fairest youth of the Republic! And if your county limbs in Paradise in the envious drapery of Paris, my fair dictator, did not thus, in a thou

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