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further proof; for, say they, if the first bearer or bieroglyphics, with witty allusions; wbilst had performed any heroic action be uecd not in Denmark, and in the northern countries, have had recourse to a pun on the family name. there is a wild extravagance which goes even
Scotland possesses a Herald's Office, on the beyond the ertraraganzıs of scientific heraldry. same establishment nearly as that of England, In Holland, before the late changes, all the the principal officer is Lyon King of Aims, churches were crowded with escutcheons ornawith six heralds and six pursuivants. In ad mented with supporters ; many of ihem with dition to the usual power of visiting the arms Ma:qu's's and Viscount's coronets, and some of the nobility and gentry, marking their pro.
evin with ducal ones. This, buwever, was all per differences, and registering them in their whim and fancy, fur in Holland there was no proper books, this college really possesses a law of arms, but every person who possessed a power of preventing all persons from bearing | portion of land which had been the pr perty arms who are not entitled to them, by seizing of any of the ancient noblesse, assumed the all moveables on which such arms are borne, arins of the ancient proprictor, together with and by levying a fine of one hundred pounds, all the badges, crests, and cognizauces that or in default of payment, by imprisonment || had belonged to him. during pleasure. This power formerly existed In Flanders there was some regularity, be. in the Englisb college of arms, or at least in cause they had a College of Arms at Brussels; the court of the Earl Marshal; nor bas it been notwithstanding this, bowever, there was noabrogated, only the practice bas been left off thing su easy as to purchase a title, because since the office of Lord fligh Constable has nobility did not couter power as in England; fallen into disuse, as that officer alone could and we are told that even valets have purexecute the drores of the Earl Marshal's chased Viscounties and Margwisatis; circumcourt. Lu Scotland, however, the beralds love stances which should render us less indulgent another power, that of arresting for debt; to those foreigners who, with the title of Barun, which is perform:d by the messengers of the which literaily on the Continent implies no college instead of the Sheriff's officers; and more than the English word Gentleman, if so all magistrates, if called upon, are obliged to much, pretend to place themselves abuve our assist them in the execution of this office gentry, and on a par with our legislative nounder a severe penalty.
bility! In Ireland there is little peculiarity reli in Germany, heraldry is still much attended specting their heraldic custoins. We have to, notwithstanding recent events; but their reason to believe that arms were known there shields are always covered with a multitude of as soon as in the oiher parts of Europe; the | quanterings; this at first sight appears likely destruction of the ancient records, however, to create confusion ; however, its use in soin the continued disturbances in the twelftha ciety is obvious, for as the chapters of the and thirteenth centuries, has left few memo. | clergy, and indeed niost of the other public rials of their progress in the art. The use of ll foundations, as well as lay and clerical offices supporters among the ancient Irish families were only open to those who could prove a (and also in Scotland) is much more frequent noble descent, as it was called, though no. than with us; and in Dublin there is also a thing more than an English gentleman's pe. Herald's College, formed on the same plan as digree, for a certain number of generations, it those in London and Edinburgh.
becainc necessary for every gentleman to shew The establishment of these three colleges that his ancestors for four generations at least, has produced a greater regularity in the hc on each side, haá borne arms; and this he did raldıy of the United Kingilum than in any by quartering all their coats in his escutcheon, other country; we shall, however, close this in direct opposition to the general rule of concluding lecture with a slight view of armo. quartering those only which come by heiresses, rial customis in other parts of Europe.
a rule strictly observed in England. In GerIn Spain, the greatest part of the ancient many also, there was an affectation of ornaarins have been given, or assumed, in remem menting the arms with the Imperial Eagle, an brance of some valiant undertaking for defence ornament which conveyed neither privilege of the Christian religion, or against its ene. nor distinction, as it could at all times be purmies, the Turks, Saracens, iufidels, and here- || chased for a suin of money. tics; and many of their coats, instead of the of the heraldic customs of ancient France usual heraldic bearings, are covered with Arell we bave already taken some notice; her anci. Maries, I. II. S. and many other religious ent lionours, alas! now lie buried under the devices.
rubbish of modern refurm and false philo. In Italy, the bearings are mostly emblems || sophy!
EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
HAVING gone throngh an examination and compounded them into abstract forms. As of the principal pictures in the historical de- | Zeuxis, in the composition of bis Helen, had partment of art, which the present Exbibition: a female deputed to him from every colony in furnishes, we shall now take a short survey of Greece, so Claude, in his laudscapes, borrowed the more sibordinate and familiar branch of fron almost every province in Italy its local painting-Landscapes and common life. and particular beauties; but he burrowed thein
It must be confessed, that landscape paint. as examples from wbich to compose a whole, ing has been carried to a very high point of. and not a single and independent representaeminence in this nation, and there is no reason tion. why it should stop short of absolute perfec- It was this standard of idle beauty, which tion. There is no country in which the he erected in his imagination, brought to the natural scenery is more magnificent and sub | test of a liberal truth and nature in its indivi. lime-more picturesque and beuutiful. Wel dual parts and forms, which raised him to the possess Nature in her wild 'regularity, and summit of landscape painting, and preserves sterile grandeur; we enjoy hur, likewise, high him his place in art. ly iinproved by cultivation, and adorned by The two Poussins were not so refined and art. If the Flemings have succeed d in giving pure in their pencilling and colour as Claude, an universal interest, and a sort of perpetuity, but they infinitely surpassed him in an elevat. to their meadows and fish-pouds, surely the ed and classic taste. They united, in an einiBriti.h artist, whose country bas the advant- nent manner, the historical and poetical landage of possessing mature in every garlı, need scape; Nicolas Poussin, in particular, whose not be at a loss for local subjects to select and great excellence it was, that he gave to land. to combine, wbicbonite the recomiendation scapes a sort of historical invention, and an of beauty with the merit of truth.
epic grandeur. The compositions of the Pous. Landscape painting may be considered un-sins have the amenity of nature in ber must der three leading divisions. The poetical, the pleasing local aspect:, united with the actions historical, and the familiar landscape.
and passions of mankind in the most striking In the poetical landscape, considered in its | and dignified passages of life. more simple character, Claude Lorrain stands | Salvator Rosa is not to be considered as a foremost - le observed truth in his land painter of landscapes ; we shall therefore say scapes more, perhaps, thau other painters in
ent. his line of art; but it was not a particular, but The Flemish painters saw nature, as it were, a general, or rather an universal trutlı.—The i through windows of glass; and they could scenery of Claude's picture (and we have out pot penetrate beyond what they saw — Their ofien heard the observation made before) was imagination was bounded by the horizon always ideal; that is, there was no such exist-' which termívated their natural sight; they ing local view in nature as Claude represented had no notion of ine grandeur of a general in his compositions; but each individual part image, or the selection and combination of was faithfully natural and just.Ne conubined i particulars. But, as they saw with contined and selected from everything beautiful and views, and lionited orgaus, they did not fail to sublime, with which his country made him fa see accurately and closely; and landscape miliar; but he never took nature at the dis. il painting, under the perpetual hrooding of his advantage of a particular position. He ampli- parrow contemplation, became the more art of fied, combined, and improved her beauties, fac similes, of local d lineation, characterised whilst (we speak it with all reverence) he dis- by the most scrupulous minuteness, and parentangled her confusion, and reduced berticulars detailed with the most wearisome irregularities.
fidelity. lu a word, Claude, in painting landscapes, The English Wilson was no unworthy com. followed the examples of the Greek sculpts i petiior of Claude; he possessed an imagination in the time of Phidias and Praxiteles. He fully as classical, and wis infinitely inore pure selected beautiful parts, in order to combine and skilful in mechanical execution. He was, tbem into a whole; he generalised particulars, if we except atmosphere alone, the superior of
W R rs
Claude in colour; and, in many of his com- | No. 102. View in Detonshire.--FARRINGpositions, be excels hin both in fancy and || T.)N, R.A.-This landscape is natural and judgment.-- Wilson's Niobe, and wis Villa of pleasing, and is one of the best of the present Mucenas, are far more classical and chaste than artisi's. any production of the Italian school of land No. 107. The Sand Pit.-WARD, R. A. elect. scape, and ocellpy a higher place amongst - This is, in truth, a composition which works of imagination.
mnight vie with any of the ancient masters, for Turner, in his Marine paintings, displayed | vgour, file ity, truth, nd nature. For our. a very bold and masterly genins-he delineal
selves we declare, that we would sooner posé ed nature with a comprehensive and inagnifi sess this landscap than the best p:oductious cent peocil, and shewed himself possessed of of Paul Potior. the powers of pietical generality, and inde. No. 112. Itchen Ferry.-CALLCOTT, R. Afinite vastness, as well as of individual minute. This is an admirable landscape. It is a repre. ness, and formal correctness -Bis Marine I sentation of local mature, and, we have no piece, in the possession of the Marquis of doubt, is exhibited with great truth and fideStafford, is a noble effort of art.
lity There is great clearness in the colour, No. 21. Portrait of un Arabian Horse --J.
and a general soflness and ainevity in the WARD, R. A. elect --- Nothing can be more
| whole composition. It does great credit to admirable than the present portrait; it has
the talenis of Mr. Callcott. life, fidelity, and vigour in all its forms. Every
No. 128. The Neary Trumpeter.-W. Colpurt of the anatomy is correctly delineated;
LINS, jun. --This is a composition of great but the outline, though in the most perfect
truth, and possesses that sort of humour which symmetry and proportion, is not stiff aud
pleases, because natural and unforced. It hard, but waving and graceful. The iron
promises extremely well from su young an
artist. grey colour is happily expressed, and ihe back
No. 14). A View of Southamption - By CALLground has considerable force. Mr. Ward, as a painier of landscape, in wbich the represen
COTT, R. A - This is a landscape in the same
style and purity as that of Itchen Ferry, by tation of inanimale nalure is made subordi. nate to animal figures, is without a competitor
the same artist.
No 150. l'iew of Lymouth.-By FARRINGin the country.
TON, R. A - This landscape is externally well No. 58. A Sea Nymph sporting with a Marine
composed. The pencilling and the colour are Monster.-S. WOODFORDE, R. A--This pic.
1 very delicate and skilful. ture, though it does not occupy a very high
No. 209. A Composition.-By G. ARNOLD, place in art, is distinguished by some pleasing || A.-This composition displays a very promispassages, and has a poetical invention through-||
rough-lling genius, and talents which, when matured out, which is peculiar to the productions of ||
by study, will doubtless arrive at excellence. this master.
The whole-length Portrait of Mrs. Stratton -No.70. Mercury and Herse - by --Tur T. LAWRENCE, R. A.-This portrait has a NER, R. A. --This landscape bas, in some
| powerful attraction from the extreme beality of parts of it, the remains of that buld and mas.
the lady whom it represents, and the splen. terly style, wbich ouce distinguished the com
dour and richness of its coloni's. It appears, positions of Mr. Turner.—The back ground
however, on a nearer inspection, to be someis very grand and magnificent; it is delineat.
what too luxurious and ambitiously ornamented in masses, and depicted with a powerful
ed. It abounds too much in those licentious generality. The clouds, bowever, are very in
tones, which are not found within the grave different, and the fore grounds is without ari, and sober appearances of truth and nature. taste, or correctness.
The head is very highly finisbed; but the No. 90. Iris and her Train.-H. Howard,
pevcilling, we think, is rather tasty than acR. A-This is a very elegant composition. curate. The drawing is directed to captivate, The figures are well drawn, and the forms are rather than to satisfy the principles of strict after the models of the purest Greek art, art.-The female figure seems to want body, There is, perhaps, a little academic stiffuess in | and the proportions are not at all correct. some of ine figures, but this is a fault whicb | The foot of the dog overpowers the foot of Mr. Howard is daily correcting. The colour- ll the lady; but nothing can be more marked ing is extremely good, and the arrangement of land vigorous, than the drawing of this anithe groups displays taste and study.