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lence of the waves in an advanced station, are the main ocean by a narrow strait, the largest an incontestable proof that the water is the in- of wbich are the Mediterrranean and Baltic : Vader.
for it does not appear probable to me, that To prove that the sea does not diminish, let iibe space now occupied by the former, was us examine the hardest rocks insulated by it, lever land, as Monsieur Buffou concludes, and and rising a considerable height above its was overflowed by an irruption of that element; level, with sides nearly vertical, w ben the tide but that it is a great rent in the globe, made is at its lowest ebb. All that part left by the at the fixation of the earth, it being very deep, water will be found to be rough and corroded some hundreds of miles above the straits of thereby, and that above the high-water line Gibraltar ; but in those parts less mountain. to project. Fish of the bivalvular kind some ous, and the rising ground covered with rich thing resembling the muscle, are often found | deep loorn, the excavations being less, were in to have perforated the rock some inches deep, l' lime filled, and where the reuts extended to wbich are to be seen hy striking off the scurf i the sea, they become estuaries; in these the from the part wbicb the retreat of the sea has sliding dowu of the soil has in many places exposed.* The projection iminediately above caused the water to recede from their inner. the water, is a proof that the dashing of the most parts and occupied its place; there are waves consumes the rock faster than the at- I few extuaries, if they are not terminated im. anosphere. Had the sea dimivished, it would mediately by bigb lands, where the tide has have left evident tokens of its retreat, should not pushed itself furiber up than it does at the atmosphere have dissolved the little pro. present. I bave been told by those who have tuberances, and worn the rock smooth, still dug deep by the side of a hill that is now the the punctures made by the animals would boundary of a piece of meadow land, at the have remained, and their depth have increas- i head of one of these arms of the sea, that the ed in proportion as their situation approached rocks below bad all the appearance of being the surface of the sea. This to me is an irre washed by it: here tbe increase of earth, by fragable proof that the atmosphere does not the common tendency of its particles to the descend towards the base of the rock, or in centre, and continual decay of vegetables, had other words, that the perpendicular height of gained a particular elevation, superior to the sea does not decrease.
that of the general perpeudicular rise of the Furthermore, as all the land made or left whole ocean. + by the sea must be perfectly flat, and little ! But if there is a quantity of infiammable above its level; if these parts were gaining on matter pent up in the interior, there may be a il, they of course must be farthest adranced possibility, should air by any means be intu that element, and the solid mountains in introduced, of its becoming explosive and the rear. Most part of the shores of the conti. emerge some of the land at this time benents and islands should have sloping grounds neath the sea, and absorb parts now above its of this description, just above the water, of surface; but as on this theory conjecture considerable extent, but the real state of the itself must look with hopeless eye, we cannot ocean and eartb, in contact with each other, form an idea how air can gain admittauce; for is to this a direct contradiction.
we know very little of the interior of the But there are partial encroachments of the I globe, the shell of rock may be a thousand land on the sea, besides such as I have before miles through, and that more dense as it attributed to the course of rivers, which may approaches the centre. The deepest caverns be accounted for in the following manner. As ever made by human industry advance not most mountainous parts of the globe at the the one-hundredth part so near to that point time of fixation, were rended into the widest as the thickness of the rind does to the and deepest chasms, which soon became or middle of a large apple. were left filled with water, and their sides
A. B. beicg rocky, and almost impervious to the attacks of the elements, there has not, even at this period, a sufficient quantity of solid mat. 11 + Perhaps some idea may be formed of the ter siidden down to fill all of them; these are universal rise of the oceay, since it was forced now lakes, or such seas as communcate with li to withdraw from these parts, by comparing
| the topmost of the water-worn marks with the * These remarks are drawn from observa- present high-water line on the neighbouring tions made on the insulated lime-stone rocks || coast. iu Torbay
OAKWOOD HOUSE.- AN ORIGINAL NOVEL.
(Continued from Page 245.)
1 Millichamp, “as facts will prove. We all know
I that women rule, and were born to rule men ; TO MRS. BRUDENELL.
and as it cannot be by superior strength, it Oakwood, May 10, 1907.
inust be by superior understanding. Spirit It was not without reason, in giving you goes beyond strength; or man could never the character of Millichamp, that I men bave tamed and ridden a horse." tioued his absence of mind. Yesterday he un “Man's understanding,” said iny brother, dertook to boil an egg for bis breakfast ; and “bas made the force of the horse subservieut when Mrs. Freeman entered the room, she to his purposes. He invented the bit and the found him boiling bis watch, which he had bridle; but his strength of arm is also necestaken out to mark the minutes necessary to sary to restrain him, when the ingenuity of cook bis egg.
woman would avail nothing." He is extremely fond of argument. Not as “ Still is woman man's superior,” said Milmost persons are, in the hope of convincing lichamp; “for if man governs the horse, wotheir antagonist; nor, like a very few, for the man governs the rider.” possibility of being convinced themselves ; nor “But you men generally suppose we go. yet to shew bis learning or his penetration ; vern by our weakness,” said I. “ We appeal but for argument's sake. He will urge every to your affections for support and kindness, consideration he can think of against one's | and rule by making you believe we submit. . opinion, and draw out all one has to say in its | One of you have said defence, and then acknowledge it was his own from the beginning of the controversy. He
“ Nature for defence affords assures as he once persuaded a methodist
« Fins to fishes, wings to birds, preacher that the stars were made of moons,
“ Swiftness to the fearful bares ; cut in pieces. I told him I believed his solemn
“ Women's weapons are their tears." dignified manner, and the reputation of his " You pay that compliment to our weakness profound learning came in aid of his arg 11 we should try for in vain by strength”. ments. He confessed it might be true; and " I believe it will be found throughout the thought they would have received additional
avimalcreation,” said my brother, “that whenweight from long flowing garinents, or even a
ever creatures associate or herd together, silk niglit-gown, a velvet cap, and morocco
one will be master. Man is a stronger animal slippers. He offered to prove to me the pos
than woman, and therefore formed to be masa sibility of the moon's being made of green
ter. As Millichamp says, her spirit somecheese, notwithstanding iheridicule that whole
tiines gels the better of her strength; somegenerations had thrown on the idea ; but I de
times even cunning will do it. When that is clined the dispute, telling him I was too poor
the case, she will commonly change places an adversary to shew his talents, as I never
with him; but she had better be silent went farther in an argumeut than a reply and about it.” a rejoinder.
" Who can read the bistory of England," He seldem attacks John Freeman, who will
said John Freeman, “ and not believe that wonot bear a joke, and whose prejudices are some
men are qualified to govern? Among our times stronger than his arguments ; but it is
sovereigns, who was ever like Elizabeth ; care. his delight to draw in my brother.
ll ful of the nation's money, as well as its ho.. “I have been reading," said I, last night
nour; feared abroad, and beloved at home?” Mrs. Willstoncraft's Travels in Sweden, Nora
"If women are qualified to govern in way, and Denmark. She has the heart and
theory," said Margaret, “you would not wish imagination of a woman, with the understand
to see them put it in practice.” ing and language of a man.” “ Why, said Millichamp, “ you cannot be
« Nature makes exceptions to all general lieve that men have stronger understandings
rules,” said my brother. “ Elizabeth was ove. than women, can you?"
Though in assuming the peculiarities of our “ They have stronger bodies," answered I; sex, she did not renounce those of her own. To " and if I reasoned from analogy, I should || a masculine spirit of domination, she joined suppose they had.”
the mean dirty jealousy of a woman; and the “ That argument is in my favour,” said unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots,. fell her No. XX. Vol. III.-N.S.
victim, because she could neither bear a rivalls by God or man, sits so lightly upon me that I in beauty or in power."
never feel it." « Mary Queen of Scots had plotted so ll “Mary Wollstoncraft's energy of mind and mucb treason,"returned John Freeman,“ that li boldvess of imagination, my dear,” said I, Elizabeth was obliged to bring her to the “ are unparalleled in the female world. Her block, in her own defence. She could never daring and ardent soul entertained ideas, and have been safe while Mary was alive; and as formed a plan unthought of, unattempted by one must die, it was only fair it should be woman. Her sufferings are a beacon to her the author of the mischief."
sex, and if ever another Mary Wollstoncraft “That,” said my brother, " is the reason | arise, she will not follow her sleps. But ber given for the riots at Birmingham. The mub writings will be aduired w bea ber errors shald burnt the meeting-houses of the Dissenters, be forgotten.” and the dwelling-honses of some of the inost respectable inbabitants of that persuasion ;
LETTER XII. because, if they had not, the Dissenters would
TO MISS CARADINE. have burnt the Church. There is no abomination this pode of preventing evil will not sanc.
Oakwood, May 15, 1807. tion. In these two instances it has been the We have been thrown into the greatest pretext of murder and incendiary.".
consternation to day, by the following adverI expected John Freeman's answer would tisement in Mr. Oakwood's London newsnot have been of the most conciliating kind; paper: for he adores Elizabeth almost as much as ) “Whereas a tall thin gentleman, dressed Oliver Cromwell; and before be could speak, I l in black, and mounted on a handsome dark said, "I have always thought, though Eliza chesnut horse, fifteen bands high, left Lonbeth ruled her subjects with a rod of iron, she || don, on his way to the uorth, on or about the desceuded to cajoleries that no man would 291b of last March, and has not since been hare practised; and her good and beloved | beard of; this is to desire him, if living, to people themselves began to be weary of them. give immediate notice to his friends. But, as Yel certainly England was never, on the he is subject to fits of absence, it is feared whole, better governed. If Elizabeth be com. sume irisfortune may have befallen him; and, pared with the tyrannical monster her father, in that case, any person giving informatiou or the weak Stuarts who succeeded her, she concerning either him or his horse, that may will be entitled to the highest praise."
Il lead to a discovery of his fate, to the prio.
ter of this paper, shall receive fifty pounds Freeman," said Millichamp; but who “ that I reward." has the happiness of being admitted into the Mr. Oakwood, on reading this advertise. society of Mrs. Oakwood and Margaret Free ment, came with the paper to our house; and, man, but must acknowledge the superiority of pointing it out, desired my father to read it. woman!"
Having doue su, he, with great silence and " The present company is always except. solemnity, put it into the hands of Mr. Millied,” said 1, smiling. “It would not be fair champ. As be read it, bis features expressed to judge of mankind by you and my brother. curiosity and astonishment; and, could you We will say no more of superiority," added think it possibie? as he ended, he burst into a l; “but substitute the word difference. We || violent fit of laughter. Not so your poor silly will leave depth and solidity to you, and take friend. Wheu its contents were communiquickness and fancy ourselves. You could no cated aloud, I burst iuto tears; but such were more create a beautiful landscape out of a ll the different emotions excited in the audience, piece of blank paper, by the help only of that that I hope they passed unnoticed. pair of scissars, than Margaret could reason on “ Tbe day of reckoning is come," said my the immortality of the soul.”
father ; “ what do you meau to do?" “I pity Mrs. Wollstoncraft exceedingly," “ To write to my uncle instantly," replied said Margaret; “ for I too have a heart. But || Mr. Millichamp. Tüm thankful that I have no brilliant ima. “Have you never written to him siuce you gination, or uncontrouled passions, to hurry bave beeu here?" me beyond the bounds prescribed by either “I confess I have not." nature or custom to my sex; it is no inatter » « Did you forget?" said my father. which, for custom is second nature. The “This is a new kind of catechism," said chain whicis galled lier, whether it be imposed || Mr. Millichamp, smiling; “but I have my
I will leave Elizabe
answers by heart. I did not wholly forget. ,, duty, gratitude, obedience; that is, obedience And I will anticipate your next question in all that respects himself. I have gone Why, tbeo, did you not write? by saying, at further, for I bave made many sacrifices to first I intended it every day; I then only in his usurpations in what concerned me alone. tended it every second day; and for some At last he assumes the power of telling me lirne past, I have ceased to tbink of it at all." whom I shall love! a power I have not over
“ You are surely to blame,” said my father. inyself. Whom I shall pass the remainder of “ As your uncle means to leave you all his for iny days with; and how miserable must they lune, be has a right to know where you are." be if I did not love! I set out at his bidding ;
“I am indeed to blame," said Mr. Milli willing, and even desirous to oblige him. I am champ. “I have repaid my uncle's kindness arrested by a higher power; I am charmed by with veglect, and subjected bim to anxiety on the society of your family and of Mr. Oakmy account; but I would not do the smallest wood's; and I will add, your society, Mar. thing, for all his fortune, that I ought not to garet. I feel incompetent to fulfil the engagedo without any part of it; and I have not ment he has made for me, and I renounce it. exactly ascertained in my own mind the degree So far I have done right. My own mind acof right that one man bas over another.” quits me. Now comes my fault. I should
My father, with all his notions of liberty, have told this to my uncle. I should have was going to reply with some bitterness, when informed him of my determination to proceed D1r. Oakwood, seeing the matter becoming no farther; and not have involved him in the serious, said :-" Let me write to your uncle, uncertaiuty respecting my fate which has Millichamp, I shall get fifty pounds by you. produced that extraordinary advertisement. Or I can send him your horse, and say you For this, as I sincerely condemn myself, I were drowned in fording the river; and you have sincerely asked his pardon. I have not may pass the remainder of your life in this even urged io palliation of my error, as I dale, without danger of being detected.” justly might, the imperceptible influence of
I thanked him in my heart. He put us all || the motive which prompted me to disobey in good humour, and left us. Mr. Millichamp ll bim, and the difficulty of explaining to him sut down to write bis letter, and I took my |what I was not aware of myself.” work into the garden, secretly hoping that, ll I felt half choaked, whether with my own wben he had done, he would follow me. In imaginations I know not. At last I said: "I about half an hour he seated himself by my || thought, perhaps, you would have answered side. “Well," said I, “ you have left un- | your uncle's advertisement in person." dune those things you ought to have done; "I thought of it too,” said he ; “ but on but I hope you have been doing them now. Il reflection, I do not see the necessity of it; my You have been writing to your uncle ; and if | letter will answer the same purpose. I have I were not afraid of continuing my father's not resolution enough to leave you; unless, catechism, I should ask what excuse you could || indeed,” added he, looking earnestly at me, make for neglecting the errand he sent you | “ you wish it.” upon, and not writing before.”
" I only wish you to do right," added I. “ You cannot ask any thing I should not || “ Of that you are a far better judge than I answer with pleasure. Your father's questions am. For myself alone, I should wish you to remind me of an old game of my childhood, I stay." questions and commands. Yours are of a “I will stay, then, for botb ourselves, if softer nature, and I hope I shall wot disgrace your father do not turn me out. I have remyself in your good opinion. My letter to quested my uncle to write to me here, and my uncle is in as humble a style as your own you shall work or draw, and I will read to you gentle spirit could have 'dictated; but my in a morning; and we will walk with Mrs. dear Margaret, I never make excuses." Oakwoud, our good mother, or aunt, in an
“I should be afraid of his displeasure,” afternoon : and chat at the Hall in an eveu. said I.
ing; and be as happy as we have been." He “I fear nothing," said he, “but doing theu put my arm in his, and we walked to. wrong. His displeasure will be justice, and gether into the house. I shall bow before it; but I do not tremble at What am I to understand by this? Does it. Let us go back a little. My uncle having Mr. Millichamp love me? I tbink he does. po children of bis own, adopts me; treats me | However, I will sit down quietly, and wait the as his son ; perhaps loves me as his suu; for, event. How I dread this uncle! What rea. I believe, if he had been a father, he would || son bave I to dread him, if, indeed, his nephew bave been a tyrant. In return I owe hinn loves me! A country girl! a farmer's daugh.
ter! portionless ! till the decease of my pa- j I am still; but, as that phantom is dissolving, rents, which may Almighty goodness long this uncle stands before me, and shakes me avert! and then possessed of a trifle. I seem with terror. But I will not go on tbus, antialways to have one heavy evil in view, and no cipating misfortune. I will take pattern by more. When I regarded Mr. Millichamp as the man I most admire, endeavour 10 aet your future husband, that alune appeared in right, and let consequences follow as they supportable. When my heart was at ease on may. that subject, I was uncertain of his love. Sul.
(To be continued.)
THE NEW SYSTEM OF BOTANY,
In our last lecture we conducted our fair | Siancy, as he calls it), “ as the malice of this readers into the orchard, directing their at. || age shapes them, are not worth a tention to nature's bounty in the roseate blow
GOOSEBERRY!” of surrounding fruit-trees; yet even here ibere are some humbler productions still deserving || Yet mean as bis opinion was of that humble of our notice, and which tempt us to prolong
fruit (so mean, indeed, as to make it the standour walk. We have so often quoted our im ard of worthlessness), still must it be owned mortal poet in the course of these lectures,
that in its present state, from in proved cultithat perhaps some blooming critic may sup.
vation, it would not have been considered by pose that we consider Shakespeare not only as
Shakespeare as so apt a simile. a text book for morals, but for botany also;
This now elegant produce of the orchard, but the fact is, that as there is no subject or of the borders of the kitchen garden, is gewhatever that he has not illustrated, or that
nerally considered as a native of Europe, and will not serve to illustrate him, so are we
in its wild state is in greatest plenty in the prompted to avail ourselves of his various
more northern regious; witbus, however, hints even on the subject of botany; a subject
Il when wild (in which state it is often found in so little understood in his days, but in which
Cambridgeshire, and the neighbouring coun. his observant pen has produced certain data
ties, sometimes in herges, nay, often on de. capable even of rectifying botanical chrono
cayed trees, or ancient ruins, where the seeds Jogy. It is a curious circumstance in the his.
have been deposited by birds), it never comes torical world, that the casual observations of
to any kind of maturity. Yet improved as it some of the ancient poets respecting the cor
is with us by cultivation, much beyond its respondent rising and setting of the sun and
natural excellence, it is a curious fact that slars, should have enabled Newton to arrange
cultivation in more southern regions has not the chronology of past ages, both sacred and
yet produced the same effect; and one of profane; so it is perhaps not less remarkable our modern botanists records an anecdote that the casual observations of our poet should
of an observant French philosopher, that he have settled doubts in botanical chronology, |, was surprised at the excellence of our English as our readers must bave perceived in more ll gooseberries. than one instance in the course of these lec. If there is any dependance to be placed on tures.
derivative nomenclature, our familiar name But it is not only for the correction of
proceeds from its early use as a sauce for dates that a reference to Shakespeare is use. green geese ; a fact, which if established, ful; he even points out to us, in some in
would go near to prove that the fruit though stances, the gradual advance of the subject, found in England in a wild state, is not indi. by the varied tone of estimation in which be Il genous, as in that case it would most likely speaks of its various products; nor will any | bave had a name of ancient British or Saxon, candid observer doubt the fact that there bas || descent. been a progressive amelioration in different In its wild state, it is not peculiar to. articles of horticultural cultivation, when they the northern parts of Europe alone; bot is hear Falstoff exclaim
found in Siberia and in Turkey, from whence "
all the other gifts appertinent to 1 it had travelled into the more southern parts mau" (except virtue and ready wit, or preg. | ll of Asia, for its botanical name Ribes, is of