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dowy above them, and all their binder parts serve the poor as an asylum against the inclewere inwards. And the thickness of it was mencies of winter, private persons have baths an band breadth, and the brim of it like the in their houses, and the use of them bas bework of the brim of a cup, with flowers of come so indispensible, that tbey are introBilies : and it received and held three thousand duced even on board their vessels; they frebaths. He mare also ten lavers, and put five quently take a bath after they walk, and ale on the right hand and five on the left, to wash most always previous to a repast: they come in them ; such things as they offered for the out of the bath perfumed with spices, and burnt offerings they washed in them; but the these odours mingle with those they carefully sea was for the priests to wash in.”--2 Chron. sprinkle over their garments, which are dis
In the reign of King Solomon domestic tinguished by different names, according to Laths, fragra:t oils, sweet music, and every
the difference of their form and colours. other luxury fitted to charm the senses, were
But as yet no system of bathing such as soon to be found in Judea; but anterior to this pe. afterwards obtuined among the Romans bad riod the people of the holy land still used the appeared among the Greeks. Alexander the pools and the rivers, for at one or the other Great, who lived immediately after Hippowas the mother of this wise and wealthy mo
crates, was immersed in a bath while he lanarch enjoying the coolness of the water when
boured under the fever that terminated his she inspired David with the sinful passion that existence; but it was simply an immersion; gave occasion to bis birth. But luxury, with
it does not, however, appear whether the bath the arts, had now manifestly begun to make
was cold or warm, but from the practice of their way among the eastern nations : inso. the age we may presume it was at least tepid. much that the enervated part of mankind, no · Affusion of tepid water was in use also among longer able to bear the rude shock of natural
the Greeks at this time; Celsus tells us that bathing, sought refreshment from fatigue and it was the usage of some among the ancient weariness in lepid water, while oils and essen. physicians to pour warm water over the head ces were superadded to heighten delight and on the first attack of ague. But as yet bath. improve beauty.
ing was used in the most simple forms only, Before Esther was permitted to ascend the the cold bath to preserve the vigour of the royal bed of King Ahasuerus, she underwent strong, the warm bath to restore the exhausta course of bathing during twelve months, : ed I
notweive months led spirits of the sick or weary; oils and un. “ six months anointed with oil of myrıb, and glients were applied either before or after six months with sweet odours, and with other bathing, or both, apparently without rule or things for the purifying of women."-Estiu.
he and all the magnificence that imperial patronage
all the magnit fomentations in various diseases. Aud Plato could bestow on the most favourite establislıtells us that Herodicus had introduced the
ment. oymnastic arts into physic, among which cula ! The baths of the Romans consisted of four bathing and swimming bore a part. Demost-l parts. In the first the person was gradually henes, the cotemporary of Hippocrates, speaks heated in hot air until a sweat was produced, of the private baths in the blouses of the Athe- ' and gradually at this time anointed and rubnians; and both he and the divine Plato (who bed: the more simple baths had one hot room died but Ihree years before the birth of this only, others had two rooms, and many three, unrivalleh orator), in speaking of the gymnasia, increasing gradually in temperature: from the describe them as villas beyond the city, orna. I boot bath, which was adjoining the hottest incnted with gardens; the building as a holi roon, the floors declined, that the water low square about a quarter of a mile in cir- | thrown over the side might cover each room cumference; its sides formed by piazzas with! and keep the air full of warm vapour raised a colonnade; on three of its sides were larve i by the hot flues that ran underneath the halls in which the philosopliers and rhetoni. floors. From the warm rooin the bather cians reason and diclaim; on the fourth side. passed into the hot bath, from the hot bath of the square were situated the rooms for bath. into a warm buth, and therce into a cooler bath. ing and swimming.
The manner of bathing did not consist in The Abbé Barthelmi, on the authority of simple inmersion; the bather usually sat ou antient writers whom lie quotes, says of the a low seat in the batlı, immersed in the water Athenians:-" Besides the public batis wbi- ! to the knees, the attendants pouring water ther the people dock in crowds, and which from pitchers or urns on the head. This
mode of using the bath is preserved in various || tions. The magoitude of such buildings may antiques and basso-relievos, as well as in the be estimated when we are informed that the descriptions of Galer. After bathing in the ! bot baths of Dioclesian would accommodate cooler water they were dried, anointed, and | eigbteen hundred bathers at one time; and perfumed, and after making a short stay in the inportance of this luxury to the Romans the last apartment met the air of the open may be appreciated when we are assured that day without the least danger of taking cold. there were above eight hundred public baths
We are vot acquainted with the degrees of at Rome. The regulation of these establishheat employed by the Romans in their baths, ments occupied the legislators of Rome; seve. as the ancients had no instruments to measure ral of the Emperors visited the bath tive or it. There is reason, however, from the effects, six times a day, and Adrian condescended to to think it considerable; and when people are bathe with the people in the public baths; by used to bathing, the extremes of heat consti his example be restored order, and corrected tate the luxury. In general the bath consisted many abuses which had crept into the conof vapour only, since the water was only oc duct of the baths. In the days of Seneca the casionally and partially poured on; and we hottest baths were most is estimation ; but know that the degrees of beat that can be those of Nero seem to have exceeded all otbers borne either in hot air or in vapour are very in beat. A person was employed at one time considerable
to regulate the heat of the baths, but in Se. The stay in the different rooms was regu neca's days this had fallen into disise. The Jated by the physician according to the nature rage for bathing was checked by Adrian, as of the disease. When the object was tv relax, above hinted, and regulated by Severus. The the patient was detained for some time in the fashion of heating the baths to this extraormoderately warm bath, but passed very quickly dinary degree did not continue long; we have through the sweating rooms, where he was the authority of Galen, who flourished soon anointed, and only rinsed himself with the after Seneca, that in his days very bot baths water of the last bath. When the coustitu- li were no longer in use. tion was weak and relaxed, he was well sweat The magnificence and grandeur of the edi. cd and rubbed in the first bath, and had a fices which contained the Roman baths would large quantity of cold water poured on him in meet discredit, did not the ruins still remain. the third, while bis stay in the second baih | The Thermæ Dioclesiare, which occupied one was very short. When the balls were reme. hundred and forty thousand men several years dial, the first bath was less hot, and the last ll in constructing, surpassed all tbe rest in mag. bath less cold than when used by the healthy nificence; a great part of them are still standfor the gratification of sensation.
ing, and the vast arches, the beautiful and Public baths were not instituted at Rome stately pillars, the extraordinary plenty of prior to the reign of Augustus, and we are | foreign marble, the curious vaulting of the told that they were introduced by Mæcenas. roofs, the prodigious number of spacious Agrippa followed his example. It was soon apartments, the large swimming bath, and a carried to an astonishing height; and the thousand other ornaments, not only iucreased construction of baths where the people might the splevdour of ancient, but form at this day be accommodated gratis, was an established one of the chief ornaments of modern Roine; and successful method of gaining their affec
11 tery, lifts his shapeless front in the courts and If there be a point on which the hap- palaces of other countries; but with as it is piness and true dignity of the British cha self-condemned, fearful, and shame-faced, and racter more decidedly rests than on any other, pays a voluntary tribute to virtue, by forbearit is the sanctity of the matriinonial contract. ing to intrude into its presence. The virtues High above all other European people do we and vices of nations may be traced historically. stand in the purity of our national opinions | Our pre-eminence in this respect is clearly deand conduct relative to this great source and ducible from the pure characters, and wise, foundation stone of all moral duties. That reflecting maxims of our early reformers in redomestic plague which poisons tbe very ligion. Their Jaws, civil and ecclesiastical, heart's core of social enjoyment, I nican adul- ' fenced round the married state witb so many
guards as gave it an inestimable lustre and itself, whose brightness ought to surpass the value in the eyes of the people, who in their noon.” turo adopied the bands of custom, stronger Upon such, and still more profound con. than law, and conducing with it to the same siderations, no doubt it was, that the House happyeffect. Hence, even in the midst of youth of Lords in its judicial capacity not long since ful follies, men looked towards marriage as a established a standing order, that in all bills secure haven for the enjoyment and comfort for divorcing parties from the bond of marof aster-life; and much more so did women, riage by reason of adultery, a clause should be who, knowing that they could not attain so inserted prohibiting the future marriage of honourable a distiuction without an unspotted the guilty person with the sharer in guilt. reputation, became from their youth up, pat Standing orders of Courts of Justice are soterns of purity and decorum. Hence their lemn things, not lightly to be made ; but whea modest retirement from public affairs, unlike once adopted, they are still less lightly to be the intriguing she politicians of France; and revoked, or set at nought. I am sure that all their dignified innocence of demeanour, a y the serious part of the nation will bear with thousand times more captivating than the for alarm and deep sorrow, that the wise, Chris. ward inviting warmtb of Spanish or Italian tian, moderate rule, to which I have alluded, females. Hence, lastly, a subordination of bas already been rendered inefficient in two the sexual desires to the impulses of reason cases; one of which at least was most gross and nalure, which has distinguished and still and flagrant, affording strong reason to appre. distinguishes our nation from those who to bend that the adulterer and adultress were use the language of our old Church Homily), bent upon profaning the ceremony of mar“ in their wifeless state, run into open abo riage by an inmediate union. The public minations, without any grudge of conscience.” papers state that this decision took place in Jt is obvious that marriage cannot long main one instance on a division of no inore than tain its high estimation in public opinion, if sixteen to eight, and in the other without they who openly violate it be not marked with any division ! opprobrium by the institutions of society. It is not, perbaps, consistent with the reNot with any excess of severity, therefore if spect due to so liigh a court, to canvass the viewed with even the eye of justice, did many motives which may be supposed to bave in. ancient nations condemn the adultress to Huenced the Judges in this determination; but death, or slavery, or the niutilation of those the nation at large has a deep interest in the features which formed their chief vanity. question, and it is no more than the bounden These harshi Jaws (as they would now be duty of all those to whom such subjects are in called) are in some measure supplied amongst any degree familiar, to weigh the reasons po. us by an expulsion from all respectable so pularly urged in support of the rejection, ciety. Fatal, indeed, would it be to our and to demonstrate the fallacies which they public morals, if a woman once convicted of ll contain, this crime could ever again be permitted to
1 1. It is said that the clause is unnecessary, resume her former rank in the community. inasmuch as since its adoption no such mar. The public must not, cannot compound with riage has taken place. A poor and pitful such offenders.
argument! It is necessary to the severe maLet the disgraced and cowardly General | jesty of that eminent jurisdiction, to attest again take the command of an army ; let the its horror of so possible, so probable a crime, perjured and pilloried singler show his face And why should it not? Out of tenderness once more upon the Exchange; but let not to these convicted criminals? From an apchastity he insulted by the public honours | preheusion tbat the silken panders of vice paid to an abandoned and profigate woman : may take alarm at the odiousness of their let not such an “unseemly affront to the se profligacy? Or from a new act of liberality, questered and veiled modesty of the sex” be which considers reproof and adınoniton as too tolerated. Least of all let the law in its highest severe treatment for so venial an offence? But administration “ begin to write indulgence to further, the fact, if it be true in the letter, is vulgar uncleanness;" for, as Milton observes, impudently false in the spirit. If no marriages “ if the law allow sin, it enters into a between adulterers and adultresses have been kind of covenant therewith ;” and, “ if it be lately contracted, there are many which still possible that sin with his darkness may come exist. Are there no honorable personages, to composition with law, it cannot be with. no members of the Peerage itself, wbie bare out foul eclipse and twilight to the law || taken to their bosoms such belps meet for them?
2. If this, then, be a mere futile and sense- 11 amity;" hat the relation of man and wife deless assertion, what shall we say to the still | pends on “virtuous love;" that any thing more senseless plea, that such a prohibition else is but the husk “ of an outside matricomes upon the guilty parties, with the griev. mony," in wbich, “though wedlock try all her ance of an er post facto law? In other words golden links, and borrow to her aid all the that they committed adultery with an expre-alliron manacles and fetters of law, it does but view to a divorce and subsequent marriage, ll seek to twist a rope of sand," If this be true which they were then encouraged to by the l in any case, most of all is it so in the case of law itself! How any person can be found, Il a union which so far from being founded on who have so stultified their moral sense, as to il religion or virtue, that it arises out of the imagine that this is reasoning, it is wonder- | most flagrant violation of both; where the ful to conceive. The law, which prohibits the breach of a first vow is the necessary prelicrime, is not only a law not subsequent to it, minary to the second-where shame and disbut one of ihe first precepts of reason, one of honour are the woman's bridal portion-where the chief commands of God. The prohibitory the gall of remorse mixes itself with the law contains in its essence much heavier penal. I sweetness of every caress, and ties than a mere refusal of marriage between
Medio de fonte leporuin the offenders ; it coudemus them to a life of penitence and chastity; it enjoins a thorough
Surgit amari aliquid. hatred of the sin, of all its acts and circum. Such a life is far, iudced, from the state of stances, and especially of the external and per- ila Christian marriage, as it is described in the sonal form which constituted its temptation. service of our Church, or in the old Homily, 10 To individuals so circumstanced, marriage is which I trust I may again refer without ofiendno common right from wbich they are cut ing the refined taste of your readers. Marriage off by the probibitory clause of the Divorce is there said to be “ instituted of God, to the Bill: it is an unholy state into which they intent that man and woman shall live lawfully are, for their own good, wisely restricted in perpetual friendship;" but what perpetuity from entering
can there be in the cu-parnership of wicked3. This leads to a third inportant consider ness; what friendship between those who have ation, namely, whether, apart from the pro- l entailed on cach other misery and disgrace? visions of human law, the union of an adul Instead of being one flesh," says Milton, terer with an aduitress be not in the eye of “ they will be rather two carcases chained moral virtue, and according to the strict pre Nunnaturally together ;” and “ the blessing cepts of the Gospel, a profanation of the sacred of matrimony will be changed into a familiar rites. Milton, the great supporter of divorce, and co-inbabiting mischief, at least into a was far from contending, “ that licence, or 1 drooping and disconsolate household captilevity, or unconsented breach of faith, should vity.” If, therefore, only the comfort and haptherein be contenanced.” Although that mo-l piness of the parties themselves were condification of the law which he recommends be cerned, prudence would dissuade such an hy no means advisable, and, perhaps less so 1 union; but according to the doctrine of the at present than in his own times, yet the Church of England, there are higher considernoble eloquence with which he has touchedations; and the service itself can hardly be upon the first principles of the conjugal recited without blasphemy, when it declares, union will ever deserve adıniration. He says, that the connection of two such persons “re. that it should be “a fit union of sonls, such presents the spiritual marriage and unity beas may even incorporate them to love and twixt Christ and his Church.”
ON TIIE PROBABILITY OF THE LAND BEING AGAIN SUBMERGED IN
I HAVE sometimes been induced to con., / little higher than the occay, would be formed; clude, that all the matter which is unceasingly by which means the latter would occupy a less filiing from the mountains to the plains, and part of the surface of the globe, and the land, from thience carried to the sea, would there from its greater extent, be capable of mainaccumulate, and so continue to increase fortaining a larger vumber of inbabitants, OB millions of ages, until a new land, all flat, and one impieuse meadow : but the probability of
this theory, however pleasing it might be, for it in proportion to its bulk, and its extremithe idea of the land's being all absorbed and ties will be driven thereby over the land wherethe world occupied again only by fish, though with it is bounded; wbile ils Aux and reflux it might not happen for an hundred millions, assist in drawing these particles imperceptibly of centuries to come, scems not so pleasant as towards the deepest waters of the globe; say the former to reflect on; yet, without the inat equal distance between the continents, terference of the Deity, I believe it will at last where it is slowly, but eternally accumulating, be the case : for the first conjecture seems to 1 and will in an infinite space of time so swell me to be considerably outweighed by the se- these sides as to increase their globosity, and cond, as the water has actually inade great the earth be again, though in a solid state, progress towards the accomplishment of its immersed in the ocean: for it appears evipurpose, in proportion to what has been done dent to me, even to couviction, that the loose by the increase of laud; w bich I shall endea-particles of matter are compelled by their vour to prove by the following observations. Il specific gravity to tend towards those parts
Of the encroachment of the sea upon the nearest the centre, on the same principle as land, we have annual proofs in many parts of other heavy bodies slide down an inclined this island; and much bas been lost since the plane, and this all atoms may continue tu do commencement of our history, viz. great part | until the land becomes nearly as spherical as of Kent, near half the county of Cornwall (if the water itself. the survey be correct that was made in the If the particles of earth were not drawn to reign of Edward I ), the town of Vinchelsea, I those parts nearest the centre, there would be and a considerable part of Merionethsbire in an immense accumulation of land at or near North Wales; the bottom of Torbay was once
the mouth of all rivers, as the banks now seen above its surface, is plain from the vast num there owe their existence to the carthy matber of the stumps of trees found at low water, ter being brought down by the strean faster rooted in the clay in the same manner they than they can be taken ofi, by their common were in when growing. Trecs are here often tendency towards the most excavated places of times torn from the ground, when ships draw the world; and I believe these banks are geup their anchors, at the distance of some miles verally found where the obliquity of the land from the shore, and though their appearance | under the sea increases very gradually, or the be quite fresh, yet they must be immersed "particles meet with some obstacles which remany ages. Some acres of the highland | tard their progress to the places nearest the round this bay have fallen into it since my centre; hence we may expect to find more remembrance, and I doubt not but part of the banks of sand at the mouth of the Thames, and English and Irish cbannels, and for a con. the German rivers that empty themselves besiderable distance from most of the shores in tween Calais and the entrance of the Baltic the world, was earth above the ocean when sea, than many others; the earthy matter tirst it emerged therefrom; for the dashing brought down by these rivers being obliged to of the waves (even against the sides of the make a more circuitous route, and that by the rocks) fret, undermine, and by incessant bat. | Thames particularly so, from the proximity of tering encroach on its boundary, wbich in all its estuary lu France.
robability extended so far as to cause the Many low and flat tracts of land exbibit water to be very deep close to the shore, like strata of sands and marine substances beneath the lands and mountains that bound the Me- the vegetable earth, though situated so far diterranean sea; where it cannot have made from the sea as never to have been visited great progress, as appears by its narroness thereby since it first emerged therefrom; and depth.
this might be the original surface when the I know that many writers think the land earth was round, and beneath the water: when gains as much from the sea as it loses; a lands of this description are the immediate little sand may be accumulated at the mouth || boundary of the ocean, wany bave been inof a river, so as to form a small island, or even li duced to believe tbat the latter diminished; a piece of low land, and a port thereby blocked but it is as probable to assert, that the high up. These banks are brought down by the grounds which hitherto protected it were river from the high grounds over which it has beaten down by it in its progress towards ab. wandered, but the land gained in this manner sorbing the earth: we are certain, however, bears a small proportion to what we are cer- the softest land is always crumbling away betain bas been absorbed by the ocean. Surely fore it, whilst the promontories and capes of all the matter that falls into the sea must rise li more obdurate matter, still braving the vio