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rock, and where it has not made its passage, i, are sufficient to shew, that both substances within the space of time necessary for the sides were once soft, and derive their transparent to unite, like the veins called by stone-masons ! and variegated arrangements from the same water veins, and in the larger cavities, where causes, and the shape of their crystals only it has made a lodgment, the sides are full of altered from the difference of some of the soapy crystals; which, if not hexagonal prisms, constituent parts of the matter of which they and truncated, like those of the calcareous are composed. rock, yet shooting out with blunted points,



HAVING delineated the various parts of garment, by the crusaders; the saltire is censi. the armorial shield in our last lecture (No. 16, dered as an achievement of gallantry for scale of LA BELLE ASSEMBLEE), it remains for using thie euemy's walls, as that was the ancient briefly to notice its various divisions. When | instrument used for that purpose; so that ike shield, therefore, is divided perpendicu- | their bearers were esteemed worthy both in war larly in the centre, it is said to be divided and in devotion. The bend also signified those per pale; when it is divided by a liue bori- || who were the first to mount the epemy's walls; zontally in the centre, it is then per fesse ; if the pale; taken from the fences which sur. both together, it is called quartered; a line il rouuded the field of tournament, denoted its from the dexter chief to the sinister base, is bearer to be one that stood upright in the ser. per bend dexter, and a line from the opposite, vice of his prince and native country, also as is per bend sinister ; should both these lines one that bounded himself within the pale of exist at the same time, then it is called | reason for the benefit of society. The fesse is per saltire. When the shield is divided by a | the symbol of moderation and temperance; number of perpendicular lines, it is called and the bar, which is never borne simple, paly of six or of eight, according to the num points out one who is never alone so long as ber; if by horizontal lines, it is called barry ; || be is engaged in divine contemplation ; it also if by diagonal lines from one side, it is bendy; marked one wbo resisted evil temptations, when divided by perpendicular and horizontal signifying thus-a bar of conscience and relia lines, it is checky; and if by diagonal lines gion against vicious habits, a bar of honour froin both sides, it is lozenge. The first of against revenge, and a bar of reasou against the simple ordinaries is the pale, which is pride. The cheveron has been said to resemble a broad stripe perpendicular in the centre, the rafter of a house, but it is nothing more and always of a different colour from the body than a species of barricado used by the sappers of the shield; when this is narrower than one-l and miners in the ancient system of warfare. third of the breadth of the shield, it is a The lozenge is that sbape in which the arms of pallet; a broad stripe across the centre of ihe spiosters and widows are borne; when borne on shield, is a fesse ; if narrower, it is a bar; and if the shield, it was the emblem of peace and very narrow, a barrulet ; diagonal stripes aje splendor; when pierced in the centre, it was bends and bendlets : all of which are supposed called a mascle, and denoted blessings and to have origivated from the parti-coloured nobieness, beiug taken from the ornaments of scarfs of the ancient Kuights. It is unneces the ladies' girdles. With respect to the bor. sary to describe the crosses, whether plain, ders, or bordures, they were merely adopted as saltine, or otherwise, as these, together with augmentations or differences, either as denotthe cheveron, &c. &c. may be more easily under ing particular honourable exploits, or marking stood from a simple heraldric piate, with connectivos by blood or marriage, where the which all the common Peerages are supplied ; laws of heraldry did not allow the coats to be por would it accord with our limits to state quartered. The lion when couchant, signified all the various significations which different an illustrious hero reposing from his labours; writers have given to these ordinaries. It will when ronpant, he pointed out the bearer to be not be irrelevant, however, to mention some a person of great courage and vigour; if pasof them, together with the symbolical mean sant, he shewed tbe resolute ambassador; if ing of the various animals, as well as of the rampant guardant, the noble baron ; if passant difierent significations of their heraldic pos- guardant, the prudent judge; and if saliant, tures. The plain cross is evidently taken from the skilful and valiant general; if seiant, the the custom of bearing i be cross ou the upper ll lion pointed out the thoughtful counsellor; if regardant he marked circumspection, and of the parents, four points being only allowed when double-headed, was said to be a fit emblem to the royal blood; the second ouybt to bear of the politic lawyer; when 'exhibited with a Il the crescent, being the double blessing, and the forked tail, he pointed put the learned physi. | bope on whom the increase of a new branch cian: but these last two emblems must have is founded; the mullet, or spur-rowell, alluded originated with the wits of ancient times. formerly to the third son generally becoming Sometimes his tail is in a knot, which shews a a military retainer of some warlike Baron; person able to suppress his own irascible tem. || the fourth bore the martlet, or swallow, fabled per, for when angry he always lashes his tail. to be without feet, and therefore emblematical

It would be endless to enumerate all the of a younger brother likely to go abroad to fanciful significations of the other beasts, we push his fortune; the fifth bore the annulet, shall therefore proceed to the birds; and of or ring, denoting perpetuity, as a family of them shall merely specify the eagle, wbich, tive males was not likely to becoine extinct; generally laken, is the emblem of fortitude and wbilst the fleur-de-lis, borne by the sixib, was magnanimity. If displayed, he marks protec said to allude to the conteinplative and litetion and also destruction; the one by his rary life generally appropriated to the youngest wings, the other by bis talons. The cock also || sous of good families, &c. &c. is emblematical of courage; the swan of sin. Thus have we slightly sk: tched the various cerity ; the dove of forgiveness of injuries; l objects worthy of notice on the shield; it is the pelican of instruction and good example; therefore necessary to notice those accom. the raven of cleverness and cunning; the panying heraldic marks, as they often point Cornish cbough of readiness at warlike stra- ll out the lignity of the wearer in society. The tagems; and the swallow of the bearer of good first thing, then, which appears over the tidings.

shield is the helmet, which borne looking sideFishes are of less esteem in coat-armour than ways sbews that the owner of the carriage, or beasts or birds; but a fertile immagination may plate (or funeral escutcheon), is an Esquire, point out a variety of symbols marked by them. or simply a gentleman bearing coat-armour; Trees and vegetables also had their signi- || when full-faced, and the vizor up, it points fications. The palm-tree denoted victory, | out a Knight or Baronet ; the latter of which justice, and peace; the olive peace, concord, ll ranks may also be ascertained by a small white and obedience; the laurel triumph and vic I canton, or patch, on the shield, charged with a tory; and the oak virtue, strength both of || red hand, being the arms of Ulster, in Ireland, mind and body, and long life; the rose, the for the military defence of which against the lily, and other fowers worn in chaplets, or rebellious chieftains this order was first esta. borne in coat-armour, require no esplanation ; || blished; if the helmet is looking sideways, but the trefoil was the emblem of perpetuity;

with bårs instead of a close vizor, it points the quatrefoil of good luck, being the primrose, out the various degrees of mobility; but these or earliest flower of spring; and the cinque are more easily distinguished by the coronels, fuil, being the symbol of the five senses, point which require no illustration, being within ed out him who nobly regulated all his pas the scope of every one's observation. Above sions and affections. Things inanimate were the helmet is the wreath, being a chaplet of first adopted as symbolical of the rank or Il silk of tbe leading colours of the shield; on uccupations of the first bearers; sometimes the wreath stands the crest, which may be they were rebases, like the bolt or arrow, and changed by permission of the College of Arms, tun, to represent the name of Bolton, &c. || without altering the coat-armour; indeed it We must not omit, however, to notice those || is supposed by some that whvever has a right bearings called marks of cadency, which, if | to bear a coat of arms, may change his crest our heraldic distinctions were well regulated, I agrecable to his own desire without any be. would shew the relation which every real pos- raldic license. It must be observed here, that sessor of a coat of arms bears to the original

maids or widows bear no crests normottoes, stock from whence he springs. These marks as these were things specifically used in war. of cadency are small bearings affixed to any The helmet is or ought to be always accompart of the shield, and ongbt always to be panied by the mantling, which was originally a borne by every branch of a furnily except him hood of the same colour as the field of the coat, who represents the main stock. If, for in lined with silk or stuff of tbe colour of the prin. stance, a person at the present day standing || cipal bearing; and when the Kuights returned as the representative of the male line bas nine | to the camp on horseback after a hard fought sons, the eldest during his father's life time | day, these hoods, being cut by ibe swords of bas a label of three points, signifying the joy ll the enemy, New open, and were distinguishing marks of the bearer's having been in the thick- || We sball now conclude this lecture with a est of the fight. Here we must hint to our slight notice of the distinctions of funerai readers that they ought to pay attention to escutcheons; and our next lecture will contheir herald painters when blazoning their tain some anecdotes illustrative of heraldry arms, as nothing is more irregular than to in general, which will finish the course. Any have their mantlings of colours different from person who notices one of these escutcheons, the coats, or to bave the shield and mantling atchievements, or batcbments, may judge of tinted of a fancy coloured purple, or brown, as the dignity of the person by the foregoing reis often seen in the sireets of London. It is | marks. If iheshield is of the masculine shape, also proper to be noticed by those who give and the arins not impaled, it is then put up liveries to their servants, that the colour of for a bachelor; but if a death's head is in the livery, and of its lining and mantlings, ll place of a crest, then he was the last of the ought to be regulated in the same manner as family. If the shield is the masculine shape, those of the mantlings and wreath. We have aud ihe arms impaled with another coat, then already pointed out the marks of an Esquire, if the dexter side is black and the sinister is Knight, and Baronet; the other degrees are white, the husband is dead, and as they say at easily kuown; a Knight of the Bath bas the | Bath-there is a widow to let; but if the black full-faced helmet, he has supporters also like is on the sinister side and the other is wbite, a nobleman, and the motto of the order is on then the good lady is at rest, and the husband a ribband encircling the coat of arms. A is alive. Should it, bowever, be black all Knight of the Garter also may be known by round, then it waarks the death of a widower. the garter of the order surrounding the coat If the arms are a single coat in a lozenge, then in addition to his other heraldic distinctions. | it is for a maideo; but if the arms in lozenge Some Baronets, indeed, have supporters, but are inpaled, it marks the decease of a withen they have no ribband surrounding their | dow. arms, or ought not to have, although it was such are the general leading distinctions of the fashion lately to paint the arms even of every day notoriely; we shall now take our Esquires with the family motto on a surall leave until the succeeding month, which will rounding garter, an infringement which ought || close our heraldic labours. always to be avoided.


(Continued from Page 185).

As to the remainder of my narrative, said || the sole mention of his merits and the honour Don Zamboza, addressing himself to the thus communicated to me as his descendant, friends to whom he was relating it, it is so that I have thus introduced Albert of A connected with that of my friend Leontine for it is hence that my present misfortune (pointing to a gentleman present), that I can- | takes its first source. not do better than request him to relate it, Albert of A- , like most of the German together with those circumstances of his own | Barous, was possessed of that pride of ancestry life which are connected with it.-Leontine, which is equally their foible and their virtue, being thus invited, commenced in the follow sometimes the motive to tbe most destructive ing manner.

ambition, as at other times to deeds of the most exalted glory. With this passion, there.

fore, of illustrious lineage, the only aim of HISTORY OF LEONTINE.

all the efforts of Albert of A , was to My name is Leontine of A My grand add something more to his hereditary blazon, father, Albert of A- , of a German family, and fill up those quarters of his arms which followed the arms and fortunes of the Emperor the wings of the Imperial eagle still left vacant Charles V.; and having thus filled a command for his ambition. For this purpose he had early in his armies in the well-known invasion of in life solicited and obtained the hand of Ellinos Naples, he obtained new honours and settle ll of Bavaria, the only issue of which marriage was ments for his posterity in the newly acquired | my father, Conrade of A Conrade, from dominions. It is not without reason, nor for" his earliest infancy, was thus the boast and

sole pleasure of his father, not from any na- i earnest of future favour. In one word, the tural affection, for it is the unhappy effect of affair at length proceeded so far that my pride that pature itself is lost in its superior father solicited her to a private marriage. domination, but from the sole suggestions of Pleading with all the eloquence of love, the ambition, which was thus amply gratified in most eloquent of all the passions, the misery viewing in the young Conrade the offspring of of a life thus consumed in vain and hopeless the united houses of Bavaria and A . Sucb wishes. Lisabetta, with wishes perbaps as were the emotions with which he regarded ardent, though more repressed than his own, my father whilst yet in early life; it is not, gently repelling the too warm embrace which therefore, difficult to divine to what point he accompanied these entreaties, would here redirected his wishes when he gaw bim advanced call to his mind bis duty to bis father, and to manhood.-"My son," he would say, dis- with the pardonabic hypocrisy of her sex, soliplaying his emblazoned shield and coat, “ you cited him with affected earnestness to seek behold these arms; in this quarter you bchold some alliance to which his family might conthe house of Saxony, in that the ensigos of sent.-" Alas, I have neither titles nor doBrunswick, here is the eagle of Austria, and mains! I can give you nothing but myself. there the red-cross of Malta! These, my son, | This may be enough indeed for you; but will have been the acquisitions of my illustrious it suffice to your father?" fathers. Nor las my own life been barren, 1 Thus would Lisabetta address him, to which and Bavaria beholds here her transplanted' he would answer with mingled caresses and ensign. Something, however, still remains for reasoning.—' Aud is it my own happiness or thee-be it thine to till this vacant quarter.” the caprice of any father that I am chiefly to

Thus would Albert address my father, con consider? If there be a duty of the son to cluding his harangue by an enumeration of the father, is there no corresponding obligaproud heiresses whom he deemed worthy of his tion of a father to a son? No, my Lisabetta, alliance, and in whom be considered no other neither the gratitude of the son, nor the reamerit than their red, black, or blue eagles. sonable demands of the father, can extend to All this, however, was lust upon my father, ' a sacrifice like this. Must a son obey the fa. whose attention was pre-occupied by an object ther who should command him to take away which all the eagles of the united circles would his owo life? but to extort the sacrifice of my have in vain assailed.

I love, is not this the same tyranny, and would lo the same house with my father, and un- it not be followed by the same effect? Could der the protection of my grandfather, was a I surrive the loss of thee! Ah, po, my Lisayoung orpban, the daughter of a Knight, who , betta; I can live without titles, but what in confidence of a long friendship had com. | could preserve my life if deprived of thee!”. mitted her upon his death-bed to the guardian li This reasoning, however disputable by a ship of Albert of A- The young Lisabetta ! professor, was sufficient for Lisabetta; she had beauty and merit which in any other listened, therefore, and was persuaded. In a country than Germany would have made her word, they were privately married the same equal to any alliance however honourable; 1 evening, the ceremony being performed by one thing, however, she wanted, ---, be had no the chaplain of the castle. spread eagle iu her arms; of what importance' The secret of their love, and still more that then were her charms or virtue! Conrade, i of their marriage, was well preserved from the bowever, was of sentiments somewhat differ-, knowledge of my grandfather; and indeed the ent; when he saw herself be thought little of foible of his character rendered this deception her fathers. In one word, he lisiened to the more easy. As he had never himself known impulses of nature; and as the young Lisabetta what it was to be in love, nor indeed experiwas more beautiful than any other object he 1 enced any of the tender passions, having never had ever beheld, he very naturally thought sighed except for a spread eagle, nor ever her more deserving of love. He was not long, adored any charms of a lady except what were therefore, before he felt this passion in its full comprehended in her coat of arms, he had violence ; something in his mistress, perhaps, never indulged any suspicion, and suspecting encouraged him to bope, and this hope led motbing he had overlouked every thing which bim to an effort to realize his prospects by an had escaped the lovers. It was true, they explicit declaration.

bad some difficulty to repress their mutual Lisabetta, upon her part, had notbing of all affection within the limits of prudence, and German soul; she was sensible of the merit their involuntary ardour would not unfreof her lover, accepted bis passion, and accom- quently attract the regard of the old nobleman. panied her acceptance, perhaps, with some! This they chiefly experienced in the first months of their union, in that season when proposal of the union to my father. My fathe novelty of the happiness of wedded love ther's knowledge, however, of this circumillumined their eyes with the satisfaction and siance, together with his observation of the extacy of their hearts. Lisabelta too was here increasing pride of my grandfather, for his most imprudent; ber affection, though more I predominant foible, like all other passions, modest and tempered, was at the same time had oniy gained new strength from time, renmore tender than that of my father's, and dered him stiil less willing to hazard this disthis would break out in a thousand shapes, covery. Nothing tberefore remained but a which as more delicate were more involuntary. temporary renoval, a thing which appeared These, as I have said, would often attract the as difficult to effect. attention of my grandfather, and momentary U From this perplexity my father was removed suspicion would then perhaps dart into his l) by one of those accidents by which a propi. mind, but he ho sooner examined it than it || tious fortune sometimes relieves us from au vanished.

embarrassment when all our efforts to that In this manner, therefore, for some months purpose bave been but fruitless, A sister of rolled on the first season of their love ; each iny grandfather, the Lady Margaret A- , only living for the other, and forgetting every I was at this period upon a visit at his castle. thing, friends, fame, and fortune, in the sweet As tlie situation of my fatber and mother re'oblivion of wedded bliss. Their days glided quired the greatest secrecy in their visits, my on either upregarded in their course, or only father was in the habit of retiring first to his regarded as adding to their transports, each own chamber, and thence, by the assistance daily discovering some new source of admira of a young maid-servant, the confidant of her tion, some charm of mind or person in the mistress, withdrawing secretly to that of his other.

wife; one night the Lady Margaret, occupied As they walked with linked arms through upon some letters of importance, had remained the wooris whirb embosomed in their dark later than usual in her chamber without refoliage the anique turrets of the castle, and tiring to her bed; my fatber, believing all the birds inspired by the genjal warmth of the the house at rest, withdrew according to his season, raised their songs around them, whilst | ordinary custom to the apartment of my mothey thus listened to the general carol of ther. They had already fallen asleep in each nature, Lísabetta raising her eyes to the face other's arms, when the door suddenly opened, of Conrade :" These too,” she would say, I and the Lady Margaret entered in search of “ are happy, and perhaps from the same something she required. Throwing ber eres cause as ourselves--they love.” And then upon Lisabetta her surprise can scarcely be reclining on the shoulder of her husband, conceived when she tbus bebeld them locked would receive the chastened embrace, which in mutual embraces. Forgetting every thing nuptial love can only confer. In this ranner, Il but the villainy, as she imagined it, of my faI say, revolved the first months after their ther, in tbus seducing the orphan whom bis secret union, their happiness thas increasing family honour bound him to protect, and be. and uninterrupied by any apprehension. AI holding such a spectacle with so much the the end of this time, however, a circumstance mure anger, as Lisabetta had long been her happened which produced no great prrplexity | most favoured companion; with these emoat the moment it occurred, but has been in its tious, therefore, she hesitated not to awake effect the cause of my present condition. lo them, and pour upon them those reproaches a word, their union was followed by the usual || which she judged them so well to merit. consequence, a circumstance which, in any 1 This, as may be expected, produced an imother situation, would have confirmed their Il mediate explanation. The conclusion of which happiness, but under their present necessity || was, that the Lady Margaret immediately emwas only full of embarrassment. It was ne- || braced the trembling and blushing Lisabetta, cessary, however, to take some resolution; thus ackuowledging her with repealed caresses my mother's pregnancy was now six months as her niece. advanced, and farther concealment, unless | Their embarrassment was now over; the from removal, was impossible. There still! Lady Margaret, upon a pretence of a visit, reremained tbe same arguments agajust any dis moved ber from the castle to her own house closure to my grandfather; the weight of these in Cambray, where she soon brought forth a reasons was even increased, for he had at | daughter, who in honour of her spousor and Jeugth resolved on an alliance with the family | protectress, was christened by the wame of of a neighbouring Baron; but as he was at | Margaret. And it was agreed further between that tiune absent, he had hitherto delayed any ll my father and his aunt, tbat the child sboule

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