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Notices to Correspondents.
ft. in. pts.
** We shall be happy to oblige any Correspondent with GLAZIERS' WORK.
any information he may desire to possess. Letters to be
prepaid, and addressed to the “Editor of the DecoGLAZIERS estimate the value of their labour by RATOR'S ASSISTANT," 17, Holywell-street, Strand. the square foot. They take dimensions in feet, inches, and parts, or feet, tenths and hun- x. y. 7.-The following is an excellent solution to preserve dredths. Windows of every shape are mea- wood :-Mix at the rate of five pounds of chloride of zinc sured as if they were squares, and the extreme to twenty-five gallons of water, This is the most effectual lengths and breadths are always taken, in
solution to steep wood in, to prevent the dry rot, even preorder to compensate for the waste attending A. B.(Glasgow).-See "Crescy's
Encyclopædia of Engineer
ferable to wood that has been Kyanised. the cutting and shaping of their glass.
ing," published by Longman and Co.
J. ABEL (Dublin).--"Gwilt's Encyclopædia" will give you EXAMPLES.
all the information you seek. 1. If the length of a window be 4 ft. 9 in. D.D.-The "Household Book of Useful Receipts," puband breadth 2 ft. 3 in., how many square feet
lished at 7, Brydges-street, Covent-garden, gives the fol.
lowing recipe for portable glue:-"Best glue, jib.; water does it contain ?
sufficient; boil it in a double glue-pot, and strain ; add By Cross Multiplication. By Practice.
Hlb. of brown sugar, and boil pretty thick; then pour into
moulds. When cold, cut into small pieces and dry ft. in.
G. A. R.-When a body is shaped irregularly, or when there 2 3
are two or more bodies connected, the centre of gravity is
the point about which they will balance each other. 9 6
Several answers stand over till next week. 1 2 3
1 2 3 10 8 3
10 8 3
THE LATE MR. HOLTZAPFFEL.–The mecha
nical world will have noticed, with universal 2. If a pane of glass be 2 ft. 8} in. long, and and deep regret, the death of Mr. C. Holt1 ft. 34 in. broad, how many square feet does zapffel, while yet in the prime of life, and it contain ?
while in the midst of those literary labours By Cross Multiplication. By Practice. which, incomplete though they be, have gained ft. in. pts.
for him an imperishable name. His last
work, 2 8 9
3 (t) 2 8 9 "Mechanical Manipulations,” has been eulo1 3 6
1 gised thus :-"No work on the mechanical
arts produced in this country during the pre2 8 9
2 8 9 sent century is to be compared with this for 8 2 3
8 2 3 newness, exactness, and completeness of in1 4 4 6
1 4 4 6 formation." Workshops, and not libraries,
were the great sources whence the author 3 6 3 7 6 3 6 3 7 6 filled his most instructive pages.
We can hardly hope to see so great a loss as mecha
nical literature has sustained by his death soon Review.
repaired; but it is some consolation to learn that "considerable portions of the third and
fourth volumes have passed through the press One of the most valuable small treatises that it under the author's own superintendence, and has been our fortune to meet with has just that he had in great forwardness much of the been published, Hann's "Short Treatise on the MS. for the completion of these volumes, Steam-Engine."'* Learned, yet simple; alike which will be submitted to the public at the adapted to the comprehension of the scientific earliest possible period." engineer and the practical mechanic; wholly occupied with principles and results; concise,
Foul Air.- Foul air in wells, drains, &c.,
may be effectually dissipated, by dashing in a exact, and clear.
few pailfuls of water mixed with a small quan
tity of chloride of lime. A GREAT BRIDGE.-The new railroad bridge across the Susquehanna, at Harrisburg, is an rishes youth, entertains old age, adorns pros
LITERATURE.— The study of literature nouimmense structure. It is about 4,000 feet long, perity, solaces adversity, is delightful at home, built upon the improved double-latticed plan. unobtrusive abroad, deserts us not by day nor There are 23 spans, averaging 173 feet each; and two arched viaducts, one 53 feet, and the by night, in journeying nor in retirement.
Cicero. other 84 feet long. The entire cost of this immense structure is short of 100,000 dollars.American paper.
London : Published at the Office of the SPORTSMAN'S
MAGAZINE, 17, Holywell-street, Strand (where all commu* A Short Treatise on the Steam-Engine ; adapted to the nications to the Editor are to be addressed); and to be had use of Schools. In which are given, " Practical Rules for of all Booksellers. the use of Engineers.” Part I., 101 pp., 12mo,
Printed by W. COOLE, Lumley Court, Strand.
E consider that one of the most important architectural
events of the season has been the re-construction of Covent-garden Theatre, as the Royal Italian Opera. This has been executed under the direction of Mr. Benedict Albano, hitherto better known as an engineer, in which profession he has already acquired much reputa
tion among us. Covent Garden was previously known as one of our largest theatres, but it did not afford the extent of accommodation required by the new lessees, and Mr. Albano therefore laid before them three plans,
one by which it would have been transformed into the largest theatre dimensions are on a very large scale, as to in the world, height and breadth. The breadth between the surpassing San boxes, 60 feet diameter, is particularly striking,
Carlo and La and also the extreme height of the house. The Scala, a second smaller pit has been sunk, and the tiers of boxes now than those theatres, and rise six in number, forming a colossal amphia third which, though it theatre of unaccustomed proportions. gave additional tiers of The dimensions of the house are 80 feet private boxes, left the from the curtain to the front of the boxes, and theatre of its original 60 feet in breadth between the boxes, and the size. It is the second width across the stage between the columns of plan which has been the proscenium 46 feet. adopted.
The ceiling is one of the attractions. Its The plan having been settled, Mr. Albano dimensions are 70 feet by 62 feet. From the proceeded to pull down the whole interior of centre depends the enormous chandelier, one the audience part and parts adjoining, and to of the largest in England, and which is almost re-arrange it. He has thus been able to get the only source of light to the house. It conan enormous auditory, and a grand range of sists of several rings of light, and twelve clussaloons with suitable approaches.
ters of twenty to five-and-twenty jets, proIn the grand front, the chief alteration is ducing the most brilliant light, while the rethe carrying of a carriage-way beneath the flection and polarisation of the drops and penportico, whereby visitors are saved the annoy- dants increase the picturesque effect.
The ance of getting out of their carriages in the ceiling itself represents the sky, and is of wet, and the street approaches are widened. peculiar form, partly elliptic and partly hyper
On entering by the grand front, a magni-bolic, so as to be in conformity with acoustic ficent hall and staircase attract attention. principles. It is also coved all round. We
These are decorated with columns painted in may note, too, that the proscenium forms a imitation of Sienna marble, and lighted from splayed arch, so as to throw the voice into the lofty bronze candelabra.
centre of the house. All that could be done to At the head of the staircase is a range of make the house a good hearing house has been saloons level with the grand tier, and 130 feet effected. in length. Preceding these is the Shakspere The ceiling is in keeping with the decoraroom, with a statue of the poet; the next is the tions of the house, of which the leading colours ante-room communicating with the saloon or are white and gold, here and there set off with crush-room, forming three compartments by a slight turquoise blue. The relieved ornameans of Ionic columns, and with a quantity ments are all in the cannabic composition, of large mirrors on the walls. As the walls are which admits of the gilding being highly burpapered with green, the gilding produces an nished. The whole effect of the decorations is exceedingly good effect, while comfort and chaste and picturesque, while, by the boldness luxury are consulted in the ottomans and of the proportions, grandeur is preserved. couches.
We may note that the ventilation has been On entering the theatre, it is seen that its the subject of the special care of the architect,
No. 2.-VOL. I.
and in which he seems to have attained much
Improved Form of Omnibus. The approaches to the house have all been re-arranged, separate entrances being provided to the royal' boxes, to the boxes and stalls, to MR. W. B. Adams has just patented an imthe pit, and to the gallery, with fire-proof proved form of omnibus for passengers, which staircases. The details in every part are also may be drawn by one or more horses ; the so arranged as to give the greatest comfort, front wheels are larger in diameter than usual,
and to enable a large audience conveniently to but are, nevertheless, enabled to turn or lock, sit through a long performance, as well as to in consequence of the pivot or perch-bolt hear perfectly. This is really as great an ad- being placed so far behind the central line of vantage to the actor as to the hearer, as, with the front axle as to cause such an eccentric out it, due attention cannot be paid to any re- movement of the wheels in turning or locking presentation, however skilful.
as to avoid striking the body. The entrance While we cannot withhold our testimony to door behind, and the central part of the roof, the solidity of the construction, liaving in- are higher than the two side-parts of the same spected it in detail, we are bound also to notice roof, the height within the central part and in the rapidity with which the alterations were the doorway being sufficient to permit an ordi
completed, the old interior having been pulled nary-sized person to pass along the interior; down, and the new one erected from the foun- the height of the two side-parts of the roof, dations, within four months. This is a great over the seats for the passengers inside, being feat, performed by Mr. Albano; and we must as usual. The central raised part of the roof, state that great credit is due to Mr. Holland, which thus affords convenient height for headthe builder, and Mr. Ponsonby, the decorator, room, along the centre inside, also forms confor the rapid manner they have executed the venient seats for passengers on the outside, work. The brilliancy of the gas also, it is to be with their feet upon the low sides of the roof. observed, is due to the use of Mr. Low's patent Ventilation can be effected by openings in the for napthalising it.
front end, or in the sides of the raised central
part, or in the upper part of the door. A A ORIGIN OF THE BIRMINGHAM Gun TRADE.- outside with convenience, and such an omni
greater number of passengers can be seated William III. was once lamenting that guns bus will occasion less labour to the horses than were not manufactured in his dominions, but usual in proportion to weight, by reason of its that he was obliged to procure them from larger front wheels. For the purpose of reHolland at a great expense and with great tarding such omnibus, while descending a hill, difficulty.” Sir Richard Newdigate, one of or to assist the horses while stopping suddenly, the members for the county (Biriningham), a brake or clog is applied to one or both the being present, told the king, that genius hind wheels, which the conductor (without resided in Warwickshire, and that he thought descending from his place behind) can bring his constituents would answer his Majesty's into action to press against the exterior cirwishes." The king was pleased with the cumference of the wheel or wheels. The front remark, and the member posted to Birming- end of the pole is furnished with a broad ham. Upon application to a person in Digbeth, buffer, or stuffed cushion, elastic or nonthe pattern was executed with precision, and, elastic, fixed firmly or swivelled to the pole, when presented to the royal board, gave in order to diminish the force of any collision entire satisfaction. Orders were immediately that may take place therewith. This brake issued for large numbers, which have been so may also be brought into action by the driver frequently repeated, that they never lost their of the omnibus, by means of a pedal within road; and the ingenious artists were so amply reach of his foot, and connected by a rod or rewarded, that they have rolled in their car-chain and pulley, with the lever of the brake, riages to this day. In 1813, Government or otherwise connected therewith. authorised the gunmakers of Birmingham to erect a proof-house of their own, with yardens and a proof-master, and allowed them to deco
TO REMOVE GLASS FROM OLD SASIES. rate their guns with the ensigns of royalty. Sir, -In answer to your correspondent for a All fire-arms manufactured in Birmingham receipt to take out glass, I have used the foland its vicinity are subjected to the proof lowing :-American potash three parts, and required by the Board of Ordnance; the expense is not to exceed one shilling each piece; with a stick, and let it remain twenty-four
one part unslaked lime; lay it on both sides and the neglect of proving is attended with a hours; the putty will then be soft enough to penalty, not exceeding twenty pounds.-Wm. cut out easily. It will also take off tar and Hutton's History of Birmingham.
paint, as I had an occasion to prove in this NIAGARA Wire Bridge.— The Rochester neighbourhood, a gentleman having tarred the Democrat intimates that the Niagara Sus- inside of his cottage, in spite, about three years pension-bridge Company will shortly proceed since. The person who has recently bought to the erection of a wire bridge across the it employed me to make alterations.
The Niagara River, the Queen's assent having painter refused to undertake cleaning the tar been obtained. The whole of the stock, off; the above receipt I used, and took the 200,000 dollars, has been taken-one-half in whole paint and tar oft as clean as if the doors Canada, and the remainder in New York and had not been painted at all.—Yours, J. G., Rochester.
mercury in metallic connection with the other Electric Telegraphs in Present Use. element or metal plate; and a galvanic circuit
being thus alternately completed and broken, by the rapid depression and liberation of the
key, the index or pointer at the receiving Of all the adaptations of scientific discovery, station is advanced step by step to any rein modern times, to the exigencies of every- quired division on the dial. In our engraving, day life, by far the most important, next to D and e are two electro-magnets fixed on the steam-locomotion, is undoubtedly that of vol- upright back board F. ratchet-wheel (G), taic electricity to the purposes of telegraphic carrying an arbor (c), is placed in the same communication. To trace the successive steps plane as the magnets; two levers (un) are by which the practical employment of the supported on pivots in the brackets 1 1, and, in electro-telegraphic arrangements now in use order to render the action of these levers
have been arrived at, would far exceed the simultaneous, they are connected at a point space we are enabled to devote to the subject; immediately over the arbor c, by a link (a); suffice it, however, in justice to the early from the ends of these levers are suspended by labours of previous discoverers, to notice, that joints, two pallets (b c), which are pressed into there seems to be but little indeed in any of the teeth of the ratchet-wheel & by delicate the more modern systems, however dignified springs; the extent of the action of the pallets, by high-sounding names, or fortified by legis- as they are raised by the attraction of the lative protection, in the shape of "royal letters magnets, is limited by the stops d e, causing a patent," to distinguish them, as regards any dead-beat movement of the apparatus. When novelty of principle, from the first contrivances the key k is depressed by the operator, the adopted by various inventors, including Ro- levers h are attracted by the magnets D E, palds, Alexander, Morse, and Davy, who causing the pallets be to be raised; the pallet 6 already, in 1839, specified his Patent Electro-catching a tooth on the ratchet-wheel, moves Magnetic Telegraph, in which he used clock- the index B through the space of one division. work, acted upon by electro-magnets, pro- The signal, which it is necessary to give to the ducing, a step-by-step motion, similar to the correspondent at the distant station, as an intiseconds' hand of a watch or clock, the signals mation that a message is about to be transbeing registered by dots upon a prepared mitted, is conveyed in the usual way, by fabric placed in the machine; whilst that of causing a bell or alarum to sound; and this is Alexander, of Edinburgh, in 1837, was put effected by a slight modification of the coninto operation by means of a key to be pressed trivance hitherto adopted in most of the predown by the finger of the operator, connected ceding electric telegraphs, for a similar purwith the end of the conducting wire, which pose, namely, by the action of a lever, which, dips into a cup of mercury when the key being raised by the attractive force of an addiis depressed, and completes the electric cir- tional electro-magnet, comes in contact with cuit. It is with no unfriendly feeling that we the short arm of another lever, which strikes have thus prefaced the description we are now on a bell; and, by a repetition of the action,
about to lay before our readers of the latest of produces any required number of sounds, the electric dial-telegraphs, namely, that of the conventional meaning of which may Mr. Nott, which, we understand, is now being have been previously arranged and agreed erected at the House of Commons for the in- upon. stantaneous conveyance of messages from the In all this modification of previously existvarious committee-rooms to the messengers' ing apparatus, we recognise considerable ingelobby.
nuity of detail ; but nothing of an approach Our engraving represents a front view of the towards obviating the disturbing effects of dial with its alphabetical circles and pointer; atmospheric electric currents, or of the other
and on the other side is a view of the interior now well-known disadvantages attending the of the instrument with the dial-plate removed, transmission of the galvanic current through in order to show the arrangement of the very long lengths of wire. In this arrangeelectro-magnets, connecting wires, toothed ment we have still the trouble and uncertainty wheel, and pallet movement, alarum detent, attendant on all the systems as yet introduced, and index. The rim of the dial is marked with wherein the message has to be deciphered four concentric circles, containing four several letter by letter-a necessarily slow, and, at the series of the letters of the alphabet, and two very best, unsatisfactory, process. In our next inner circles of numbers. With each succes- number, we purpose giving a description of sive tick of the ratchet-wheel, the hand or the latest improvements of a far-preferable index moves through one division of the cir- system of electro-telegraphic communication, cles, there being ninety-six equal divisions; namely, of self-registering electric telegraphs, and as each of these divisions is marked with a for some time past in use in America, and now letter, the hand is made to stop in its circuit at on the eve of introduction into this country. any one of the divisions at pleasure, and thus The system of "deflected needles' hitherto to point to any particular letter of the word employed, and which the above arrangements intended to be conveyed by the distant corres- are intended to supersede, we shall now endeapondent. For this purpose, a key resembling vour to explain to the general reader by means that of a piano-forte is employed. The pointed of the accompanying diagrams, illustrative of end of one of the wires in communication with the general principle on which the "needle one element of a voltaic battery, is, by de- telegraphs" are constructed. If a permanently pressing the key, made to dip into a cup of magnetised needle be nicely poised on a pivot,