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rally speaking it would be quite sufficient to been above prescribed for ceilings are to be use brads, taking their hold on to the laths; followed, except that fewer precautions are this attachment being made still more secure necessary, as the weight acts differently; by the use of the cement, which may be made where the work is of a very light character, of strong size and whiting mixed to the thick- even common needle-points will be found ness of treacle. The same mode of fixing is sufficient, but the cement above mentioned is adopted for frets, friezes, and indeed for all in all cases an useful addition. With the assistkinds of superficial enrichment, care being at ance of the above rules, there is no sort of all times taken that brads lay well hold of the work in papier-mâché that may not be well laths, for which purpose it is generally expe- fitted up by an ordinary joiner. dient to drive the brads in at the hollows, and In concluding our notice of papier-mâché, such parts of the work to be fixed; it is also a we beg leave to return thanks to Mr. C. F. useful precaution to drive the brads in a slant- Bielefeld for the obliging manner in which he ing direction, so as to prevent all chance of has furnished us with all the information in their drawing. When walls have to be en- his power. This information, it is hardly riched with panels, as is very usual in apart- necessary to say, is to be relied on, Mr. B. ments fitted up in thə old French and Italian being the chief manufacturer of papier-mâchéll styles, exactly the same rules for fixing as have in this kingdom.

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THE Archimedean or endless screw, as applied to the thanks and patronage of all, whether to a chair, represented above, has the effect indisposed or not. The delightful absence of and advantage of enabling the occupier, by all restraint, and the sensation of perfect turning the handle on the elbow, to vary his repose which this admirable and ingenious position from the perpendicular to the hori-contrivance affords, will be felt as a great boon zontal, or any of the intermediate changes, to the community, and we much regret that| with the greatest possible facility; having thé our limited space will not allow us to do advantage of all other methods to produce the justice to the “ Archimedean-Screw Easy reclining position by the power it possesses of Chair" in detail, but we most confidently reraising the legs at the time of reclining the commend it to all, both as a most desirable back, forming in its variations the endless article of furniture for the drawing-room and positions of the human frame, necessary, in indispensable accessory to the enjoyment of particular, to the invalid, as a couch or bed, an afternoon's siesta. The graphic illustration known as Dr. Earle's fracture couch, more which accompanies this brief notice will exparticularly by the medical profession, and plain the principle of the construction perhaps which they are compelled to use in spinal more clearly than could be done by a page of cases, &c., for the comfort and advantage of letter-press without it. The patentee, we are the afflicted under their care. Mr. Minter, the assured, will never have cause to regret the eminent chair manufacturer, and patentee also time and outlay which must have been exof the celebrated “Self-Acting Reclining pended in bringing this paragon of easy chairs Chair," has, by the invention of the chair to its present wonderful state of perfection. bearing the title above given, entitled himself


gance, some of which may, probably, at a future period, afford subjects of pictorial illustration in our pages. The term “palmy days," as indicative of a period of the flourishing existence of states and empires, and as symbolical of prosperity, is one of those popular metaphorical expressions, pleasingly associated with the productions of the vegetable world, which, borrowed, for the most part, from the highly-figurative language of the East, are still retained in the national idioms of Europe. The date-bearing palm-tree, one of the numerous species of the palm family, is naturally suggestive of the idea of never-failing plenty; whilst a formerly-prevailing opinion of the ancients, connected with the palm-tree, namely, that as often as one of its branches was severed from the parent stem, another, of still more luxuriant growth, was sure to replace it—"uno avulso non deficit alter-served, still more emphatically, to recommend this graceful native of an otherwise arid soil, as an emblem of untiring effort, and constantly-renewed luxuriance. Hence the well-known custom of awarding a palm-branch to the successful competitor in the sacred games of the Olympian festivals, and the more modern attribution of the palm branch as the distinguishing reward of martyrdom. With the poets, indeed, Il no subject appears to have been all more favourite theme, than the object of our present notice. As a decorative ornament, accessible to public inspection, we do not recollect to have seen the palm-tree better or more tastefully treated, in this country, at| least, than in the shop-front of Messrs. Benham and Co., decorators, of Regent-street, where, from its comparatively full-sized proportions and boldness of arrangement, it affords a by no means unfavourable specimen of the effect of which this peculiar species of foliage-ornament is susceptible.

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BY THE Moors.—Temple, in his “ Excursions First Method.-From B and c as centres,

in the Mediterranean," gives the following

Si curious account of the mode of building at with any opening in the compasses, as a radius

Tunis, on the African coast :-"On speaking greater than half b c, describe arcs cutting

to the architect and engineers, and asking each other in h, h. Through h, h, draw a line h a h, and a will be the point of bisection of

them to show me their plans, they at first did

not seem to understand what a plan was ; the line Bc.

when it was explained to them, they declared

they had nothing of the sort, and that, in fact, Second Method.-When the line is near the

the Moors never made any previous to comextreme edge of a plane.

mencing a building, but that they built by the
eye a certain length of wall, and that when
this had been sufficiently prolonged, another
was built at right angles to it, and so on.
What is still more remarkable, their arches are
also constructed entirely by the eye, and have
no framework to support them during the pro-
cess, which is as follows :- A brick, presenting
its broad surface to view, is placed with its
edge on the buttress where is to commence the
spring of the arch; another is made to adhere
to it by means of a very strong cement made
of a gypsum peculiar to the vicinity of Tunis,
which instantly hardens; on this brick is
placed another in the same manner, and thus
ihey proceed till the arch is completed. I saw
a vault myself thus made in less than an hour

and a half. These arches and vaults, when From A and B as centres, and with any finished, are very graceful and correct in their radius, describe arcs intersecting each other in proportions, and nothing can equal their E; from the same centres A and B, with any strength and solidity. In building walls, an radius less than the former, describe arcs oblong frame, about seven feet long, and as cutting each other in D. Through E and abroad as the wall is intended to be, is placed draw E c, which will divide A B into two equal on the foundations, and then filled with mortar parts.

| and pieces of stone; in a few minutes the

| frame is removed, and placed in continuation PROBLEM II.

of the line. This method appears to have been

adopted in the construction of Carthage.” To divide a given arc, B a, into two equal parts.

The great east window of St. Peter's church,

at Sudbury, is being restored by Mr. Sprague, From B and A as centres, with any opening of Colchester, at the sole expense of Dr. in the compasses, more than half Ba, describe Maclean.

Scenery and Decorations of Theatres.

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(Concluded from page 34.) APRIL 28.-Mr. Dwyer read the second portion of a paper on the above subject, commencing with an examination of the advantages derivable from placing the scenery obliquely on the stage, referring of course to the wings and set-scenes, the flats or back scenes being in the usual position. Some diffi-| culties in perspective having been alluded to, it was stated that for drawing-rooms and apartments the scenery ought to be arranged with due regard to the ground-plan of what is to be represented. This would enable actors to enter or take leave in a complete manner; they would not be observable by those in the side-boxes when approaching or lingering for that purpose, and their voices would reverberate and be carried into the body of the theatre. A scene in the “Flowers of the Forest,” now being performed at the Adelphi, was described as an example, and also as clearly showing that, with some attention to ground-plan in setting out an interior, together with an introduction of bay windows, octagonal recesses, &c., the variety and perfection of scenery would be greatly advanced.

Mr. Dwyer then directed attention to the principles of design, which he considered as mainly divisible into two classes, ideal and constructive; the former embodying certain characteristics without reference to natural laws, and the latter demanding strict attention to the fundamental principles of compo

sition in art. Ideality, it was said, had in DESIGN FOR FISH-STAND.

some extravaganzas been developed in a sur

prising and ingenious manner, and delicate INDIAN FABRICS.- A century ago, the city of conceptions in a refined taste were frequently Decca, in India, was without a rival in the introduced with that remarkable freedom whole world in the manufacture of beautiful peculiar to the School of Art. " cotton fabrics ; the division of labour was car- Some chalk sketches, designed for the ried to a great extent in the manufacture of scenery to the “Enchanted Forest,” lately fine muslins, and the manufacturers attained performed at the Lyceum, were exhibited as to a great degree of skill, more especially in illustrations of the vigorous manner and spirit| spinning very fine thread, which was spun of this class of compositions. Constructive with the fingers on a fine steel spindle by design was described as necessary to archiyoung women, who could not work while the tectural subjects. The opinions of Professor dew was on the ground; for such was the Cockerell and others were quoted in acknowextreme tenuity of the fibre, that it would not ledgment of the artistic talent, together with bear manipulation after the sun had risen ; accurate knowledge of the architecture of one retti of cotton could thus be spun into a remote ages, which are frequently displayed in thread of eighty cubits long, which was sold our theatres; and the reader suggested that if by the spinners at one-half more than its the attention of the students in decorative art|| own weight in pure silver. The darners were at the Government School of Design were also particularly skilful; they could remove directed to the contemplation of the better|| an entire thread from a piece of muslin, and scenic productions, having the beauty and replace it by another of a finer texture. The principles of design explained, this would be cotton used for the finest thread was grown in found one of the most practical and efficient the immediate neighbourhood of Decca, more modes of acquiring knowledge. especially about Sunergong; its fibre is too He regretted that many admirable works of short to admit of its being worked off by any art, executed for theatres, should have had except that most wonderful of all machines, such a transient existence, leaving scarcely a the human hand. The annual investment of trace behind them. The creative fancy and the wardrobe at Delhi absorbed a great pro- design in numerous instances ought to have portion of the finest fabrics; the extreme been preserved at any cost; and he argued|| beauty of some of these muslins is sufficiently that students in art would, in a careful con-|| indicated by the names they bear, such as templation of scenery, realise more freshness|| " running water," and "evening dew.”—East and originality in ideal and constructive deIndia Magazine.

sign than from any other class of examples.

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Knowing its power and vast unexplored range, refinement Madame Vestris had first presented he felt an earnest desire that scene-painting to the public in her drawing-room scenes, should be fully and properly estimated. elegantly and completely furnished; and he Engraved examples might offer an interesting also mentioned with commendation some intecollection of the most ingenious fancies of the riors produced at the Haymarket, in a similar most eminent artists.

spirit. He admired this perfect kind of reprePerspective, the reader observed, constitutes sentation, and was pleased with the manner in one of the greatest obstacles to perfection in which it had been extended to exteriors, garscenic effects, and he alluded to the defects den scenes, &c., and he referred to the garden which ordinarily appear in set-scenes, from scene in the "Lady of Lyons,' at Sadler's their being made up of various parts, placed at Wells, in which the stage is covered with a intervals along the stage, each part drawn, painted cloth imitative of gravel walks, grass probably, at a different perspective angle. The plots, shrubberies, &c., producing together peculiar manner of treating perspective for a very superior effect. In a snow scene in the theatrical purposes was explained. While the “ Battle of Life,' at the Lyceum, the stage situation of spectators varies greatly, the was covered with painted canvas very successtreatment must necessarily be imperfect. It fully; and in the “Flowers of the Forest," the is, therefore, usual to set out scenery with two scene of a village church, with well-worn points of sight, but he preferred, in archi paths, &c., similarly treated, was equally skiltectural subjects, to have three, and to have ful and pleasing. them placed near the centre, so as to counter- Mr. Dwyer commented upon the fits and act the effect of opposition in the horizontal starts usual to these matters, stating that the features of the wings, whereby the scenes are better scenes were exceptions, while the imfrequently made to appear hoisted. Scenes perfect school retained the predominance. As showing ground in perspective, are frequently one of the earliest and most perfect illusions spoiled by the visible junction of the wings ever depicted, he described a scene introduced and the floor, thus disturbing the illusion of in the opera of “ Acis and Galatea." The last distance attempted by the artist; and he scene in the ballet of “Coralia," at Her would tint the lower portion of the scene with Majesty's Theatre, was also fully described, as colour similar to that of the stage. Archi- an eminent example of scenic display. tectural drop-scenes were frequently objection- The author then noticed the machinery perable from the same cause, and he maintained taining to theatres, and recommended the use that they should never be thus applied, but of painted canvas placed on rollers sufficiently only as pictures within frames, if applied at all. lofty so as to dispense with the series of

The effect of linear and aërial perspective curved, scolloped, and straight fly borders, was adverted to, and the softening influences ordinarily representing sky, &c. He next of colour in aërial perspective were described reviewed the inconsistencies which occur in as pertaining to the highest order of artistic scenery and properties being of a different talent. Scenes of this kind are composed of a period in character and style to that of hisnumber of parts, the flats representing sky torical dramas, mentioning a scene in “Lucia and extreme distance, while the middle dis- de Lammermoor," at the Italian Opera House, tance and foreground are broken into per-Covent Garden. It represents a Norman intespective forms. Float-lights being placed rior, furnished with one chair of modern behind these parts, impart brilliant effects that French style, and a table of doubtful period, no colouring can attain to, resembling the the story of the opera being in 1669. He consunny spots of a landscape.

tended that those adjuncts are important; and Linear perspective required, it was said, that if costume, manners, and customs are very great consideration, and failures in street rendered faithfully, properties should receive architecture, and similar subjects, are often equal attention. The progress in matters of evident to the least initiated observer. The costume from the time of Garrick was noticed, artist, however, has to contend with serious and the properties introduced by John Kemdisadvantages from not being permitted to set ble, Planché, and others, were mentioned with out this class of scenes upon the stage instead encomiums. The increasing taste of actors, of in the painting-room; and the manner in shown in careful dressing and wearing apparel which they are produced ought to be borne in with a bearing in accordance with the period mind when judging of their merits. Street represented, was also favourably commended, architecture offers a peculiar difficulty from as displaying research and accurate study of the actors influencing the scale by their com-) their art. Mr. Dwyer drew attention to the parative size; this illustrates the great ab force with which the variety of colours in surdity of placing a facade of the National dresses may be developed, by having regard to Gallery or other well-known building within the background and to the position of the the area of a theatrical scene, without a proper actors. An acknowledgment was made of the regard to distance. As an instance of a favour- elevated taste and artistic arrangements which able effect, he named a scene in the "School Mr. Macready had frequently shown in groupfor Scheming,'' at the Haymarket, representings and tableaux, and he concluded with the ing portions of streets abutting on the quay at expression of a desire to find a proper feeling Boulogne, which he considered far removed more generally established between the artists, from a common-place effect, and that it also actors, and managers, so that the capabilities testified what might be obtained by placing of combined talents might produce results at scenery obliquely.

once gratifying, elevating, and promotive of Mr. Dwyer next alluded to the taste and the welfare of the arts.

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