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of deflected needles and temporary magnets, it has been at various times proposed to
Ventilation, employ, for the purposes of telegraphic communication, other well-known properties of the electric current, such as the production of The following paragraph is extracted from a distinct musical sounds from stretched metallic paper read by Mr, J. Toynbee, at the Instituwires, the emission of brilliant sparks and I tion of British Architects :-“ In proof of the brushes of light from points of charcoal and necessity for ventilation, he stated that it was plumbago, the instantaneous change of colour of great importance that the air should be conin various chemical solutions, and the marks tinually in motion; for, like water, when stagproduced by the passage of the electric fluid nant, it became offensive and injurious. This through fibrous substances dipped in metallic, was 'accounted for by the fact, that the air saline, alkaline, and other mixtures. By the always contained a large quantity of animal adoption of any of these means, all of which I and vegetable matter in the form of the ova of might, by proper management, be made avail- | infusoria and the seeds of the lower vegetable able for the purpose, one great source of diffi- I organisms. But the act of respiration was the culty and uncertainty of action, hitherto found, I great cause of the deterioration of the air. The in practice, to be inseparable from the use of air in the lungs was exposed to 170,000,000 of deflecting needles and magnets, would be ob- I cells. having a surface equal to thirty times | viated, as the effects lastly alluded to are all that of the body; so that, during respiration, produced without impairing the force of the the air was deprived of oxygen, and became electric current by the necessity of employing loaded with deadly carbonic acid gas, and was it either as a merely secondary agent in de rendered totally unfit for a second respiration, flecting the needles, or converting it into a being in reality no longer atmospheric air, but mechanical or motive power to set pointing a poisonous gas. A second cause of the deteor printing apparatus in motion, at great dis- rioration of the air is the combustion of lamps, tances, where the facilities of telegraphic com-gaslights, candles, &c. A single candle is munication are most needed, but where the nearly as injurious to the air as a human disadvantages arising from loss of power, con- being: two fourteen-hole argand burners consequent on the transmission of the electric sumed as much air as eleven men. A third current through great lengths of wire, namely, source of atmospheric impurity is the vapour, increased resistance, and imperfect insulation,
loaded with animal matter, given off from the are most sensibly experienced.
lungs and the skin : each of these parts pour out an ounce of fluid every hour; so that, in a
church containing five hundred people, twelve National Monument to Shakspece. gallons of noxious fluid are given off in two i
hours. A fourth source of bad air in towns is
the large quantity of decomposing animal and It is recommended by a correspondent of the vegetable matter left to give off its effluvia; Manchester Guardian, that a “magnificent and and the difficulty there is in the renewal of the spacious building" should be erected, to be air in towns by means of the winds, on account called the “Shaksperian Temple,"to be" open of the vicious mode of their construction and to the public without charge.” In the centre, their large size. In reference to the impurity on the ground-floor, the proposer would have of the air of London, Dr. Mantell states that " a splendid colossal statue" of the poet “sur- various classes of infusoria, which he was in rounded by the muses, and Fame crowning the habit of keeping alive in his house at Clapthis great and good man.” The walls to be ham, all died in London; and it is well known decorated in fresco, with designs taken from that scarcely any plants will live in London." Shakspere's works; and on the ceiling “all the aerial beings (or the imaginative creations of his fancy) should be displayed." The win- A Curious CANNON.-A new cannon has dows to have stained glass, and some of the been recently invented by Mr. Detherede, of a most remarkable passages in his plays to be novel and convenient construction for being| inscribed on marble slabs, round the walls. I carried by hand or on horseback, over mounNiches and pedestals to be provided for statues tains, forests, and marshes, where an ordinary and busts of eminent actors and expounders of|cannon would be altogether useless. The canhis works. A circular building, perhaps sur-I non consists of staves, hoops, and screws, all mounted by a dome, is suggested, and a large made of wrought-iron. and nicely finished: bronze statue of the great poet to be placed in and, while it is stronger than common castsome conspicuous position on the exterior. liron cannon, it can readily be dissected, and The building, when completed, to be handed
each section may be shouldered by either over to the trusteeship of Government. It is pedestrian or equestrian artillerymen, and, rightly argued, that such a building, if erected, when required, the parts may be put together would be no mere place of amusement, but an and secured ready for action in ten minutes. important means of instruction, and a fitting Patent Journal. index to the code of morals, which Shakspere has laid before us. There can hardly be any CLEANLINESS. -" Does B. ever wash his project, for which a national subscription hands?” asked some one of a person more diswould be so readily undertaken, if properly tinguished for learning than cleanliness. “Oh, put forth, and we think it should not be lost yes-he washes his hands, but then he has a sight of.
trick of putting them to his face !"
no portion, however small, is straight, as CD,
First Steps to Geometry.
5. A mixed line is composed of a straight ARTIFICERS of all kinds are indebted to Geo
celine and a curve, as E F. metry and Mensuration for the establishment | E of their various occupations; and the perfection and consequent value of their labours depend entirely on the near approach they make to the standard of geometrical accuracy. All the great and ingenious devices of mankind owe their origin to this sublime science. By this means the architect draws his plan and erects his edifice. The ground-plan is delineated according to the rules of plane geometry, and the building is erected according OBS'-The extremities of a line are points. to the principles of solid geometry and mechanics, which last-named science is but an off
6. A perpendicular or vertical line is a line
CD, which stands on another line A B, and spring of plane geometry. When bridges are to be built over wide rivers, the most exact
does not incline more on one side of it than to wide rivers, the most exact the other. acquaintance with geometry is required. In the construction of ships of every kind, geometrical knowledge is requisite. In a word, all the elegancies, and most of the conveniences, of life, owe their existence to the geometrical art.
From this brief view of the subject, it appears right that, in a highly commercial and manufacturing nation like this, an art of so general an application should not be neglected. And yet, although all the subdivisions of the science have been thoroughly investigated and enriched by the inventions of learned men, yet this information is either so scattered, or so ill-suited to the capacities of
7. A tangent is a line which touches a curve unlearned readers, that the DECORATOR's without cutting it, as Gh; and the point 1, ASSISTANT will be the first work that has where the line ou touches the arc K L M,! attempted to popularise it.
is called the point of contact.
DEFINITIONS OF PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. Practical Geometry is a method of describing mathematical figures by means of a ruler and compasses, or other instruments conve 8. A secant is a line which cuts a circle, or nient for that purpose.
any other curve, as a B. OBS.-This science is founded upon the properties and relations of certain magnitudes, which are treated of in Euclid's Elements of Geometry; that work being considered as the source from which all our geometrical knowledge is derived.
1. A point is that which has position, but not magnitude.
2. A line is that which has length, without breadth or thickness, as A B.
Obs.-Lines are of three kinds: straight lines, curved lines, and mixed lines.
3. A straight or right line is the shortest that can be drawn from one point to another, as A B.
4. A curve or curved line is that of which!
9. A chord is a straight line joining the
extremities of an arc; thus A B is the chord of letters to distinguish them from each other, always placing the arc A C B.
that letter in the middle which denotes the vertex, as A B C, C B D, or A B D.
12. A solid is that which has length, breadth,
16. A mixtilinear angle is that which is com
nas lengin, breadth, posed of a right line and a curve, as c. and thickness, as n.
17. A right angle is that which is formed by 13. An angle is the inclination of two lines, one line being perpendicular to another, as A B, BC, which meet in a point be called the C A B. vertex, or angular point; and the two lines A B, B c, are called the legs or sides of the angle B.
Obs.-When several lines proceed from the same point, forming different angles, it is necessary to make use of three
(To be continued.
the ceiling and walls of the room appropriated Principles of Decoration. to the meetings of the proprietors of the Com
mercial Bank of Scotland, he showed that it
depended for its beauty simply upon a comMR. D. R. Hay, who has done so much for the bination of geometric with chromatic harmony, advancement of the decorative art, read a being the practical application of a theory paper before the Royal Scottish Society of which had met the approval of Sir David Arts, on the 22nd of March last, which con- Brewster, who had also suggested its applicatains the following valuable remarks. The tion to the decorative arts. Mr. Hay, in referpaper is “On the principles employed in the ring to the great hall of the Society of Arts in Decoration of the Room for the Meetings of London, where he had first introduced this Proprietors in the Commercial Bank of Scot-new style of decorative painting, said, that its land, Edinburgh.'
being in that case necessarily confined to the Mr. Hay showed that there is a demon- ceiling, did not put it fairly to the test; but strable truth in ornamental design, which con- that the walls as well as the ceiling of the prostitutes its beauty, independently of any fancy prietors' room in the Commercial Bank being or whim in the individual to whose inspection decorated in this way, that apartment might a work of this kind is presented, and without be said to be the first in which this new style any reference to what are called the styles of had been properly exhibited. ornamental design; and that this truth 'was of Mr. Hay exhibited two finished specimens a mathematical nature, and so far teachable as of the work, with five explanatory drawings. to enable the decorator to produce perfect sym- The first specimen was that applied on the metry of form and harmony of colour in almost ceiling panels, and arose out of a diagram in infinite variety, without copying or even imi- which the equilateral triangle and circle were tating the works of others. ' Thus proving that harmoniously combined. The second speciwe might have a style of decorative ornament men was that of the pattern applied on the belonging exclusively to our own country and the walls, which, he showed, arose from the our own period. He showed also that the combination of elliptic bands. Both these beauty thus produced differed from picturesque specimens represented mosaic or inlaid work, beauty, in so far as the former is teachable, composed of lapis lazuli, gold, giallo-antico, and while the latter is exclusively the province of rosso-antico, while the five explanatory drawgenius. In doing this, he referred to the ings showed the simplicity of their construcimmense quantity of counterfeit high art pro- tion, and the nature of their harmony. Mr. duced at the present day, and the bad effects Hay referred to a work upon ornamental of ingrafting this counterfeit upon ornamental design, which he published some years ago, for design, instead of inculcating the first princi- more ample details, and concluded his paper ples of symmetry of form and harmony of by referring to the ornamental decoration of colour. He pointed out what he conceived to the title-page and dedication of the Art-Union be the fallacious proceedings of the Govern- Journal, as examples of the low state of that ment Schools of Design in these respects. art in the metropolis, and how much still
Mr. Hay next referred to the appropriate- remained to be done for it even there, ness of various kinds of ornamental design, and held up to ridicule the egregious blunder FINE ARTS.-An exhibition of modern works committed by the German decorator, Herr of art has been opened at the Egyptian Hall,|| Sang, in the piazza of the Royal Exchange, Piccadilly, by a' body denominating itself London, who, instead of following up the “The Association to Promote the Free Exhiarchitect's idea of massive strength, or refer-bition of Modern Art." To this collection the ring to the use of the edifice, has bedecked it promoters propose to admit the public gratis, with a species of (ornament!) at once mean-|(with the exception of Friday and Saturday, ingless, flimsy, and fantastic. He then pro- when an admission price is to be charged), in ceeded to show that the decorator ought, on order to afford greater facilities for forming all occasions, to endeavour to follow up the the general opinion and improving the taste in original idea of the architect, and impart the art. The exhibition is not confined to works same feeling by his colouring, that the latter entirely new to the public, but it affords to had imparted to the general construction and such as have been previously exhibited, but architectural decorations, which, although now placed in unfavourable positions, the opporgenerally finished in lath-and-plaster work, tunity of being fairly viewed and judged of. imitated, in their configuration, either the The undertaking is, in a manner, the following marble employed originally in the classical up of the example already set by the Royal styles of architecture, or the wood employed Commission of the Fine Arts, but not hitherto in those of the middle ages. He then showed attempted, we believe, by 'any private body of that the imitating of marbles and woods was individuals, except the Art-Unions and the closely allied to high art, and the prejudice proprietors of bazaars. The present is the first against these species of imitative art arose of a series of intended annual exhibitions. from its being often employed in churches and The collection consists of 203 works in every other public buildings, which are generally department of art. Upon the whole it forms a painted at the lowest estimate, and conse- tolerable exhibition, reflecting great credit on quently exhibit this branch of the decorative the spirit and enterprise of the gentlemen who art as performed by the lowest grade of artists. have established it. Considering it is the first | In respect to the principles adopted in the attempt, we fancy that it will not disappoint style of decoration employed by Mr. Hay on lexpectation.
gilding is relieved by red; the groundwork is Decorations at Sir Robert Peel's. I partly light pink and partly dove-colour. This
apartment looks out on to the garden, next the river, the windows opening on to a balustraded
terrace, with vases on pedestals. HE stairi The collection consists, as is well known, of case con- unrivalled works by the Dutch masters, some sists of a by Rubens, and includes a few by artists of simple later date. On the walls of the room firs: flight of entered, were some magnificent drawings, steps to chiefly by Rubens. In the library were dis
the prin-posed a number of choice proofs of engravings, cipal floor, and in the dining-room were a few pictures by and the Reynolds, and Wilkie's well-known work of walls are “John Knox Preaching." The works by painted in Reynolds are particularly interesting, and in
encaustic clude a portrait of himself, of Dr. Johnson, colours. The work was executed by Messrs. one of George IV. when Prince of Wales, and Collman and Davis. The upper half is deco-that known as “Robinetta." The rooms uprated in compartments, the principal panel stairs are filled with fine works by Rubens, painted on each wall having an allegorical Cuyp, Wouvermans, Hobbima, Vander Velde, figure, illustrating one of the seasons, in the Gerard Douw, De Hooghe, and others. “The centre. These figures are in neutral colours Triumph of Silenus," and the “Chapeau de upon a dark ground. Arabesque scroll-work Paille,' by Rubens, are amongst his finest is painted in colour at the foot of each panel, works, the latter, indeed, being called his and small subjects are introduced at the “chef d'auvre." At the end of one room were edges, exhibiting some pleasing and fanciful portraits by Winterhalter, one of Prince Aldesigns. The whole ceiling is divided into bert, and the other of the Queen and the compartments, filled in with squares of ground Prince of Wales. In a smaller room adjoining glass; and a more liberal use of positive colour were two pictures by Reynolds, and portraits is here indulged in, with great propriety and of two of the daughters of Sir Robert Peel, by beauty-the red lines upon the glass itself Sir Thog. Lawrence and E. Landseer. being particularly happy in effect. The frieze Altogether, throughout the house, we beneath the ceiling is enriched with a scroll in marked the perception of the delights and the relief-white upon a dull red ground. The graces of art, not usually found, even with gilded brass-work of the railing is arranged in the opportunity of extravagant costliness.curves of elegant design. We might have pre- Abridged from the “Builder." ferred the four allegorical subjects, in actual relief, but the combination of colours, and the general design in this staircase seemed to us
THE FIRST ARRIVAL OF THE GUN-COTTON IN worthy of great praise, and showed an ac
INDIA.- A friend in England having sent out a quaintance with principles such as we are not
small portion of gun-cotton, prepared by Mr. in the habit of meeting with. The decorations
Horseley, chemist, Ryde, Isle of Wight, it in the principal rooms above stairs are almost
arrived at Bangalore last January, and became confined to the ceilings, the walls being nearly
the universal topic of conversation. The modicovered with pictures. Gilded mouldings, and
cum of cotton was carefully preserved and ornaments relieved by red grounds, serve to
produced at the general's table, where a large unite the ceilings with the walls, the general
al party was assembled. On being handed up to groundwork being of light hue. The cornice
the commanding officer, every eye was fixed has been judiciously treated, some of the orna
upon him, expecting that he would at once ments are relieved by green, according with
th take means to try the experiment, but, to the the olive tint of the walls. On the ground disappoi
nd disappointment of the whole party, but still, floor, the dining-room has been well treated. somewhat to its amusement, the general, we There is little actual relief, except in the ceil-suppose, thinking the matter too serious for ing, yet the treatment of colour and form has after-dinner deliberation, coolly put the explobeen very successful. Crimson, or purple, pre- sive cotton into his pocket-book. We underdominating in the carpet, and dark colour in stand that he afterwards exhibited it to a select the furniture, the walls are inade lighter in Teww
de lichter in few with admirable effect, and half the medical tone. The ornament is arranged in panels, staff of th
in panels staff of the station were in the course of fourpainted to resemble oak, the divisions being
and-twenty bours engaged in making gunlike pollard oak; and a pattern in dark brown cotton, each declaring that his was the best. colour is also introduced. The result of the Such was the first introduction of this remarkimitation is perfectly successful. Gilding onable discovery into India. the mouldings prevents any dissonance be- STAINED GLASS IN NORWICH CATHEDRAL. tween the walls and ceiling, whilst the dark The dean and chapter of Norwich have comcolour of the ornamental pattern promotes the missioned Mr. Warrington to fill the Norman same union with the floor and furniture. The window at the east end of the cathedral with same kind of treatment, observed in the walls, stained glass, as a memorial to the late Canon | is carried on to the doors. In the ceiling, Thurlow. The three upper perpendicular colour is more freely introduced, but still with windows above this are already filled by the out interfering with the object just noted. The same artist.