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Empress Matilda, and King Stephen and his is required to detect all their beauties. In the Queen Maud. The style of colouring is that vacant corners between the lozenges and the which was in fashion from the middle to the mouldings of the beams, the ceiling is painted end of the fifteenth century.

of a deep blue, and surrounded by a red border At both ends of the apartment are three on which are small yellow quatrefoils. Within archways, corresponding in size and mould- the borders are circles, royally crowned ; and ings with the windows; and on the surface of from them proceed sprays of roses, parallel to the wall, within the arches, frescoes will be the sides of the lozenges. The circles contain painted. The arch over the throne is already various devices and shields : amongst the filled by Mr. Dyce's fresco, “The Baptism of former are the rose of England, the pomeSt. Ethelbert." The archways at the northern granate of Castile, the portcullis of Beaufort, end of the House are very deeply recessed, the lily of France, and the lion of England thus affording space for the strangers' gallery and in the latter are the fanciful armorial Between the windows, the arches at the ends bearings of those counties which ages since and in the corners of the House are niches, composed the Saxon Heptarchy. Where the richly canopied; the pedestals within which lozenges are filled with the mitre, the circles are supported by demi-angels holding shields, are gules and charged with a cross; and charged with the armorial bearings of the issuing from the circle are rays, instead of barons who wrested Magna Charta from King sprigs of roses. At the intersections of the John, and whose effigies, in all eighteen, will tie-beams are massive pendants, moulded, and be placed in the niches. The demi-angels, carved to represent crowns; and lesser penpillars, pedestals, and canopies, are all gilded, dants, or coronals, similarly carved, are at the and the interiors of the niches are elegantly centre of each tie-beam; whilst richly carved diapered. Above the niches are corbels, bosses are placed at the junctions of the whence spring spandrils to support the ceiling smaller ones. The under surfaces of the penThese spandrils are each filled with one large dants are sculptured to represent roses. The and two small quatrefoils, deeply moulded, whole are gilded and enriched by colour. The and having roses in their respective centres. ceiling is, as may be inferred from this imSimilar quatrefoils fill the spandrils over the perfect description, most striking in its appearwindows, and all are elaborately gilded. ance: the massy tie-beams, apparently of solid

gold, so richly bedight as they are with that precious metal, and the minute carving which

fills up the lozenge-formed compartments, The ceiling is flat, and is divided-by tie- aided by the glowing and harmonious colours beams of great bulk, on each face of which is of the devices, painted on the flat surface of sculptured "Dieu et Mon Droit,” twice re- the ceiling-all produce an absolutely impeated into eighteen large compartments; posing and gorgeous effect. these are each again divided, by smaller beams, into four, having in their centres lozenge-formed compartments, deeply moulded. Different devices and symbols, carved with Below the windows, the walls of the House the utmost delicacy of touch, fill the lozenges, are covered with oak paneling, elaborately and all of them are gilded. Amongst the wrought. devices, and immediately over the throne, is From the floor, about three panels bigh, the the royal monogram, crowned, and interlaced pattern of the paneling is the style termed by a cord, the convolutions of which are so *napkin ;" having, in the angles formed by arranged as to form loops at the corners; the folds of the drapery, at the upper and whilst, similarly crowned and decorated, the lower parts of the panel, “V. R.," with an monograms of the Prince of Wales and Prince oak wreath and cord intertwining. The fourth Albert fill the lozenges over their respective row of panels from the floor has ogee arches, seats. The cognizances of the White Hart, of with crockets and finials; quatrefoils and traRichard the Second; the Sun, of the House of cery subdivide the arches, whilst in their bases York; the Crown, in a bush, of Henry the runs a beautiful flower ornament. At every Seventh; the Falcon, the Dragon, and the third panel is a pillar exquisitely wrought, and Greyhound, are in some of the lozenges : crowned with a small bust of one of the Kings whilst the Lion passant of England, the Lion of England. The busts of the very earliest rampant of Scotland, and the Harp of Ireland, kings are, of course, imaginary; but those for fill others. Sceptres and orbs, emblems of regal which authorities could be found, are perfect power, with crowns; the scales, indicative of specimens of portrait-carving in wood, so truly justice; mitres and crosiers, symbols of reli- is the resemblance between them and the origion; and blunted swords of mercy, add their ginals carried out, in every little point. The hieroglyphic interest: while crowns and coro- pillars in the southern division of the House nets, and the ostrich plume of the Prince of have pedestals affixed to them, on which are Wales, form enrichments more readily under- lions, sejant, holding shields emblazoned with stood, and equally appropriate. These devices the arms of England. Between the other are encircled by borders, some of roses, others panels are very slender angular-shaped pilasof oak leaves; but the greater part with foliated ters, wrought in delicate workmanship. Above circles, having cords twining round them and the panels, between each bust, runs the followthe symbols in admirable intricacy; and all of ing inscription—"God save the Queen," in them are most elaborate in workmanship; open-worked letters of the Tudor, character; indeed, so minute in detail, that an opera-glass above this runs a pierced brattishing of tre


foils, of great lightness of design and delicacy of execution. A canopy springs from this Electric Telegraphs in Present Use. brattishing, and is supported by moulded ribs arching from the pillars and pilasters. The upper parts of the spaces between the ribs are

(Concluded from our last.) filled with richly traceried arches and quatre

foils; and the surface of the canopy is gilded, A system of telegraphic communication, by and decorated with the armcrial bearings of which the message is made to record itself in a the various Lord Chancellors of England, from permanent and readable form, either by alphaAdam, Bishop of St. David's, in 1377, to the betical marks or characters, or by actual present Chancellor, Lord Cottenham. These printed letters on a strip of paper, is, unescutcheons present a remarkably rich and doubtedly, the most important result hitherto unique decoration; and, since all are helmeted, attained in this department of scientific discrested, and mantled, the variety of colours so covery. By such an arrangement, all the displayed, the mantlings partaking of the chief tediousness, indistinctness, and consequent colour in the shields, is very striking. The uncertainty of the former methods may be arms of the various Sovereigns under whom avoided; constant attendance on the part of the Chancellors have held office, are also the clerks at the distant receiving station is painted in all their glowing emblazon- not required; and the system, in short, appears ments.

to combine in its operation all the advantages At the northern end of the House, the epis- that can reasonably be hoped for in the rapid copal arms fill the spaces of the canopy. The transmission of intelligence. In the method front of the cove, or canopy, is moulded, invented by Professor Morse, and for upwards having treillage in its lower moulding; and at of the last four years adopted by Congress in

every space corresponding to the pillars of the America, on an extensive scale, the message is paneling is a small carved pendant; above it is recorded by short lines or indentations on long a lion's head in strong relief, and thence strips of moistened paper, drawn off by a spespring the standards to the brass railing of the cies of clock-work movement from small peeresses' gallery. This railing is of simple rollers, and made to pass continuously under but exquisite design; having a series of roses, the rounded point of a small steel pencil or deeply wrought and foliated, running along its stile, which, by the attraction of an electrobase. The standards are partly twisted; and magnet, is brought to press on the strip, of between each runs a twisted rail, supported by paper, which is supported on another roller segments of arches, foliated. A twisted rail furnished with a groove in its surface, exactly passes along midway between the base and the corresponding with the position of the rounded top; and where all the rails and arches join point; so that by the alternate depression and each other, knobs, richly enamelled with release of the latter, a succession of short colour and gilding, give richness of effect and embossed marks, similar to the characters variety of outline to the whole. Admission to used for teaching the blind to read, is prothis balcony is obtained from the upper cor-duced on the yielding substance of the paper; ridor, by small doorways under each window; a telegraphic alphabet, composed on the prinand as the doors are paneled like the rest of ciple of combining the relative lengths of these the wall, and have no distinguishing features marks, and the spaces or intervals between to indicate their purpose, it would be impos- them respectively, enables the recipient of the sible to surmise the existence of so many message to decipher its meaning: A still furentrances whe, they are shut. A single row ther advance towards perfection in the use of of seats runs along the gallery. The paneling electro-telegraphic instruments has been above the gallery is very rich in its details. effected by the introduction of the actual The lower panels are napkin pattern, but the “ Printing Telegraph,", or, rather, by some upper series have in each labels running from late modifications of the apparatus used for the upper corners, interlacing each other down the same purpose. Of these contrivances, the the centre, and then passing into the lower leading principle is the graduated revolution corners, and having on each of them, in dia- of a wheel, studded on its periphery with metal glyphic work, “God save the Queen.". The or wooden type, representing the usual letters remaining portion of the panels is filled with of the alphabet, the numerals, &c., and any vine-leaves and grapes in relief. Two ele- required portion of this wheel, with its corresgantly-carved slender pillars, with capitals of ponding letter, being brought, as in the case varied design, are at the angles of the splay of of the index or pointer of the dial-telegraph, to the windows, and one on either side of the the position of rest, opposite to a strip of paper, doors under the latter; they support a cornice to which a progressive motion is imparted by

with pateræ, and embattled. Above the the action of clock-work, or mechanical cornice, a richly-carved, foliated brattishing arrangement, the particular type, the surface runs all round the House, whilst at intervals, of which, in the course of the previous revolucorresponding to the pillars, tall finials give tion of the wheel, has been covered with a thin diversity to the outline. From the finials at layer of printers' ink, is caused to impinge the angles of the windows rise the massive against the strip of paper, or the latter against branches for the gas-lights; they are of bold the type, by the action of a spring or lever, and graceful form, and terminate in a coronal, impelled either by the direct action of the whence the light issues.

magneto-electric current, or by some other

simple modification of motive power. The (To be continued.)

highly useful purposes to which the electric telegraph cannot fail to be applied, when once many instances, from a strict imitation of its construction and manipulation shall have nature, would appear to have been adopted, been still further simplified, may justly entitle more especially in the classical times of anthis truly great invention to rank foremost in cient Greece and Rome. In more modern the list of extraordinary discoveries, indicative times, chiefly within the last half-century, of onward progress, by which the spirit of decided tendency has been manifested towards modern times is so eminently characterised. the emancipation of decorative art from the

restrictions which a too rigid adherence to,

and servile imitation of, these time-honoured On “Foliage,” as Applied to precedents, had imposed on the efforts of ima

gination and inventive genius. The eternal Ornament.

repetition of these conventional forms, however, in themselves, worthy of admiration, had

produced a feeling of satiety, only to be The adaptation of ornamental foliage of removed by the infusion into the details of various kinds to the purposes of architectural artistical embellishment, of greater freedom of and artistic decoration, as it is one of the most conception, freshness of tone, and, in a word, natural, would also appear to have been one of a more trustful reliance, as the source of of the very earliest efforts of human ingenuity. inspiration, on the spontaneous beauties of unThere is so direct and intimate a relation fettered nature. In all the minor departments between our natural perceptions of beauty in of design, more particularly with reference to form, and the graceful productions of the the arts and manufactures, a sensible improvevegetable kingdom, as to awaken almost in- ment in this direction has of late been observstinctively a feeling of pleasurable sensation in able throughout Europe; and if England still even the most uncultivated mind. The first continue to_lag somewhat behind her comrude attempts at delineating the general form petitors of France and Germany in this noble of some particular tree or shrub, familiarly and spirit-stirring race for pre-eminence in a associated, according to local position or vary- branch of the fine arts, so calculated to ening climate, with the idea of abundant nutri-hance the value of her industrial productions, ment, refreshing shade, or grateful beverage, it is not from any dearth of native talent or soon expauded, beneath the hands of the original capacity, but rather from the absence designer, into the more elaborate combinations of that efficient system of schools of design for of the running scroll, the sculptured cornice, the formation of decorative artisans, which has or chiselled vase. The decorative system of been productive of such highly beneficial particular nations of antiquity subsequently results on the continent. In our own country, came to be distinctively characterised by the one, perhaps the most fatal and obstructive of species of ornamental foliage adopted by them all the impediments to a rapid advance in the in the enrichment of their works, whether of career of decorative design, has lately, we painting or sculpture. The palm-tree, with its rejoice to say, given unequivocal symptoms of slender but towering stem, and gracefully declining influence. We allude to that misspreading branches, constituted the main fea- taken sense of relative superiority and of ture of ornament in the East; the vine, the artistical etiquette which has hitherto deterred laurel, the ivy, the acanthus, and the honey- the class of individual professors, occupying a suckle, figured in endless variety throughout distinguished rank in what is usually denomithe classic embellishments of ancient Greece; nated the higher walks of art," from con


and the lotus-leaf and radiating palm (both of descending to devote their attention to the them, probably, adopted from India), pre- subject of internal and external decoration, as vailed in Egypt. As regards the majority of being a department incompatible with the these classes of ornamental foliage, a certain dignity of their ocial position. That so unconventional form, departing considerably, in favourable and depreciating an estimate of the importance of decorative art is based on no the perfection of the outward form of objects very tenable grounds, is sufficiently clear, we

of manufacture destined to the uses of common should imagine, from the fact of a Rafaël, a Ben- life. Surely, no risk of degradation is to be venuto Cellini, and a brilliant array of compara- incurred by following in the track honoured tively minor, but still illustrious names in Italy, by the footsteps of “the Prince of Art."

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We have given a few diagrams illustrative of

curvilinear foliage, and in future numbers we and a Flaxman in our own times, not having dis- shall examine the principles of enriched dained to extend the aid of their mighty genius mouldings, ancient and mediæval scroll-work, to the embellishment of interiors, and even to and arabesque design.

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The GOLD MINES OF THE Ural Mountains. creasing during every succeeding year, and in - The constantly-increasing productiveness of 1846 amounted to more than 68,880lbs. weight, these mines renders them a matter of consider which would be worth, at £50 per pound, able interest. They were first worked in 1819, £3,444,000. The total weight obtained since their existence having been previously proved 1819 is 573,400lbs., which at £50 per lb., would by the presence of considerable quantities of be worth £28,670,000. This amount includes gold in the sand of the Ural rivers;

in that year

the produce of certain Siberian mines, as well upwards of 1,600 pounds weight of metal was as those of the Ural mountains, and the quantity procured. This quantity has been steadily in- ' obtained by washing the sand of the Ural rivers.

into 60 equal parts, called minutes; and each minute into First Steps to Geometry.

60 equal parts, called seconds. These divisions are thus dis

tinguished, 30° 26' 15''; that is, 30 degrees, 26 minutes, and DEFINITIONS OF PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 15 seconds. The diameter of a circle is to its circumference (Continued from page 14.)

nearly as 1 to 3, more nearly as 7 to 22, more nearly as 106 to 25. A chord or subtense is a a right line a B, 333, more nearly as 113 to 355, more nearly as 1,702 to joining the extremities of an arc A E B.

OBS.- Plane figurcs bounded by three right lines are called triangles.

30. A triangle which has its three sides

equal, is called an equilateral triangle, as a b c. B

5,347, &c.






26. A semi-circle is that part of a circle which is contained between the diameter A B, equal, is called an isosceles triangle, as D E F.

31. A triangle which has only two sides and half the circumference A C B.



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