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OBS.-An angle which is either acute or obtuse is called an oblique angle. The measure of any rectilinear angle is an arc of a circle contained between the two lines which form that angle, the angular point or vertex being the 23. The diameter of a circle is a right line a B centre ; thus the
arc a B is the measure of the rectilinear passing through the centre o, and terminated angle A B C. An angle is estimated by the number of by the circumference. degrees contained in the arc; whence a right angle is an angle of 90 degrees, or one-fourth of the circumference of a circle. Likewise, it makes no difference whether the arc A B be a part of a larger or smaller circle described round the centre B; for the arc A B has the same proportion to the whole circumference, as any other arc M N has to the whole of that circumference of which it is a part; that is, there are as many degrees, minutes, &c., in a B as in m n. The complement of an angle is what it wants of 90 degrees; and the supplement of an aagle is what it wants of 180 degrees.
25. A figure is that which is enclosed by one or more boundaries.
21. A circle is a plane figure bounded by one line, which is a curve, A B C D A, and which is called the circumference; it is everywhere
PHOTOGRAPHY.-This art places in the hands the fuel being scarcely a fourth part of what a of man a most important instrument with common chamber fire requires. The invention which he can copy nature with extreme accu- is that of a practical working mechanician, and racy. The botanist is by it enabled to pre- is the more valuable on that account, as it is serve unfading representations of plants, in the result of experieuce, and not the plaything which the most delicate veins of the leaf, or of a mere theorist. the tender hairs upon the stalks, are strictly represented. The naturalist may use it to Decorations AT IRONMONGERS' HALL.-The delineate animals, from the microscopic ani- large room in Ironmongers' Hall, Fenchurchmalcule of a stagnant pool up to the gigantic street, which is 70 feet long, 30 feet wide, and elephant of the forests. The most skilful artist 30 feet high, has been decorated recently by would find it a difficult task to draw all the Messrs. Jackson, of Rathbone-place, in the details of a feather, but by a very simple Elizabethan manner,., by means of papier arrangement every fibre of these delicate mâché, colour, and gilding. The ceiling is coverings of the bird is most correctly drawn coved and divided into panels by massive by the subtile pencil of the sunbeam. The ornamented beams, something like the wellantiquarian by its aid procures historical re- known ceiling at Audley End. The entrancepresentations of the remains of hoar antiquity; door has Ionic columns, the fire-place carya-the cyclopean walls; the temples and tombs tides, and the opposite end of the room an of Egypt, with their hieroglyphic sides, teach- ornate gallery, all made to look like oak. The ing, in picture, the history of a remarkable total amount of the contract was £1,563. The race; the poetry of architecture in the temples character is well-preserved throughout. We of the Acropolis; the ruins of Pæstum and the should be glad to see the London companies wrecks of Rome; or the no less beautiful relics spend part of their surplus funds in the encouof the piety of our ancestors-the Gothic fanes ragement of art, by commissioning some of our of our own land, in whose dim shades the artists to adorn their walls. Cannot the ironspirit of Religion seems to find an abiding mongers (being men of metal) be induced to home. These, ere yet the ruthless ministers of set an example? They would find it a good time can destroy them, may be preserved, and investment,-perhaps a mainstay and support we may gather from the remains of antiquity a for the company in future times. series of instructive pictures for future ages by the assistance of this beautiful art. To the
EARLIEST KNOWN PRINT.-The earliest artist it is most valuable, as it places before engraving hitherto known, which represents him the mysteries of light and shadow, and the St. Christopher, bearing the infant Jesus on harmonies of true perspective. The immediate his shoulders, is marked with the year 1423 ; effects produced are studies of the most correct but an accident has carried this date five years class, exhibiting the delicate blendings of backward. A person at Malines, who was natural tints, and the unity and completeness about to burn an old chest which contained a of effect as exhibited by nature; and, taking quantity of mouldy papers, perceived, pasted these merely as geometrically exact delinea- on the inside of the lid, a print which had tions of objects, to which the painter has yet become very obscure from dirt and age. to give the finish of colour, they teach, by the Another person was present who had a knowextreme minuteness of detail and general ledge of prints, and who carefully took off the breadth of effect, the secret of combining fragments; and, having united them again, high and delicate finish with general boldness found clearly marked the date of 1418. This of style.
rare specimen, which belongs to the Flemish
school, was purchased for the Royal Library, THE ARCHIMEDEAN Stove.—A very inge- at Brussels, at the price of 500 francs. A copy nious apparatus, called by this name, may be of this is to be found in Jackson's " Treatise seen at the Polytechnic Institution and on the on Wood Engraving.” This engraving therepremises of the patentee, Mr. Allen, Worship- fore, it will be perceived, was executed half a street, where it is in constant operation to heat century prior to the introduction of printing a portion of the premises. It is called the into this country by Caxton, a copy of whose Archimedean, or screw stove, from the flame - History of Troy." was sold at the sale of the or heat from the furnace or place containing Duke of Roxburgh's books for £1,060. the fire being made to revolve in its ascent The Viceroy of Egypt (Mehemet Ali) is at through a spiral funnel, so that it passes present constructing in the interior of the through a considerable length of space, and in citadel of Grand Cairo, where he resides so doing conveys and emits a vast degree of during his occasional visits to that city, a caloric to the surrounding atmosphere. There splendid mosque in alabaster. Mehemet Ali is no vapour, dust, or disagreeable smell; no superintends in person the erection of this generation of unpleasant gases, and no danger sacred edifice, which he intends shall be the incurred. The mode of feeding the furnace or burial-place of himself and all his family. fire-place is by a tube, round which the screw or worm revolves; the coke or coal being put Moorish Stucco.--One of the apartments in at the top, and falling into the fire-place as of a mansion in Seville, which was built more the fuel is burnt out or consumed. There are than five centuries since, by the Moors, is also appurtenances for receiving the débris of decorated with network of stucco composed of
the fire, conveying away the smoke, &c., lime mixed with the whites of eggs, which which are simple, yet complete. The cost of remains without a single flaw or crack, and as this apparatus is very trifling, the expense of hard as adamant, to this day.
respiration. Nothing is more charming than the agreeable coolness of this delicious place,
while the extreme fervour of the sun boils on No. II.
the surface of the freshest mountains, GLAZIERS? WORK:-( Continued.) 3. There is a house having three rows of Notices to Correspondents. windows, and three windows in each row or tier, also the breadth of each window is to our ReaderS.—We intend to devote a portion of the 3ft. llin.; required the expense of glazing the
Wrapper of each Number for a List of Artisans, &c., same at 7d. per square foot, supposing the who require situations. We shall only charge the Adverlength of the window in the
tisement Duty for each insertion. Those parties who wish First tier to be 7 ft. 10 in.
to dispose of their Inventions or Improvements, will find Second 6 8
that the DECORATOR'S ASSISTANT will afford an excellent Third 5 4
medium for advertising, and the Manufacturer also, as the
circulation of the Work will be chiefly among those ft. in.
actively engaged in Engineering and other works.
6 (1) 7 6 8
We shall be happy to oblige any Correspondent with 5 4
any information he may desire to possess. Letters to be 1631
prepaid, and addressed to the “Editor of the Deco19 10
RATOR's Assistant,” 17, Holywell-street, Strand. 3 11 12) 16311
AQUATICUS.-Yes, there are several inventions for pre59 6
serving the buoyancy of the human body, when immersed 18 2 2 2,0) 13,5 114
in the water, but all are not equally convenient or serviceable. The best with which we are acquainted is a "Life
Preserving Coat," made and patented by Mr. Wilson, of 77 8 2
£6 15 113
Edward-street, Portman-square. It is as useful for wear as 3
a coat of a less valuable nature, and, being without any external indications of its uses, is not likely to induce per:
sonal remarks. The lining, which is both air-tight and 233 0 6
waterproof, can be inflated by the lips in one second. For our yachting friends, and all engaged in boating, voyaging,
bathing, fishing, and wild fowl shooting, this will be found A CRYSTAL SUMMER-House.—The ingenuity a most desirable companion and an excellent precaution. of the Chinese, and the manner in which it is J. Porter. - The term “ Elizabethan architecture” distin. applied to their arts and manufactures, has of
guishes that transition style which prevailed in England
from about the middle of the sixteenth to the end of the late years become so well known, from the in- first quarter of the seventeenth century, and was accreased intercourse we have had with that sin- cordingly in its meridian during the long reign of gular people, and the many voluminous works
Elizabeth. Our correspondent is perfectly right in sup
posing that we shall derote considerable space to a conwritten on the subject, that any remarks in sideration of this style. this place would be superfluous; but, at the R. S.-A muffle is a chemical vessel, in the shape of an same time, in presenting our readers with a
oblong arch or vault, closed behind by a semicircular
plane, and having a rectangular flat bottom, on which description of a crystal summer-house, in
small vessels of any kind may be set to protect them from vented for, and built in one of the country- the actual contact of the fuel of the furnace in which the houses of, the King of Siam, by a Chinese muffle is placed. - The muffle is entirely open at one end,
and has sometimes small slits to allow free access of the engineer, we would almost pause with in
hot air. It is used in eupellation. credulity, were not the fact accredited by a H. W. (Dublin). --“Carbonate” is a compound forn by traveller (Furetiere) on whose veracity im. the union of carbonic acid with an earth, alkali, or metallic
oxide. plicit reliance may be placed. The tables, the chairs, closets, &c., are all composed of crys
S. S. C.-One of the first works in England to attract atten
tion to the health of workmen was written by_c. T. tals. The walls, the ceiling, and the floors are Thackrah, Esq. ; its title is “The Effects of Arts, Trades, formed of pieces of ice of about an inch thick and Professions, and of Civic States and Habits of Living,
on Health and Longevity." The last edition was puband six feet square, so nicely united by a
lished in 1832. cement, which is as transparent as glass itself, 2.-Mr. Ritchie, of Edinburgh, has published a pamphlet that the most subtle water cannot penetrate. on the “Sanatory Arrangements of Factories,' with There is but one door, which shuts so closely
remarks on the present methods of warming and ventilathat it is as impenetrable to the water as the A Tyro.-Euclid, the founder of the Greek geometry, flou
tion, and proposals for their improvement. rest of this singular building. It was con- rished above three hundred years before Christ. structed thus as a certain remedy against the BETA (Norwich):-Mr. Richard Beard purchased from M.
Daguerre a license to practise his invention of the insupportable heat of the climate. This pavi
Daguerreotype. He obtained a patent in June, 1840. " lion is twenty-eight feet in length by seventeen A SUBSCRIBER.-Mr. Charles Clark obtained a patent, in in breadth; it is placed in the midst of a great
January, 1843, for an apparatus for converting sea water, basin, paved and ornamented with marble of &c., economically, into good fresh water. We will answer
your other questions by private letter, if you will send various colours. They fill this basin with water
your address. in about a quarter of an hour, and it is emptied A. B. C.-See Dr. Lardner's "Treatise on Geometry.” This as quickly. When you enter the pavilion, the
work treats of the application of geometry to the arts. The door is immediately closed, and cemented with
price is 6s. ; published by Messrs. Longman and Co. mastick to hinder the water from entering; it is then they open the sluices, and this great MAGAZINE, 17, Holywell-street, Strand (where all commu;
London : Published at the Office of the SPORTSMAN'S basin is filled, so that the pavilion is entirely nications to the Editor are to be addressed); and to be had under water, except the top of the dome, of all Booksellers.—Saturday, May 29, 1847. which is left uutouched, for the benefit of Printed by W. Coole, Lümley Court, Strand.
The New House of Lords.
well proportioned, and please the eye by their solid appearance. As seen from the House Court, the exterior shows a low and boldly embattled portion, resting on an arcade of flattened arches, with windows of square form, traceried, and having moulded weather-tables ; a string-course, with pateræ, runs along above the windows. This portion serves as the Corridor of the House, and projects many feet from the side of the main building. Above this, the six finely-proportioned and traceried windows of the House are seen; and between each a plain massive buttress. The windows have weather-tables; and a string course, with pateræ, decorates the walls above the windows. Lofty battlements crown the whole.
THE INTERJOR. The Interior is, without doubt, the finest specimen of Gothic civil architecture in Europe : its proportions, arrangement, and decoration being, perfect, and worthy of the
great nation at whose cost it has been erected. NOTICE of the new House Entering from the Peers' Lobby, the effect of of Lords will naturally be length and loftiness of the apartment, its
the House is magnificent in the extreme; the expected to appear in our columns. We, therefore,
finely-proportioned windows, with the gilded hasten to lay before our readers the and canopied niches between them; the Royal following account, condensed and Throne, glowing with gold and colours; the re-arranged from the magnificent richly-carved paneling which lines the walls,
number of the Illustrated London with its gilded and emblazoned cove; and the News, of April the 17th.
balcony, of brass, of light and elegant design, The rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament, rising from the canopy; the roof, most elabo? or "the Palace at Westminster," is the most rately painted; its massy beams and sculptured important architectural work which has been ornaments, and pendants richly gilded, all undertaken in this country since the re
unite in forming a scene of royal magnificence edification of St. Paul's Cathedral. So colos- as brilliant as it is unequalled. sal a pile of building has not been erected in
The House of Lords is 90 feet in length, 45 London since that period; nor so magnificent in breadth, and of the same height. In plan, a specimen of Gothic architecture in England the House is divided into three parts; the since the construction of Henry the Seventh's northern and southern are each considerably Chapel. And, it may be added, that in
smaller than the centre, which constitutes the arrangement, detail, warming, and ventilation body or floor of the House, wherein are the combined, so perfect a structure was never
woolsack, clerks' tables, &c., and on either before planned, as far as can be judged from southern end is the part of the
house in which
side the seats for the peers, in rows. The the recorded art of past ages, or the experience the throne is splaced, and is also for the acof our own time. The old houses, libraries, &c., were burnt others; whilst the northern has the bar for its
commodation of distinguished foreigners and down October 16th, 1834. Temporary accommodation was then provided ainong the ruins boundary, and is for the service of the House for the sitting of the Houses; but many House, to attend her Majesty or the Royal
of Commons, when summoned to the Upper months elapsed before the plan for rebuilding Commissioners; and where, also, counsel stand was matured. This being decided on, 97 sets of designs, containing not fewer than 1,400 during judicial investigations. The House is drawings, were furnished in four months; and lighted by twelve lofty windows, six on each Mr. Barry was, at length, selected as the suc- side; each divided by mullions and transoms cessful competing architect, in the spring of into eight lights; the upper rows subdivided, 1836. It was not, however, until January 1,
and all filled with quatrefoil tracery. The 1839, that the excavation for the river wall was splay of the jamb of the windows is ornacommenced; and the building of the wall in mented by painting; the words “Vivat ReMarch following. The Speaker's house and gina” being many times repeated round them, it was not until the iniddle of 1841 that any filled with stained glass, representing the Parliamentary offices were begun in 1840; but having between each word a quatrefoil, alter
nately blue and red. The windows will all be important progress had been made in the kings and queens—both consort and regnantsuperstructure.
We shall now describe specially the portions of England, standing under canopies of elaboof the House of Lords.
rate design. One window is already put in,
and the effect is remarkably gorgeous. It THE EXTERIOR.
shows figures of William the Conqueror, his The exterior presents no enriched archi- Queen Matilda, William the Second, Henry tectural features; but its massive walls are the First, his Queen Matilda of Scotland, the
No. 3.- VOL. I.