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the sacraments, in a tongue not understanded of the people.
or sacrifices, in a tongue that they themselves understood not. As for the time since Christ, till that usurped power of Rome began to spread itself, and to enforce all the nations of Europe to have the Romish language in admiration, it appeareth, by the consent of the most ancient and learned writers, that there was no strange or unknown tongue used in the congregation of Christians.
But yet, to stop the mouths of the adversaries, which stay themselves much upon general decrees, it shall be good to add to these testimonies of Scriptures and doctors one constitution, made by Justinian the Emperor, who lived five hundred twenty and seven years after Christ, and was emperor of Rome. The constitution is this: We command that all Bishops and Priests do celebrate the holy oblation, and the prayers used in holy baptism; not speaking low, but with a clear or loud voice, which may be heard of the people; that thereby the mind of the hearers may be stirred up with great devotion, in uttering the prayers of the Lord God; for so the holy Apostle teacheth: therefore, for these causes it is convenient, that among other prayers, those things also, which are spoken in the holy oblation, be uttered and spoken of the most religious Bishops and Priests, unto our Lord Jesus Christ, our God with the Father and the Holy Ghost, with a loud voicc. And let the most religious priests know this, that if they neglect any of these things, that they shall give an account for them in the dreadful judgment of the great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Neither will we, when we know it, rest and leave it unrevenged. Hom. xxi.
XXV. Of the Sacraments. SACRAMENTS ordained of Christ, be not only 6 badges or tokens of Christian men's profession; but rather they be certain sure wit
a Sacraments were instituted by our Saviour Christ, and are to be continued, and received of every Christian in due time and order, and for such purpose as our Saviour Christ willed them to be received. Hom. xxi. 1.
We allow the Sacraments of the Church, that is to say, certain holy signs and ceremonies, which Christ would we should use, that by them he might set before our eyes the mysteries of our salvation, and might more strongly confirm the faith which we have in his blood, and might seal his grace in our hearts. Jewell.
• The Lord did ordain his mysteries to this end, that they should be certain marks and tokens of our profession: whereby we should, as it were, bear witness of our faith before men, and should plainly shew that we are partakers of God's benefits with the rest of the godly, and that we have all one concord and consent of religion with them, and should openly testify that we are not ashamed of the name of Christians, and to be called the disciples of Christ. Nowell, p. 101. See Art. XXVII. XXVIII.
Q. What meanest thou by this word Sacrament? A. I mean an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us; ordained by Christ himself as a means whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof. Catechism. See Art. XXVII. XXVIII.
• Then Peter said unto them, been baptized into Christ, have put Repent, and be baptized every one on Christ. Gal. iii. 27. See more of you in the name of Jesus Christ, on Art. XXVII, XXVIII. for the remission of sins. And The long-suffering of God waited with many other words did he in the days of Noah, while the ark testify and exhort, saying, Save was a preparing, wherein few, that yourselves from this untoward ge- is eight souls were saved by water: neration. Then they that gladly the like figure whereunto even bapreceived his word were baptized : tism doth also now save us (not the and the same day there were added putting away of the filth of the unto them about three thousand flesh, but the answer of a good souls. And they continued sted conscience towards God) by the fastly in the Apostles' doctrine and resurrection of Jesus Christ. 1 Pet. fellowship, and in breaking of bread, iji. 20, 21. The cup of blessing and in prayers, Acts ii. 38, 40-42. which we bless, is it not the comAs often as ye eat this bread, and munion of the blood of Christ? The drink this cup, ye do shew the bread wbich we break is it not the Lord's death till he come. 1 Cor. communion of the body of Christ? xi, 26. As many of you as have 1 Cor. x. 16. Holding the Head,
nesses, and effectual signs of grace and God's good will towards us, by the which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in him.
A Sacrament is an outward testifying of God's good will and bountifulness towards us through Christ, by a visible sign representing an invisible and spiritual grace, by which the promises of God, touching forgiveness of sins and eternal salvation given through Christ, are as it were sealed, and the truih of them is more certainly confirmed in our hearts. Nowell, p. 101.
If Sacraments had not a certain similitude of those things, whereof they be Sacraments, they should be no Sacraments at all. And of this similitude, they do for the most part receive the names of the self-same things they signify. By these words of St. Augustine it appeareth, that he alloweth the common description of a Sacrament, which is, that it is a visible sign of an invisible grace : that is to say, that setteth out to the eyes and other outward senses the inward working of God's free mercy; and doth, as it were, seal in our hearts the promises of God. And so was circumcision a Sacrament; which preached unto the outward senses the inward cutting away of the foreskin of the heart, and sealed and made sure, in the hearts of the circumcised, the promise of God touching the promised seed that they looked for. Hom. xxi. 1.
By this mean God hath provided for our weakness, that we which are earthly and blind should in outward elements and figures, as it were in certain glasses, behold the heavenly graces which otherwise we were not able to see. And greatly for our behoof it is that God's promises should be so presented to our senses, that they may be confirmed to our minds without doubting. Nowell, p. 101.
Q. As thou givest to the Sacraments the strength and efficacy to seal and confirm God's promises in our hearts, thou seemest to assign to them the proper offices of the Holy Ghost! A. To lighten and give bright clearness to men's minds and souls, and from which all the body by joints of Christ :- may grow up unto and bands having nourishment mi- him in all things, which is the head, nistered, and knit together, increas- even Christ: from whom the whole eth with the increase of God. Col. body fitly joined together and ii. 19. Pastors and teachers; for compacted by that which every the perfecting of the saints, for the joint supplieth, according to the work of the ministry, for the edify- effectual - working in the measure ing of the body of Christ, till we of every part, maketh increase of all come in the unity of the faith, the body unto the edifying of itself and of the knowledge of the Son of in love. Eph. iv, 11-13, 15, 16. God, unto a perfect man, unto the See more on Art. XXVII. XXVIII. measure of the stature of the fulness
. There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, f and the Supper of the Lord.
$ Those five commonly called Sacraments,
to make their consciences quiet and in security, as they be indeed, so ought they to be accounted the proper work of the Holy Ghost alone, and to be imputed to him, and this praise not to be transferred to any other. But this is no impediment but that God may give to his mysteries the second place in quieting and establishing our minds and consciences, but yet so that nothing be abated from the virtue of his Spirit: wherefore we must determine that the outward element hath neither of itself nor in itself inclosed the force and efficacy of a sacrament, but that the same wholly floweth from the Spirit of God, as out of a springhead, and is by the divine mysteries, which are ordained by the Lord for this end, conveyed unto us. Nowell, p. 102.
Q. How many Sacraments hath God ordained in his church ? A. Two: Baptism and the holy Supper, which are commonly used among all the faithful. For by the one we are born again, and by the other we are nourished to everlasting life. Nowell, p. 103.
& And as for the number of them, if they should be considered according to the exact signification of a Sacrament-namely, for the visible signs, expressly commanded in the New Testament, whereunto is annexed the promise of free forgiveness of our sins, and of our holiness and joining in Christ-there be but two; namely, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. For, although Absolution hath the promise of forgiveness of sin; yet by the express word of the New Testament it hath not this promise annexed and tied to the visible sign, which is imposition of hands. For this visible sign-I mean, laying on of hands-is not expressly commanded in the New Testament to be used in Absolution, as the visible signs in Baptism and the Lord's Supper are: and therefore Absolution is no such sacrament as Baptism and the Communion are. And though the ordering of ministers hath this visible sign and promise; yet it lacks the promise of remission of sin, as all other sacraments besides the two above named do. Therefore neither it, nor any other sacra
e Go ye therefore and teach all Take, eat: this is my body, which nations, baptizing them. Matt. is broken for you. this do in rexxviii. 19.
membrance of me. After the same "I have received of the Lord, manner also he took the cup, when that which also I delivered unto he had supped, saying, This cup is, you, that the Lord Jesus the same the new testament in my blood : night in which he was betrayed this do ye as oft as ye drink it in took bread: and when he had remembrance of me. 1 Cor. xi. given thanks he brake it, and said, 23–25.
that is to say, h Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be
ment else, be such sacraments as Baptism and the Communion are. But in a general acception, the name of a sacrament may be attributed to any thing, whereby an holy thing is signified. In which understanding of the word, the ancient writers have given this name, not only to the other five, commonly of late years taken and used for supplying the number of the seven sacraments ; but also to divers and sundry other ceremonies, as to oil, washing of feet, and such like ; not meaning thereby to repute them as sacraments, in the same signification that the two forenamed sacraments are. And therefore St. Augustine, weighing the true signification and the exact meaning of the word, writing to Januarius, and also in the third Book of Christian Doctrine, affirmeth, that the sacraments of the Christians, as they are most excellent in signification, so are they must few in number; and in both places maketh mention expressly of two, the sacrament of Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. And, although there are retained by the order of the Church of England, besides these two, certain other rites and ceremonies about the institution of Ministers in the Church, Matrimony, Confirmation of Children, by examining them of their knowledge in the Articles of the faith, and joining thereto the prayers of the Church for them, and likewise for the Visitation of the Sick ; yet no man ought to take these for sacraments, in such signification and meaning as the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper are; but either for godly states of life, necessary in Christ's Church, and therefore worthy to be set forth by public action and solemnity, by the ministry of the Church, or else judged to be such ordinances, as may make for the instruction, comfort, and edification of Christ's Church. Hom. xxi. l.
Instead of this most profitable and ancient Confirmation, they conveyed a device of their own, that is, that the bishop should not examine children whether they were skilled in the precepts of religion or no, but that they should anoint young infants unable yet to speak, much less to give any account of their faith ; adjoining also other ceremonies unknown unto the holy Scriptures and the primitive Church. This invention of theirs they would needs have to be a sacrament, and accounted it in manner equal in dignity with Baptism; yea, some of them preferred it also before Baptism. By all means they would that this their Confirmation should be taken for a certain supplying of Baptism, that it should thereby be finished and brought to perfection, as though Baptism else were imperfect, and as though children who in Baptism had put upon them Christ with his benefits, without their Confirmation were but half Christians; than which injury no greater could be done against the divine Sacrament, and against God himself, and Christ our Saviour, the author