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$ 1. Son, axis, &. Young, véos. Elder, atpeopúrepos. in prose the usual positive is πρεσβύτης. Termination, τελευτή.


, . Life, the period of life, Bios. Life opposed to death, san. Both, αμφότεροι. I have, there is born to me, γίγνεται μου.

, . I , , . I am sick, do Jevū. I apprehend, suspect, ÚTONTEÚw. I wish, Boúhoual. I am present, nopeiut. (The learner is supposed to be familiar with the numerals and pronouns.) When= after, énel ; when as a correlative of then, Öte.

He is sick. They are sick. We are sick. You (sing.) are sick.

You (plur.) are sick. The son of Darius is sick. The sons of Darius are sick. I wish to be present. He wishes to be present. I wish you to be present. He wishes me to be present. They wish us to be present.

Darius has three sons. Cyrus had two sons. He (avtoī) has five sons. They (avtõv) have one son. Darius is sick. The two sons of Darius are sick. The younger son of Darius was sick and was apprehending a termination of his life. I wish my two sons both to be present. He wishes his three sons to be present. When he apprehended a ter mination of his life, he wished his elder son to be present.

§ 2. Sovereignty, government, úgxń. General, otpatnyós. Plain, nedov. Friend, pilos. Ileavy-armed man, ónlimns.

, πεδίον. Commander, ägywv. To happen, tvyzúrelv. I send for, metaneurouar. I make, appoint, now. I go up, ávaßaivo. I take, Laußúvo. I have, šxo. (Observe the difference both in meaning and construction between this word and γίγνομαι, sup.) And, also, xai. And, but, ,

He sent for me. They sent for me. I sent for you. You sent for me. You (plur.) sent for us. We sent for you.

The general sent for you. He sent for the general. He sent for the commander. We sent for the commander, and the heavy-armed men.

He happens to be present. They happened to be present.(1) He sent for Cyrus. I shall send for my two sons from the sovereignties of which I made them satraps. And I also appointed him general of all who used to assemble (*) in the plain of Castolus. The five sons go up taking (*) Tis. saphernes upon the supposition of his being (*) a friend. They went up having four hundred heavy-armed men. I will go up having seven hundred heavy-armed men, and Xenias their commander.

$ 3. Brother, ádelgós. Kingdom, Boorheiu. Mother,


(1) Observe here that the participle agrees in number, &c., with the subject of the verb.

(2) The learner will recollect that the imperfect tense expresses continued or customary action in past time ; and may often be translated used to, was wont, etc. The aorist denotes an action absolutely; i. e. without regard to its continuance or completion.

(3) See note (1).
(4) ús, as, as if, denotes supposition, and may be rendered as above.

ime. Before, to, pos with acc. Both, as a correlative of and, . Again, back, náhy. To, over, én with acc. I cal

πάλιν. umniate, daßária. I plot against, érißovlevo. To decease, Tɛlɛvtõv. I apprehend, seize upon, ovllaußáva. I slay, put to death, anoxteivw. I settle, establish, xalioinut. (Intrans. in the perf., pluperf., and 2d aor. tenses of the act. voice.) In, into, eis with acc. used after a verb expressing or imply ing motion. I persuade, auta. I send away, anottuna. I rescue by entreaty, i saitā.

N. B. It must be borne continually in mind, that the personal pronouns are implied by the endings of the verb; and consequently that they are not to be expressed unless they are emphatic.

He sent me away. He sent for me. They apprehended the son of Darius. They apprehended a termination of life. He slew the general. The general deceased. The commander persuaded the heavy-armed men. The son of the commander was persuaded. He wished to be present.

He happened to be present (particip.)

He was calumniating Cyrus. They are plotting against him. I shall calumniate Cyrus before his brother. They calumniated Cyrus before his brother, on the ground that (6) he was plotting against him. And after ) Darius deceased,(*) Artaxerxes apprehended () Cyrus as if to put him to death. After I was settled in the kingdom, he plotted against

(5) On the ground that, ús. Cf. note (4); and also, ús dtoKTEVÕV below.

(6) 'Enei is often rendered when, but in the sense of after, postquam. "Otɛ means when, while, quum.

(7) 'Ετελεύτησε, a euphemism for απέθανεν.

(8) We are not by any means to infer that ovllaußúveiv and ÚTOTTEÚEL in g 1, are synonymous, because they may be translated by the same English word. It will be perceived that the English word, apprehend, may be used in very different connections.


I calumniated the general before Cyrus; and he ("} was both persuaded and seized the general. His mother will send him away again to his government. His mother res. cued him by her entreaties (lit. begged him off). After 1 was persuaded, I seized the commander of the heavy-armed men, as if to put him to death.


§ 4. Afterwards, yet, étt. That, in order that, wz. Never, unnote. In the power of, thì c. dat. I take counsel, βουλεύομαι. I am, είμι. I am able, δύναμαι. Instead of, úvi. I am king, Baoilea. I love, plū. More, rather,

I βασιλεύω. I , φιλώ. μάλλον. Than, 7.

We deliberated. They deliberated. He plotted against

I apprehended him. I am king instead of you. I love him more than you. We love you more than him. He loved us more than the general.

They are taking counsel that they may never afterwards be in the power of the general. He is in the power of his brother. He is taking counsel that, if possible, (if he may be able,) he may be king instead of his brother. They were present with Cyrus because they loved him (lit. loving ("') him). They loved the younger more than the elder brother. I am in your power.

§ 5. All, névtes. Whoever, otis. From, napi c. gen. So as, Hote. I am friendly, súvoixūs ēzw. Competent, sufficient, able, ixavós. To, após c. acc. : also the dative without a preposition. It must be left to observation to decide which construction is to be employed after any particular verb.

(*) This use of 6 dè (Latin is autem) should be carefully noticed, The phrase occurs only at the beginning of a sentence, and in a narra. tion. The article is here demonstrative. Cf. 'O dè $ 4.

(10) The participle in Greek as in Latin denotes“ the time, the cause the concomitant of an action, or the condition on which it depends."




With, by the side of, napà c. dat. That, so that, us. I come, arrive, úp xvoữual. I manage, dispose, dariinui. I carry on war, πολεμώ. I pay attention to, επιμελούμαι. He is able to carry on war. They are able to carry on

We are able to carry on war. We are friendly to you. We all are friendly to you. They are friendly to you. They all are friendly to you. You all are friendly to

He is friendly to them. They all are friendly to the king. They are both friendly to the king and are able to carry on war.

Whoever of those from his ("1) brother comes to him, he sends them all away. I am managing them so as to be friends to me rather than to my brother. He is friendly to me. I am friendly to you. The barbarians with him were both competent to carry on war and were friendly to him. He paid attention to those from the king, whoever came to him. And he also pays attention to those with himself that they inay('*) be friendly to him. He sent for his younger

He sends away his elder son. I paid attention to the general that he might be friendly to me. I paid attention to the general upon the supposition that he was (participle) friendly to me.


§ 6. Forces, power, dúvous. As much as, the most, us μάλιστα. Unprepared, ånapáoxevos: most unprepared, oru únagaoxevótatos. A levy, ovlloyń. Thus, as follows, õde.

. , .

(") The pronouns, my, you, his, her, their, etc., are not to be translated unless they are somewhat emphatic, as in contrasts, etc. The Greek would generally use the article where we should use the pronoun. Thus above, ή μήτηρ, his mother; προς τον αδελφόν, to his brother; τω παϊδε, his two sons; et passim.

(12) Recollect that the subjunctive follows in a dependent clause the leading tenses (i. e. the present, future and perfect) of the indicative ; as the optative does the historic tenses.

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