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disjomed by uncomfortable bogs and spouting marshes, the most unpromising to the views of the farmer, that can possibly be imagined.”

“ But what is it that human industry cannot perform? What un. dertaking is too bold for man to attempt, when he has the prospect of being repaid for his labour? Even these dismal wastes, it was imagined, might be converted into corn-fields. The ground was trenched ; the stones are blasted by gun-powder, and removed at an immense expense; manures were purchased : and thousands of acres of this sort of ground are now waving with the most luxuriant har. vests, and yield a rent from 51. to 8l. sterling per acre."

« In any other part of the world, it might be reckoned impossible to convert such soils to any valuable use; and the most daring improver any where else, would shrink back from attempting to cultivate a field which an Aberdeensman would consider as a trifling la. bour. Long habit has familiarised them to such arduous undertakings ; undertakings, which could not be attempted any where else, as, unless in such a particular situation as I have described, the im. prover could never be repaid. For in what other country could a man lay out 100). sterling, or upwards, on an acre of ground, before it could be put under crop, with any prospect of being repaid ? Yet this is no uncommon thing in that neighborhood.”

“ Nor is this ah: For to such a height is the spirit for improvement risen in that part of the world, that they are not only eager to cultivate these barren fields, but even purchase these dreary wastes at a vast expense for that purpose. The last spot of ground of this sort that was to dispose of in that neighborhood, was feued off by the town of Aberdeen, in the year 1773, for ever, at an annual quit-rent, or feu-duty, of thirty-three or thirty-four shillings sterling per acre ; although it was not then, and never could have been worth six pence per acre, if left in its native state ; nor could be converted into corn ground but at an expense nearly equal to that above mentioned.”

“ It ought to be farther remarked, in favour of the Aberdeen im. provers, that as they are at an unusual expense in first bringing their grounds into culture ; so they continue afterwards to cultivate them with greater care and attention than is common perhaps in any part of the island, so that they have more abundant relurns, and can afford to pay greater rents, than in any other part of Great Britain.”

“ Could I produce a more satisfactory proof, that a good market will always produce a spirited agriculture ? or is it possible to bring a more convincing argument in favour of the poor people in other countries, who are accused by their proprietors of obstinacy, and other bad qualities, because they do not improve their fields in the manner the proprietors could wish ; seeing many of those who carry on im• provements about Aberdeen, are people who have come from distant parts of the country, where no sort of improvements were ever carried on; and have no other arguments made use of to them to do it, but the only feeling one that ever can be made use of, their own in ferest?” Anderson, and monthly reviewers.

Perhaps no desideratum in political economy is more an object for philosophic research, than that for the best apportionment of the trades, professions, and employments for populous cities. The whimsical Mandeville, went so far as to assert, that private vices were public benefits ; for said he, the thief gives bread to the locksmith, &c. It is however certain, that the more the harmonizing em. ployments are varied, the greater the concord, the health and prosperity of large cities : hence the ancient masons, who boasted of having discovered the art of finding new arts, were esteemed for their laudable pretensions; which, if well founded, must make them invaluable to large cities. On this subject we are at variance with the recluse and idle of all ages : hence, Diogenes, for never changing lis gar. ment, and living in a tub, was called a philosopher ! How can the same writers exalt both Solomon and Diogenes? The former was full of the praises of industry, and forever witty against the sluggard ; and we think gave therein the most incontestable proof of his wisdom. We, therefore, leave the praises of Diogenes to Alexander, and to all philosophers of his school.

Mr. Jefferson, Dr. Morse, and others, have given very minute descriptions in the lines of our natural history ; in which the American elephant, or mamoth, is the most striking feature. Both our soil and climates are infinitely varied, but generally highly favorable both to agriculture and health

The averaged population of the United States, was apparently reduced for each mile in 1803, by the purchase of the vast unsettled territory of Louisiana ; and although this purchase may be the means · of inticing further migrations from the old states, the annually increasing surplus has become so great, this will not be felt; for the whole of the increase will never migrate in any year, till the old states may be overstocked. The whole of the increase for 1805, would, at only 100 acres each, take up 18 millions of new lands in one year. This shews the absurd fears for excessive migrations: they do not yet exceed one fifth of the increase. An overstock for a country must depend on the manners of its inhabitants. In savage life, one hunter for every square mile, is deemed by those people, a full stock ; when there is more, they say, it is time for our young men to go to war, or we shall starve. Hence, from this fear of starving, arises their mode of fighting, and of extermination after conquest, common to savage warfare. In the next, or shepherd state, an accession at the rate of 2 and 3 to a mile, has been common in Arabia, and in other parts of Africa and Asia. About this time, traffic or barter, becomes common in the progress of civilization, and soon after, planting by females ; but in North America, the shepherd state was unknown, so that the following table will exhibit a view, interpolated in its relation to our country from the experience of the old world.

Progrę88 and acme of population for each square mile, under varied

circumstances compared.

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11. The savage, or
1 hunting state, ..
2. Pastoral or Ara.

bian state, .... 3. Pastoral and traf

ficking state, .. 4. Pastoral, traffick,

and planting, ... 5. Planting, traffick,

and mechanic, .. 6. Commercial, agri

cultural, and me

chanical, ..... 17. Commercial, hor

ticultural, agricultural, mechanical, and scientific, ..

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The above estimates are on a supposition that all the circumstances not incident to the stated difference, and necessarily implied, are alike ; and that four hours a day is the highest average of the good labour per day, for the whole of any community ; but the difference in the intrinsic worth of the labour should also be taken into view in the table. A part of this difference in the quantity and value of the labour, would arise from the monopoly to which the lands would be subject by the lords, in proportion to the number of their slaves ; and also to the slovenly cultivation incident to slavery, which reduces the value of the soil, in process of time, to nothing, especially if it be a light soil, like that originally round Palmira, and the other desolated countries of Asia and Africa ; by destructive culture, or mere planting, with no care to renovate or to replenish the indulgent earth.

A TABLE improved on the plan of Sir William Petty, and other staa

tistical writers, for a classing, and a valuation or tarif of exchange, for the whole people of the United States, for 1805.

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The fishermen are enhanced, because they are by far the most productive, as well as the most prolific; and fishing being a natural propensity in man, it requires less stimulating. All this makes fishermen of primary importance. Add to this : our seamen entice and bring annually 6 per cent. of their number from Europe, to enhance their inestimable value ; and these two classes are among the bravest and most hardy men of the universe.

The product of the sea, by the industry of the fishermen of the United States, is almost incredible, in comparison with the product of any other species of labour ; for although the capital employed in fishing is not more than that in farming, on a fair average for both occupations, setting the farms per acre against the tons of shipping, and admitting the implements and stock to balance each other; yet if 6,000 men draw at the rate of three millions for exportation, from the


sea, then each man draws $ 500 annually. Compare this with the pro ceeds of agriculture, where those ( who ought to be ) employed, have never yet furnished 25 dollars'a head in any one year, for exportation ; although their own maintenance is equal to 10 cents per diem, or 36. dollars per annum, which for six millions of persons, would be 219,000,000 of American dollars. It is true that sthe fishermen and their families, are fed in part by the labour of their brethren on shore ; but this is overpaid by an extra value and quantity of fish, &c. the product of the sea, consumed on shore. In order to do away part of this immense disparity, we must look at the latent increase of the value of landed property, which, if we were not draining our country of money would account for a great portion of the difference. No wonder, with such views of the subject, that Messrs. Adams and Jay, at the peace of 1783, should be anxious to preserve the fisheries, and to gain the western territory, that invaluable prize of war won from British Canada : and no wonder, that Mr. Jefferson should propose in 1791, his measures to make the fisheries more extensively useful, and the lands also, in 1806. See his late proclamation for selling the reserved sections at 8 dollars, for which price some have already sold, as will be seen in the account of sales for this year.

The annual consumption of British and other dry goods, for six millions of inhabitants within the United States, is on an average for three years, 35 millions of dollars; and of all other foreign articles, fifty-two millions, annually, making 87 millions for the total of foreign articles consumed yearly. The grain and pulse consumed by the inhabitants, is forty millions of bushels, of which ten millions is wheat; total value 35,000,000. The consumption by live stock, of grain and pulse, is above 20 millions of bushels ; scarce any wheat. The number of sheep consumed, is above 800,000, at 2 dollars ; of swine, above 6 months old, 1,500,000, value $ 5; the number of horned cattle, including calves, 1,200,000, averaged value $9; the poultry is equal to $ 4,000,000; the roots, with all the vegetables and drinkables, to 10 millions; the total consumption for wearing apparel, &c. of domestic manufactures, is equal to 30 millions of dollars. : RECAPITULATION OF HOME CONSUMPTION. The produce of the sea and rivers, consumed, is per

estimate, . . . . . . . . $ 5,000,000, The total amount of foreign articles, . . . 87,000,000 The total domestic consumption of agricultural food, &c. 85,000,000 Of domestic manufactures, &c. · ·

30,000,000 Of all other produce, of the forest, &c. . . . 12,000,000

219,000,000 Now, as it is certain that a community with above three fourths of its inhabitants employed in agriculture and planting, ought to export as far as their consumable articles might go, in exchange or otherwise, at least double the quantity of our exports, one of three

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